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2013 | 21 | 2 | 89-104
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Corpus callosum and epilepsies

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Introduction. Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest forebrain commissure. Structural anomalies and accompanying clinical symptoms are not in the focus of neurologists, epileptologists or neurosurgeons. Aim and method. Anatomy, embryological development, normal functions, structural abnormalities, additional malformations, clinical symptoms and seizure disorders with CC anomalies are reviewed from the literature. Review. The detection of callosal anomalies increased rapidly with widespread use of brain imaging methods. Agenesis or dysgenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) might be considered an accidental finding. Epileptic seizures occur in up to 89% of patients with AgCC. The causal relationship correctly is questioned. However, additional causative malformations of midline and/or telencephalic structures can be demonstrated in most seizure patients. The interruption of bilateral spread of seizure activities acts as the concept for callosotomy as epilepsy surgery. Indications are drug-resistant generalized, diffuse, or multifocal epilepsies. A resectable seizure onset zone should be excluded. Most treated patients are diagnosed as Lennox-Gastaut or Lennox-like syndrome. Conclusions. In cases with callosal abnormalities and clinical symptoms additional malformations are frequently observed, especially with seizure disorders. Callosotomy is the most effective option against drop attacks. The method probably is underused. After callosotomy a circumscript seizure focus might be unveiled and a second step of resective epilepsy surgery can be successful.

Opis fizyczny
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  • Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch, Department of Neurosurgery, Feldkirch, Austria
  • Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria
  • Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria
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