The Effects of Rule Changes on Basketball Game Results in the Men’s European Basketball Championships
Purpose. The aim the study was to analyze the effects of rule changes in men’s professional basketball. Univariate analysis examined game statistics, concentrating only on points scores from selected basketball games and did not include situational variables that may have affected game dynamics. Methods. Data on the results of all games played in the men’s European Basketball Championships between 1935 and 2013 were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. Six main rule modifications which directly affected game play were identified in chronological order. Results. The number of points scored and allowed changed significantly after 1956. The greatest changes in game scores as a result of rule modifications were after rule changes in 1956 and after 1984. Conclusions. Rule changes involve processes that modify game conditions and should be validated following reflective analysis.
- Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland , email@example.com
- Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University School of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland
- Department of Finance and Accounting, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland
- 1. Shaper R., History of the Rules. International Basketball. Special Issue. Magazin of AIPS Basketball Commission and FIBA, 1982, 2, 48-49.
- 2. Stroher M., Basketball: The rules: 1931-2000 including the very first playing rules from 1891. International Basketball Federation, Munchen 2001.
- 3. Trninić S., Dizdar D., Lukšić E., Differences between winning and defeated top quality basketball teams in final tournaments of European club championship. Coll Antropol, 2002, 26 (2), 521-531.[PubMed]
- 4. Arias J.L., Argudo F.M., Alonso J.I., Review of rule modification in sport. J Sports Sci Med, 2011, 10 (1), 1-8.
- 5. Available from http://www.fiba.com
- 6. Simović S., Komić J., Analysis of influence of certain elements of basketball game on final result based on differetiant at the XIII, XIV and XV World Championship. Acta Kinesiol, 2008, 2, 57-65.
- 7. Kreivytė R., Čižauskas A., Differences of indicators in competitive performance between winning and losing teams in basketball. Ugdymas, Kuno Kultura, Sportas, 2010, 2 (77), 41-48.
- 8. Maroti S., Study on three-point shots scored by teams ranked in the 1st-4th places in the Women Olympic Basketball Tournament, Beijing 2008. Palestrica Mileniului III - Civilizaţie şi Sport, 2010, 11 (2), 144-147.
- 9. Gomez M.A., Lorenzo A., Sampaio J., Ibanez S.J., Ortega E., Game-related statistics that discriminated winning and losing teams from the Spanish men’s professional basketball teams. Coll Antropol, 2008, 32 (2), 451-456.
- 10. Durkovic T., Gjergja D., Marelic N., Antekolovic L., Resetar T., The analysis of two groups of basketball teams based on the situational parameters of the game. In: Milanovic D., Prot F. (eds.), 4th International Scientific Conference on Kinesiology, Proceeding Book - Science and Profession - Challenge for the Future, Opatija 2005, 466-469.
- 11. Ibanez S.J., Sampaio J., Feu S., Lorenzo A., Gomez M.A., Ortega E., Basketball game-related statistics that discriminate between teams’ season-long success. Eur J Sport Sci, 2008, 8 (6), 369-372, doi: 10.1080/17461390802261470.[WoS][Crossref]
- 12. Karipidis A., Fotinakis P., Taxildaris K., Fatouros J., Factors characterizing a successful performance in basketball. J Hum Mov Stud, 2001, 41 (5), 385-397.
- 13. Pojskić H., Šeparović V., Užičanin E., Differences between successful and unsuccessful basketball team on the final Olympic tournament. Acta Kinesiologica, 2009, 3 (2), 110-114.
- 14. Šeparović V., Nuhanović A., Latent structure of standard indicators of situational effectiveness in basketball in Bosnian league 6. Sport Scientific and Practical Aspects, 2008, 5 (1-2), 13-18.
- 15. Šeparović V., Nuhanović A., Nonstandard indicators of the offensive effectiveness in basketball and successfulness of basketball teams. Sport Sci, 2008, 1 (2), 7-11.
- 16. Melnick M.J., Relationship between team assists and winloss record in the National Basketball Association. Percept Mot Skills, 2001, 92 (2), 595-602, doi: 10.2466/ pms.2001.92.2.595.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 17. Arias J.L., Argudo F.M., Alonso J.I., Effect of the 3-point line change on the game dynamics in girls’ minibasketball. Res Q Exerc Sport, 2009, 80 (3), 502-509, doi: 10.1080/02701367.2009.10599588.
- 18. Cormery B., Marcil M., Bouvard M., Rule change incidence on physiological characteristics of elite basketball players: a 10-year-period investigation. Br J Sports Med, 2008, 42 (1), 25-30, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.033316.[WoS][Crossref]
- 19. Krauss M.D., Equipment innovations and rules changes in sports. Curr Sports Med Rep, 2004, 3 (5), 272-276, doi: 10.1249/00149619-200410000-00007.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 20. Satern M.N., Messier S.P., Keller-McNulty S., The effects of ball size and basket height on the mechanics of the basketball free throw. J Hum Mov Stud, 1989, 16, 123-137.
- 21. Usabiaga O., Castellano J., A proposal to adapt game rules in scholastic sport. In: I Congreso de Deporte en Edad Escolar. Propuestas para un nuevo modelo. Ayuntamiento de Valencia, Fundacion Deportiva Municipal, Valencia Spain 2005, 1-9.
- 22. Sampaio J., Lago C., Drinkwater E.J., Explanations for the United States of America’s dominance in basketball at the Beijing Olympic Games (2008). J Sports Sci, 2010, 28 (2), 147-152, doi: 10.1080/02640410903380486.[WoS][Crossref]
- 23. Robinson G., O’Donoghue P., A weighted kappa statistic for reliability testing in performance analysis of sport. Int J Perform Anal Sport, 2007, 7 (1), 12-19.
- 24. Sampaio J., Ibanez S., Lorenzo A., Gomez M., Discriminative game related statistics between basketball starters and nonstarters when related to team quality and game outcome. Percept Mot Skills, 2006, 103 (2), 486-494, doi: 10.2466/pms.103.2.486-494.[Crossref][PubMed]
- 25. Peterson D., Hruby G., The European Basketball Register - 1998 to 2013 Edition. Libreria Dello Sport, Jumpo & Julius Scouting, Milan 2013.
- 26. Sampaio J., Janeira M., Ibanez S.J., Lorenzo A., Discriminant analysis of game related statistics between basketball guards, forwards and centres in three professional leagues. Eur J Sports Sci, 2006, 6 (3), 173-178, doi: 10.1080/17461390600676200.[Crossref]
- 27. Gomez M.A., Lorenzo A., Ortega E., Sampaio J., Ibanez S.J., Game related statistics discriminating between starters and nonstarters players in Women’s National Basketball Associationleague (WNBA). J Sports Sci Med, 2009, 8 (2), 278-283.
- 28. Ortega E., Palao J.M., Gomez M.A., Lorenzo A., Cardenas D., Analysis of the efficacy of possessions in boys’ 16-and-under basketball teams: Differences between winning and losing teams. Percept Mot Skills, 2007, 103, 961-964, doi: 10.2466/pms.104.3.961-964.[Crossref]