A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power
Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the inclusion of a power exercise instead of a strength exercise as the first exercise in CT would produce differences in lower body power. Methods. Thirty-six recreationally-trained men and women aged 20 to 29 years attending a college physical education course were randomly assigned to one of three groups: squat and countermovement squat jumps (SSJ), kettlebell swings and countermovement squat jumps (KSJ), and a control (CON). Training involving CT lasted 6 weeks. All participants were pre- and posttested for vertical jump performance in order to assess lower body power. Results. Vertical jump scores improved for all groups (p < 0.01). The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between group scores across time (p = 0.215). The statistical power for this analysis was low (0.312), most likely due to the small sample size. However, the results did reveal a trend suggesting that the training improvements were greater for both the SSJ and KSJ groups compared with the CON (by 171% and 107%, respectively) although significance was not reached. Conclusions. Due to the observed trend, a replication of this study with a greater number of participants over a longer period of time is warranted.
- Weber State University, Health Promotion and Human Performance, Utah, UT, USA, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Arkansas Tech University, Health and Physical Education, Russellville, AR, USA
- West Virginia University, College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, Morgantown, WV, USA
- 1. Bogdanis G.C., Tsooukos A., Veligekas P., Tsolakis C., Terzis G., Effects of muscle action type with equal impulse of conditioning activity on postactivation potentiation. J Strength Cond Res, 2014, 28 (9), 2521-2528, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000444.[WoS][Crossref]
- 2. Docherty D., Robbins D., Hodgson M., Complex training revisited: A review of its current status as a viable training approach. Strength Cond J, 2004, 26 (6), 52-57.
- 3. Robbins D., Postactivation potentiation and its practical applicability: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res, 2005, 19 (2), 453-459.[PubMed]
- 4. Hodgson M., Docherty D., Robbins D., Post-Activation potentiation. Sports Med, 2005, 35 (7), 585-595, doi: 10.2165/00007256-200535070-00004.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 5. Weber K., Brown L., Coburn J., Zinder S., Acute effects of heavy-load squats on consecutive squat jump performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2008, 22 (3), 726-730, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181660899.[PubMed][Crossref]
- 6. Carter J., Greenwood M., Complex training reexamined: Review and recommendations to improve strength and power. Strength Cond J, 2014, 36 (2), 11-19, doi: 10.1519/ SSC.0000000000000036.[Crossref]
- 7. Gourgoulis V., Aggeloussis N., Kasimatis P., Mavromatis G., Garas A., Effect of submaximal half-squats warmup program on vertical jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res, 2003, 17 (2), 342-344.
- 8. MacDonald C., Lamont H., Garner J., The effects of 3 different modes of training upon measures of CMVJ performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2011, 25 (Suppl. 1), S7, doi: 10.1097/01.JSC.0000395590.02241.4a.[Crossref]
- 9. Matthews M., Comfort P., Crebin R., Complex Training in ice hockey: The effects of a heavy resisted sprint on subsequent ice-hockey sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2010, 24 (11), 2883-2887, doi: 10.1519/ JSC.0b013e3181e7253c.[Crossref][WoS][PubMed]
- 10. Potteiger J.A., Lockwood R.H., Haub M.D., Dolezal B.A., Almuzaini K.S., Schroeder J.M. et al., Muscle power and fiber characteristics following 8 weeks of plyometric training. J Strength Cond Res, 1999, 13 (3), 275-279.
- 11. Radcliffe J.C., Radcliffe L., Effects on different warm-up protocols on peak power output during a single response jump task. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1996, 28 (5), S189.[Crossref]
- 12. Talpey S.W., Young W.B., Saunders N., The acute effects of conventional, complex, and contrast protocols on lowerbody power. J Strength Cond Res, 2014, 28 (2), 361-366, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318299a68b.[WoS][Crossref]
- 13. Andrews T.R., Mackey T., Inkrott T.A., Murray S.R., Clark I.E., Pettitt R.W., Effect of hang cleans or squats paired with countermovement vertical jumps on vertical displacement. J Strength Cond Res, 2011, 25 (9), 2448-2452, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182001696.[Crossref][WoS]
- 14. Mcbride J.M., Nimphius S., Erickson T.M., The acute effects of heavy-load squats and loaded countermovement jumps on sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2005 19 (4), 893-897.
- 15. Smith C.E., Hannon J.C., McGladrey B., Shultz B., Eisenman P., Lyons B., The effects of a postactivation potentiation warm-up on subsequent sprint performance. Hum Mov, 2014, 15 (1), 36-44, doi: 10.2478/humo-2013-0050.[Crossref]
- 16. Senoh Corp. Vertec Vertical Jump Measure. Senoh Corp., Matsuhidai, Matsudoshi, Chiba, Japan 2008.
- 17. Baechle T.R, Earle R.W (eds.), NSCA’s Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Human Kinetics, Champaign 2008, 256-257.
- 18. Fleck S., Kraemer W., Designing Resistance Training Programs (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics, Champaign 2004.
- 19. Chatzopoulos D.E., Michailidis C.J., Giannakos A.K., Alexiou K.C., Patikas D., Antonopoulos C.B. et al., Postactivation potentiation effects after heavy resistance exercise on running speed. J Strength Cond Res, 2007, 21 (4), 1278-1281.
- 20. Linder E.E., Prins J.H., Mutlata N.M., Derenne C.M., Morgan C.F., Solomon J.R., Effects of preload 4 repetition maximum on 100-m sprint times in collegiate women. J Strength Cond Res, 2010, 24 (5), 1184-1190, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d75806.[WoS][Crossref]
- 21. SPSS Inc. SPSS Base 16.0 for Windows User’s Guide. SPSS, Inc., Chicago 2007.
- 22. Tolson H., An adjunct to statistical significance: w2. Res Q Exerc Sport, 1980, 51 (3), 580-584.[Crossref]
- 23. Mihalik J., Libby J.J., Battaglini C.L., McMurray R.G., Comparing short-term complex and compound training programs on vertical jump height and power output. J Strength Cond Res, 2008, 22 (1), 47-53, doi: 10.1519/ JSC.0b013e31815eee9e.[WoS][Crossref]
- 24. Radcliffe J.C., Osternig L.R., Effects on performance of variable eccentric loads during depth jumps. J Sports Rehabil, 1995, 4 (1), 31-41.
- 25. Santos E.J.A.M., Janeir M.A.A.S., Effects of complex training on explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. J Strength Cond Res, 2008, 22 (3), 903-909, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a59f2.[Crossref][WoS]
- 26. Isaacs L.P., Comparison of the vertec and Just Jump systems for measuring height of vertical jump by young children. Percept Mot Skills, 1998, 86 (2), 659-663, doi: 10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.1999.[Crossref]
- 27. Klavora P., Vertical jump tests: a critical review. Strength Cond J, 2000, 22 (5), 70-75.
- 28. Leard J.S., Cirillo M.A., Katsnelson E., Kimiatek D.A., Miller T.W., Trebincevic K. et al., Validity of two alternative systems for measuring vertical jump height. J Strength Cond Res, 2007, 21 (4), 1296-1299.
- 29. Young W., MacDonald C., Heggen T., Fitzpatrick J., An evaluation of the specificity, validity, and reliability of jumping tests. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1997, 37, 240-245.
- 30. Nuzzo J.L., Anning J.H., Scharfenberg J.M., The reliability of three devices used for measuring vertical jump height. J Strength Cond Res, 2011, 25 (9), 2580-2590, doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fee650. [WoS][Crossref]