Nowa wersja platformy, zawierająca wyłącznie zasoby pełnotekstowe, jest już dostępna.
Przejdź na


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 49 | 1 | 179-194
Tytuł artykułu

Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i) present two testing points; (ii) on swimming physiology; (iii) using adult elite swimmers; (iv) no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7), endocrine secretion (n=11), muscle biochemistry (n=7), cardiovascular response (n=8) and the energetic profile (n=14). The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93). It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems) is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience.
Słowa kluczowe

Opis fizyczny
  • Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, Av. Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 6300-559, Guarda, Portugal, mario.costa@ipg
  • Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, CIDESD, Portugal
  • National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Faculty of Sport Sciences, LABIOMEP, University of Porto, Portugal
  • Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Portugal
  • National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, CIDESD, Portugal
  • Anderson M, Hopkins W, Roberts A, Pyne DB. Monitoring seasonal ad long-term changes in test performance in elite swimmers. Eur J Sport Sci, 2006; 6: 145-154[Crossref]
  • Aspenes ST, Karlsen T. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming. Sports Med, 2012; 42(6): 527-543[Crossref]
  • Atlaoui D, Duclos M, Gouarne C, Lacoste L, Barale F, Chatard JC. 24-hr urinary catecholamine excretion, training and performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2006; 27: 314-321[Crossref][WoS]
  • Atlaoui D, Pichot V, Lacoste L, Barale F, Lacour JR, Chatard JC. Heart rate variability, training variation and performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2007; 28: 394-400[WoS][Crossref]
  • Barbosa TM, Bragada JA, Reis VM, Marinho DA, Carvalho C, Silva AJ. Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors of swimming performance: updating the state of the art. J Sci Med Sport, 2010; 13: 262-269[Crossref][WoS]
  • Burke ER, Falsetti HL, Feld RD. Creatine kinase levels in competitive swimmers during a season of training. Scand J Sports Sci, 1982; 4: 1-4
  • Costa MJ, Bragada JA, Marinho DA, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Longitudinal interventions in elite swimming: a systematic review based on energetics, biomechanics, and performance. J Strength Cond Res, 2012; 26 (7): 2006-2016[WoS][Crossref]
  • Costa MJ, Bragada JA, Mejias JE, Louro H, Marinho DA, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Tracking the performance, energetics and biomechanics of international versus national level swimmers during a competitive season. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012; 112: 811-820[WoS][Crossref]
  • Costa MJ, Bragada JA, Marinho DA, Lopes VL, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Longitudinal study in male swimmers: a hierarchical modelling of energetics and biomechanical contributions for performance. J Sport Sci Med, 2013a; 12 (4): 614-622
  • Costa MJ, Bragada JA, Mejias JE, Louro H, Marinho DA, Silva AJ, Barbosa TM. Effects of swim training on energetics and performance. Int J Sports Med, 2013b; 34 (6): 507-513
  • Costill DL, Fink WJ, Hargreaves M, King DS, Thomas R, Fielding R. Metabolic characteristics of skeletal muscle during detraining from competitive swimming. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1985; 17(3): 339-43[Crossref]
  • Costill DL, Thomas R, Robergs RA, Pascoe D, Lambert C, Barr S, Fink WJ. Adaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1991; 23: 371-377[Crossref]
  • Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and nonrandomized studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health, 1998; 52: 377-384[Crossref]
  • Earle RW, Baechle TR. NSCA's essentials of personal training. 1st ed. National Strength & Conditioning Association, Campaign, Human Kinetics; 2004
  • Faude O, Meyer T, Scharhag J, Weins F, Urhausen A, Kindermann W. Volume vs intensity in the training of competitive swimmers. Int J Sports Med, 2008; 29: 906-912[Crossref]
  • Flynn MG, Pizza FX, Boone JB Jr, Andres FF, Michaud TA, Rodriguez-Zayas Jr. Indices of training stress during competitive running and swimming seasons. Int J Sports Med, 1994; 15(1): 21-26[Crossref]
  • Gleeson M, Pyne DB, McDonald WA, Bowe SJ, Clancy RL, Fricker PA. In-vivo cell mediated immunity in elite swimmers in response to training. J Sci Med Sport, 2004; 7(1): 38-46[Crossref]
  • Hakkinen K, Keskinen KL, Alén M, Komi PV, Kauhanen H. Serum hormone concentrations during prolonged training in elite endurance-trained and strength trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol, 1989; 59: 233-238[Crossref]
  • Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Gordon RD, Bachmann AW. Hormonal responses of elite swimmers to overtraining. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1993; 25(6): 741-747[Crossref]
  • Hooper SL, Mackinnon LT, Howard A. Physiological and psychometric variables for monitoring recovery during tapering for major competition. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1999; 31(8): 1205-1210[Crossref]
  • Houston ME, Wilson DM, Green HJ, Thomson JA, Ranney DA. Physiological and muscle enzyme adaptations to two different intensities of swim training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1981; 46: 283-291[Crossref]
  • Johns RA, Houmard JA, Kobe R. Effects of taper on swim power, stroke distance, and performance. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1992; 24: 1141-1146[Crossref]
  • Kirwan JP, Costill DL, Flynn MG, Mitchell JB, Fink WJ, Neufer PD, Houmard JA. Physiological responses to successive days of intense training in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1988; 20(3): 255-259[Crossref]
  • Kubukeli ZN, Noakes TD, Dennis SC. Training techniques to improve endurance exercise performances.Sports Med, 2002; 32: 489-509[Crossref]
  • Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 1977; 33: 159-174[Crossref]
  • Lavoie JM, Montpetit RR. Applied physiology of swimming. Sports Med, 1986; 3: 165-89 Mackinnon LT, Hooper SL, Jones S, Gordon RD, Bachmann AW. Hormonal, immunological, and hematological responses to intensified training in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1997; 29(12): 1637-1645
  • McGowan J, Sampson M. Systematic reviews need systematic searches. J Med Libr Assoc, 2005; 93: 74-80
  • Millard M, Zauner C, Cade R, Randy R. Serum CPK levels in male and female world class swimmers during a season of training. J Swim Res, 1985; 1(2): 12-16
  • Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med, 2009; 6(6): e1000097[Crossref][WoS]
  • Morgado JM, Rama L, Silva I, de Jesus IM, Henriques A, Laranjeira P, Pedreiro S, Rosado F, Alves F, Gleeson M, Pais ML, Paiva A, Teixeira AM. Cytokine production by monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells is hampered by long-term intensive training in elite swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2012; 112(2): 471-482[WoS][Crossref]
  • Mujika I, Chatard JC, Geyssant A. Effects of training and taper on blood leucocyte populations in competitive swimmers: relationships with cortisol and performance. Int J Sports Med, 1996a; 17(3): 213-217[Crossref]
  • Mujika I, Chatard JC, Padilla S, Guezennec CY, Geyssant A. Hormonal responses to training and its tapering off in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1996b; 74(4): 361-366[Crossref]
  • Mujika I, Padilla S, Geyssant A, Chatard JC. Hematological responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance. Arch Physiol Biochem, 1998; 105(4): 379-385[Crossref]
  • Mujika I. The influence of training characteristics and tapering on the adaptation in highly trained individuals: a review. Int J Sports Med, 1998; 19: 439-446[Crossref]
  • Psycharakis SG. A longitudinal analysis on the validity and reliability of ratings of perceived exertion for elite swimmers. J Strength Cond Res, 2011; 25(2): 420-426[Crossref][WoS]
  • Pyne DB, Lee H, Swanwick KM. Monitoring the lactate threshold in world ranked swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 2001; 33: 291-297[Crossref]
  • Rama L, Teixeira AM, Matos A, Borges G, Henriques A, Gleeson M, Pedreiro S, Filaine E, Alves F, Paiva A. Changes in natural killer cell subpopulations over a winter training season in elite swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2013; 113(4): 859-868[Crossref][WoS]
  • Rushall BS, Busch JD. Hematological responses to training in elite swimmers. Can J Appl Sport Sci, 1980; 5(3): 164-169
  • Ryan R, Coyle E, Quick R. Blood lactate profile throughout a training season in elite female swimmers. J Swim Res, 1990; 6: 5-9
  • Santhiago V, da Silva AS, Papoti M, Gobatto CA. Responses of hematological parameters and aerobic performance of elite men and women swimmers during a 14-week training program. J Strength Cond Res, 2009; 23(4): 1097-1105[WoS][Crossref]
  • Sharp R, Vitelli C, Costill DL, Thomas R. Comparison between blood lactate and heart rate profiles during a season of competitive swim training. J Swim Res, 1984; 1: 17-20
  • Smith DJ, Norris SR, Hogg JM. Performance evaluation of swimmers: scientific tools. Sports Med, 2002; 32(9): 539-554[Crossref]
  • Termin B, Pendergast D. Training using the stroke-frequency velocity relationship to combine biomechanical and metabolic paradigms. J Swim Res, 2000; 14: 9-17
  • Toussaint HM, Beek PJ. Biomechanics of competitive front crawl swimming. Sports Med, 1992; 13(1): 8-24[Crossref]
  • Tyndall GL, Kobe RW, Houmard JA. Cortisol, testosterone, and insulin action during intense swimming training in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1996; 73(1-2): 61-65[Crossref]
  • Van der Kamp L, Bijleveld C. Methodological issues in longitudinal research. Longitudinal data analysis: designs, models and methods. SAGE editors. London, 1-44; 1998
  • Viru A, Karelson K, Smirnova T. Stability and variability in hormonal responses to prolonged exercise. Int J Sports Med, 1992; 13(3): 230-235[Crossref]
  • Wakayoshi K, Yoshida T, Ikuta Y, Mutoh Y, Miyashita M. Adaptations to six months of aerobic swim training. Changes in velocity, stroke rate, stroke length and blood lactate. Int J Sports Med, 1993; 14(7): 368-372 [Crossref]
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.