Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 46 | 1 | 59-68
Tytuł artykułu

Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.
Słowa kluczowe

Opis fizyczny
  • Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK,
  • Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK
  • Bates BT. Single-subject methodology: an alternative approach. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1996; 28: 631-638
  • Bauer JJ, Fuchs RK, Smith GA, Snow CM. Quantifying force magnitude and loading rate from drop landings that induce Ostegenesis. J Appl Biomech, 2001; 17: 142-152
  • Beunen O, Malina RM, Claessens AL, Lefevre J, Thomas M. Ulnar variance and skeletal maturity of radius and ulna in female gymnasts. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1999; 31: 653-657
  • Caine D, Knutzen K, Howe W. A three-year epidemiological study of injuries affecting young female gymnasts. Physical Therapy in Sports, 2003; 4:10-23
  • Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988
  • De Smet L, Claessens A, Lefevre J, Beunen G. Gymnast wrist: an epidemiologic survey of ulnar variance and stress changes of the radial physic in elite female gymnasts. Am J Sport Med, 1994; 22: 846-850
  • Di Fiori JP, Caine DJ, Malina RM. Wrist pain, distal radial physical injury and ulnar variance in the young gymnast. Am J Sport Med, 2006; 10: 1-10
  • Dixon SJ, Kerwin DG. Heel lift influence on Achilles tendon loading. IV Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics; 1999
  • Gabel GT. Gymnastics wrist injuries. Cli Sport Med, 1998; 17: 611-621
  • Gönen M, Panageas KS, Larson SM. Statistical Issues in Analysis of Diagnostic Imaging Experiments with Multiple Observations per Patient. Radiology, 2001; 221: 763-767
  • Liebling MS, Berdon WE, Ruzal-Shapiro C, Levin TL, Roye D Jr, Wilkinson R. Gymnast's wrist (pseudorickets growth plate abnormality) in adolescent athletes: findings on plain films and MR imaging. Am J Radiology, 1995; 164: 157-159
  • Markolf KL, Shapiro MS, Mandelbaum BR, Teurling L. Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises. J Biomech, 1990; 23: 1001-1011
  • McNeal JR, Sands WA, Shultz BB. Muscle activation characteristics of tumbling take-offs. Sports Biomechanics, 2007; 6(3): 375-90
  • McNitt-Gray J. Kinematics and impulse characteristics of drop landings from three heights. Inter Sports Biomech, 1991; 7: 201-223
  • Munro CF, Miller DI, Fuglevand AJ. Ground reaction forces in running: a re-examination. J Biomech, 1987; 20: 147-155
  • Nattiv A, Mandelbaum BR. Injuries and special concerns in female gymnasts. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 1993; 21: 66-67
  • Nelson NG, Metzing M. Joint mobility and force application during the thrust phase of the front handspring on floor exercise. Biomech in Sports XII, 1995; 241-244
  • Nigg BM. Biomechanics, load analysis and sport injuries in the lower extremities. Sport Med, 1985; 2: 367-379
  • Plagenhoef S. Pattems of human motion. Englewood cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc. 1971; 18-27
  • Penitente G, Sands WA, McNeal J, Smith SL, Kimmel W. Investigation of hand contact forces of female gymnasts performing a handspring vault. Inter J Sport Sci and Eng, 2010; 4: 15 -24
  • Ricard MD, Veatch S. Effect of running speed and aerobic dance jump height on vertical ground reaction forces. J Appl Biomech, 1994; 10: 14-27
  • Roy S, Caine D, Singer KM. Stress changes of the distal radial epiphysis in young gymnasts. Am J Sport Med, 1985; 13: 301-308
  • Sands WA. Injury prevention in women's gymnastics. Sports medicine, 2000; 30(5): 359-73
  • Sands WA, Caine DJ, Borms J. Scientific aspects of women’s gymnasts. Karger Editions; 2003
  • Sands WA, McNeal JR. Some Guidelines on the Transition from the Old Horse to the New Table. Technique, 2002; 22
  • Sands WA, Shultz BB, Newman AP. Women’s gymnastics injuries: a 5-year study. Am J Sport Med, 1993; 21: 271-276
  • Seeley MK, Bressel E. A comparison of upper-extremity reaction forces between the Yurchenko vault and floor exercise. J Sport Sci Med, 2005; 4: 85-94
  • Singh S, Smith GA, Fields SK, McKenzie LB. Gymnastics - related injuries to children treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1990-2005. Pediatrics, 2008; 221: e954-e960
  • Wadley GH, Albright JP. Women’s intercollegiate gymnastics: Injury patterns and ‘permanent’ medical disability. Am J Sport Med, 1993; 21: 314-320
  • Webb BG, Rettig LA. Gymnastics wrist injuries. Sport Med Reports 2008; 7: 289-295
  • Werner SL, Plancher KD. Biomechanics of wrist injuries in sports. Cli Sport Med, 1998; 17: 407-420
  • Whiting WC, Zernicke RF. Biomechanics of Musculoskeletal Injury. Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics; 1998
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.