Review of the PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for fifth grade students
Study aim: this study examined the item difficulty and item discrimination scores for the HRFK PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for 5th-grade students. Materials and methods: ten elementary physical education teachers volunteered to participate. Based on convenience, participating teachers selected two 5th grade physical education classes. Teachers then gave students (N = 633) a 28-question paper and pencil HRFK exam using PE Metrics Standards 3 and 4. Item difficulty and discrimination analysis and Rasch Modeling were used data to determine underperforming items. Results: analysis suggests that at least three items are problematic. The Rasch Model confirmed this result and identified similar items with high outfit mean square values and low Point Biserial correlation values. Conclusions: teachers are in need of valid and reliable HRFK assessment tools. Without the removal of three items in the PE Metrics HRFK exam for 5th-grade students, complete use of the exam could offer incorrect conclusions.
- William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey, USA
- Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
- Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
- Chapman University, One University Drive Orange, California, USA
- 1. Brusseau T.A., P.H. Kulinna, D.J. Cothran (2011) Physical activity content knowledge of Native American children. Phys. Edu., 68: 66-77.
- 2. Castelli D., L. Williams (2007) Health-related fitness physical education teachers’ content knowledge. J. Teach. Phys. Edu., 26: 3-19.
- 3. Dale D., C.B. Corbin (2000) Physical activity participation of High School graduates following exposure to conceptual or traditional Physical Education. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 71: 61-68.
- 4. Dale D., C.B. Corbin, T.F. Cuddihy (1998) Can conceptual Physical Education promote physical active lifestyles? Pediatr, Exerc, Sci,, 10: 97-109.
- 5. Dietz W.H. (2001) The obesity epidemic in young children. Reduce television viewing and promote playing. Br. Med. J., 322: 313-314.
- 6. DiLorenzo T.M., R.C. Stucky-Ropp, J.S. Vander Wal, H.J. Gotham (1998) Determinants of exercise among children: A longitudinal analysis. Prevent. Med., 27: 470-477.
- 7. Ebel R.L., D.A. Frisbie, (1991) Essentials of educational measurement. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.
- 8. Ennis C.D. (2007) Defining learning as conceptual change in physical education and physical activity settings. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 78: 138-150.
- 9. Fakhouri T.H., J.P. Hughes, V.L. Burt, M. Song, J.E. Fulton, C.L. Ogden (2014) Physical activity in U.S. youth aged 12–15 years, 2012. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 1: 1-8.
- 10. Fissette J.L., D.M. Franck (2012) How teachers can use PE Metrics for formative assessment. J. Phys. Edu., Recreation and Dance, 83: 23-34.
- 11. Fox K.R., S.J. Biddle (1988). The use of fitness tests: Educational and psychological considerations. J. Phys. Edu., Recreation and Dance, 59: 47-53.
- 12. Hopple C., G. Graham (1995) What children think, feel, and know about physical fitness testing. J. Teach. Phys. Edu., 14: 408-417.
- 13. Keating X.D., L. Jr. Harrison, L. Chen, P. Xiang, D. Lambdin, B. Dauenhaurer, J. Castro Pinero (2009) An analysis of research on students health-related fitness knowledge in K-16 Physical Education programs. J. Teach. Phys. Edu., 28: 333-349.
- 14. Keating X.D., L. Chen, J. Guan, L. Jr. Harrison, B. Dauenhauer (2009) Urban minority ninth-grade students’ health-related fitness knowledge. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 80: 747-755.
- 15. Kulinna P.H. (2004) Physical activity and fitness knowledge: How much do 1–6 grade students know? Int. J. Phys. Edu.n, 41: 111-121.
- 16. Liang M.T., H.T. Dombrowski, T.W. Allen, C.O. Chang, J. Andriulli, M. Bastianelli, S.D. Norris (1993) Do medical students’ knowledge and attitudes about health and exercise affect their physical fitness? J. Amer. Osteopathic Association, 93: 1020-1024.
- 17. Losch S.H., B. Strand, (2004) An analysis of the knowledge and fitness levels of physical education teacher education majors. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 75, A-73.
- 18. McKenzie T.L., E.J. Stone, H.A. Feldman, J.N. Epping, M. Yang, P.K. Strikmiller, G.S. Parcel (2001) Effects of CATCH Physical Education Intervention. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 21: 101-109.
- 19. Mood D. (1971) Test of physical fitness knowledge: Construction, administration and norms. Res. Q., 42: 423-430.
- 20. Oaks J., B. Warren, D. Harsha (1987) Cardiovasucalr health knowledge of children and school personnel in Louisiana public schools. J. Scholar. Health, 57: 23-27.
- 21. Pearman S.N. III, R.F. Valois, R.G. Sargent, R.P. Saunders, J.W. Drane, C.A. Macera (1997) The impact of a required college health and Physical Education course on the health status of alumni. J. Am. College Health, 46: 77-85.
- 22. SAS Institute Inc., SAS, Version 8. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 2000.
- 23. Society of Health and Physical Education (SHAPE) (2010) PE Metrics: Assessing National Standards 1–6 in Elementary School-2nd Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- 24. Stewart S., M. Mitchell, (2003) Instructional variables and student knowledge and conceptions of fitness. J. Teach. Phys. Edu., 22, 533-551.
- 25. Stradtman A.D., T.K. Cureton (1950) A physical fitness knowledge test for secondary school boys and girls. Res. Q., 21: 53-57.
- 26. Tavakol M., R. Dennick (2011) Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. Int. J. Med. Edu., 2: 53–55. DOI:10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd[Crossref]
- 27. Thompson A., J.C. Hannon (2012) Health-related fitness knowledge and physical activity of high school students. Phys. Edu., 69: 71-88.
- 28. WINSTEPS. (Version 3.90.0). Linacre J.M. (2015) [Computer Software]. Beaverton, Oregon.
- 29. Zhu W., M. Safarit, A. Cohen (1999) The national health-related physical fitness knowledge test: FitSmart test user manual (high school edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.