Estimation of aerobic fitness among young men without exercise test
Study aim: to develop and estimate the validity of non-exercise methods to predict VO2max among young male conscripts entering military service in order to divide them into the different physical training groups. Material and methods: fifty males (age 19.7 ± 0.3 years) reported their physical activity before military service by IPAQ and SIVAQ questionnaires. Furthermore, Jackson’s non-exercise method was used to estimate VO2max. Body mass and height were measured, body mass index calculated and VO2max measured directly in a maximal treadmill test. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The results of the Group 1 (N = 25) were used to develop a regression equation to estimate VO2max. The results of the Group 2 (N = 25) were used to evaluate the validity of the developed non-exercise methods and Jackson’s non-exercise methods to estimate VO2max by Bland and Altman plot. The validity was further evaluated by comparing the results to 12-minute running test performed by 877 male conscripts (age 19.6 ± 0.2 years). Results: the developed models explained 68–74% of the variation in VO2max. Mean difference between directly measured and estimated VO2max was not significant, while Jackson’s method overestimated VO2max (p < 0.001). Both developed models were equally valid to divide conscripts into tertile group of fitness. However, 5% of the conscripts were classified into the highest fitness group based on both methods, but they were actually in the lowest fitness group based on a running test. Conclusion: in practice, these findings suggest that developed methods can be used as a tool to divide conscripts into different fitness groups in the very beginning of their military service.
- Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
- Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
- National Defence University, Finland
- LIKES – Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Finland
- 1. ACSM (2001) Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 117 p.
- 2. Ainsworth B.E., M.T. Richardson, D.R. Jacobs Jr., A.S. Leon (1992) Prediction of cardiorespiratory fitness using physical activity questionnaire data. Med. Exerc. Nutr. Health, 1: 75-82.
- 3. Aspenes S.T., J. Nauman, T.I. Nilsen, L.J. Vatten, U. Wisloff (2011) Physical Activity as a Long-Term Predictor of Peak Oxygen Uptake: The HUNT Study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 43: 1675-1679.
- 4. Bland J.M., D.G. Altman (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet, 1: 307-310.[Crossref]
- 5. Bradshaw D.I., J.D. George, A. Hyde, M.J. LaMonte, P.R. Vehrs, R.L. Hager, F.G. Yanowitz (2005) An accurate VO2max nonexercise regression model for 18–65-year-old adults. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 76: 426-432.
- 6. Cederberg H., I. Mikkola, J. Jokelainen, M. Laakso, P. Harkonen, T. Ikaheimo, S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (2011) Exercise during military training improves cardiovascular risk factors in young men. Atherosclerosis, 216: 489-495.[Crossref][WoS]
- 7. Cooper K.H. (1968) A means of assessing maximal oxygen intake. Correlation between field and treadmill testing. Jama, 203: 201-204.[Crossref]
- 8. Craig C.L., A.L. Marshall, M. Sjostrom, A.E. Bauman, M.L. Booth, B.E. Ainsworth, M. Pratt, U. Ekelund, A. Yngve, J.F. Sallis, P. Oja (2003) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 35: 1381-1395.
- 9. Fogelholm M., J. Malmberg, J. Suni, M. Santtila, H. Kyröläinen, M. Mantysaari, P. Oja (2006) International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Validity against fitness. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 38: 753-760.
- 10. George J.D., W.J. Stone, L.N. Burkett (1997) Non-exercise VO2max estimation for physically active college students. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 29: 415-423.
- 11. Heil D.P., P.S. Freedson, L.E. Ahlquist, J. Price, J.M. Rippe (1995) Nonexercise regression models to estimate peak oxygen consumption. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 27: 599-606.
- 12. Jackson A.S., S.N. Blair, M.T. Mahar, L.T. Wier, R.M. Ross, J.E. Stuteville (1990) Prediction of functional aerobic capacity without exercise testing. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 22: 863-870.
- 13. Jones B.H., J.J. Knapik (1999) Physical training and exercise-related injuries. Surveillance, research and injury prevention in military populations. Sports Med., 27: 111-125.[Crossref]
- 14. Knapik J.J., M. Canham-Chervak, K. Hauret, E. Hoedebecke, M.J. Laurin, J. Cuthie (2001) Discharges during U.S. Army basic training: injury rates and risk factors. Mil. Med., 166: 641-647.
- 15. Knapik J.J., M.A. Sharp, M. Canham-Chervak, K. Hauret, J.F. Patton, B.H. Jones (2001) Risk factors for training-related injuries among men and women in basic combat training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 33: 946-954.
- 16. Knapik J.J., K.G. Hauret, S. Canada, R. Marin, B. Jones (2011) Association between ambulatory physical activity and injuries during United States army basic combat training. J. Phys. Act. Health, 8: 496-502.
- 17. Larsson H., L. Broman, K. Harms-Ringdahl (2009) Individual risk factors associated with premature discharge from military service. Mil. Med., 174: 9-20.
- 18. Matthews C.E., D.P. Heil, P.S. Freedson, H. Pastides (1999) Classification of cardiorespiratory fitness without exercise testing. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 31: 486-493.
- 19. Mattila V.M., M. Niva, M. Kiuru, H. Pihlajamaki (2007) Risk factors for bone stress injuries: a follow-up study of 102,515 person-years. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 39: 1061-1066.
- 20. Mikkola I., J.J. Jokelainen, M.J. Timonen, P.K. Harkonen, E. Saastamoinen, M.A. Laakso, A.J. Peitso, A.K. Juuti, S.M. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, T.M. Makinen (2009) Physical activity and body composition changes during military service. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 41: 1735-1742.
- 21. Mikkola I., S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, J. Jokelainen, A. Peitso, P. Harkonen, M. Timonen, T. Ikaheimo (2012) Aerobic performance and body composition changes during military service. Scand. J. Prim. Health Care, 30: 95-100.[WoS]
- 22. Nes B.M., I. Janszky, L.J. Vatten, T.I. Nilsen, S.T. Aspenes, U. Wisloff (2011) Estimating V.O 2peak from a nonexercise prediction model: the HUNT Study, Norway. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 43: 2024-2030.
- 23. Rosendal L., H. Langberg, A. Skov-Jensen, M. Kjaer (2003) Incidence of injury and physical performance adaptations during military training. Clin. J. Sport Med., 13: 157-163.[Crossref]
- 24. Ross R.M., A.S. Jackson (1990) Estimating VO2max from submaximal exercise protocols. Exercise concepts, calculations and computer applications. Carmel, IN: Benchmark Press, Inc.
- 25. Santtila M., H. Kyröläinen, T. Vasankari, S. Tiainen, K. Palvalin, A. Häkkinen, K. Häkkinen (2006) Physical fitness profiles in young Finnish men during the years 1975-2004. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 38: 1990-1994.
- 26. Santtila M., K. Häkkinen, W.J. Kraemer, H. Kyröläinen (2010) Effects of basic training on acute physiological responses to a combat loaded run test. Mil. Med., 175: 273-279.
- 27. Santtila M., K. Häkkinen, B.C. Nindl, H. Kyröläinen (2012) Cardiovascular and neuromuscular performance responses induced by 8 weeks of basic training followed by 8 weeks of specialized military training. J. Strength Cond. Res., 26: 745-751.[WoS]
- 28. Suni J.H., S.I. Miilunpalo, T.M. Asikainen, R.T. Laukkanen, P. Oja, M.E. Pasanen, K. Bos, I.M. Vuori (1998) Safety and feasibility of a health-related fitness test battery for adults. Phys. Ther., 78: 134-148.
- 29. Swedler D.I., J.J. Knapik, K.W. Williams, T.L. Grier, B.H. Jones (2011) Risk factors for medical discharge from United States Army Basic Combat Training. Mil. Med., 176: 1104-1110.
- 30. Tanskanen M., A.L. Uusitalo, K. Häkkinen, J. Nissilä, M. Santtila, K.R. Westerterp, H. Kyröläinen (2009) Aerobic fitness, energy balance, and body mass index are associated with training load assessed by activity energy expenditure. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports, 19: 871-878.
- 31. Tanskanen M.M., H. Kyröläinen, A.L. Uusitalo, J. Huovinen, J. Nissilä, H. Kinnunen, M. Atalay, K. Häkkinen (2011) Serum Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Cortisol Concentrations are Associated With Overreaching During Strenuous Military Training. J. Strength Cond. Res., 25: 787-797.[Crossref][WoS]
- 32. Whaley M.H., L.A. Kaminsky, G.B. Dwyer, L.H. Getchell (1995) Failure of predicted VO2peak to discriminate physical fitness in epidemiological studies. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 27: 85-91.