Determinants of women’s willingness to continue fitness training in spite of health risks
Study aim: the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between willingness to continue training in spite of health risks and the following variables: age, body parameters and selected elements of body image as well as duration, amount and intensity of training sessions. Material and methods: the study’s participants were 140 women aged 18 to 35 years who had been training at a fitness club for between 1 and 15 years. The following tools were used: Figure Rating Scale, a modified Body Satisfaction Scale, and a questionnaire to investigate actual and ideal body parameters, motivation to begin training and training parameters. Results: women who were willing to discontinue fitness training due to potential health risks exercised less often and engaged in shorter training sessions with less intensity. They were also more dissatisfied with their motor fitness. Higher readiness to continue training can be expected from women with more training experience, who are motivated by a need to improve their appearance, who are more satisfied with their motor fitness and who have a lower ideal BMI. Conclusions: the results of the study suggest that women who complete greater amounts of exercise and are more motivated to train for aesthetic reasons rather than for reasons related to fitness are more prone to obligatory exercise.
- 1. Ackard D.M., B.J. Brehm, J.J. Steffen (2002) Exercise and eating disorders in college-aged women: Profiling excessive exercisers. Eat. Disord., 10: 31-47.
- 2. Adams J. (2009). Understanding exercise dependence. J. Contemp. Psychother., 39: 231-240.
- 3. Allegre B., M. Souville, P. Therme, M. Griffiths (2006) Definitions and measures of exercise dependence. Addict. Rev. Theory, 14: 631-646.
- 4. Bamber D.J., I. M. Cockerill, S. Rodgers, D. Carroll (2003) Diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence in women. Br. J. Sports Med., 37: 393-400.
- 5. Berczik K., A. Szabò, M.D. Griffiths, T. Kurimay, B. Kun, R. Urbàn, et al. (2012). Exercise addiction: Symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology. Substance Use and Misuse, 47: 403–417.
- 6. Cook B., H.A. Hausenblas, J. Rossi (2013) The moderating effect of gender on ideal-weight goals and exercise dependence symptoms. J. Behav. Addiction, 2: 50-55.
- 7. Costa S., H.A. Hausenblas, P. Oliva, F. Cuzzocrea, R. Larcan (2014) Perceived parental psychological control and exercise dependence symptoms in competitive athletes. Int. J. Ment. Health Addiction, 12, DOI: 10.1007/s11469-014-9512-3[Crossref]
- 8. Costa S., H.A. Hausenblas, P. Oliva, F. Cuzzocrea, R. Larcan (2013) The role of age, gender, mood states and exercise frequency on exercise dependence. J. Behav. Addictions, 2: 216-223.
- 9. Costa S., P. Oliva (2012) Examining relationship between personality characteristics and exercise dependence. Rev. Psychol., 19: 5-12.
- 10. Davis C., D.K. Katzman, S. Kaptein, C. Kirsh, H. Brewer, K. Kalmbach, M.P. Olmsted, D.B. Woodside, A.S. Kaplan (1997) The prevalence of hyperactivity in eating disorders: Etiological implications. Compreh. Psychiatry, 38: 3211-3226.
- 11. Guszkowska M. (2013) Aktywność Fizyczna i Psychika. Korzyści i zagrożenia. Wyd. Adam Marszałek, Toruń.
- 12. Hall H.K., A.W. Kerr, S.A. Kozub, S.B. Finnie (2007) Motivational antecedents of obligatory exercise: The influence of achievement goals and multidimensional perfectionism. Psychol. Sport Exerc., 8: 297-316.
- 13. Hausenblas H.A., D. Symons Downs (2002a) Exercise dependence: A systematic review. Psychol. Sport Exerc., 3: 89-123.
- 14. Hausenblas H.A., D. Symons Downs (2002b) How much is too much? The development and validation of the exercise dependence scale. Psychol. Health, 17: 387-404.
- 15. Homan K.J., T.L. Tylka (2014) Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image. Body Image, 11: 101-108.
- 16. Mędraś M., B. Bidzińska (2004) Uzależnienie od wysiłku fizycznego. In: M. Mędraś (ed.). Medycyna Sportowa. Medsportpress, Warszawa, pp. 119-121.
- 17. Mędraś M., K. Kowalska, A. Frąckiewicz (2002) Uzależnienie od wysiłku fizycznego – opis przypadku. Medicina Sportiva, 6: 31-34.
- 18. Mond J.M., P.J. Hay, B. Rodgers, C. Owen (2006) An update of the definition of “excessive exercise” in eating disorders. Int. J. Eat. Disord., 39: 147-153.
- 19. Mond J.M., P.J. Hay, B. Rodgers, C. Owen, P.J.V. Beumont (2004) Relationships between exercise behaviour, eating-disordered behaviour and quality of life in a community sample of women: When is exercise “excessive”? Europ. Eat. Disord. Rev., 12: 265-272.
- 20. Pritchard M.E., J.L. Beaver (2012) Do exercise motives predict obligatory exercise? Eat. Behav., 13: 139-141.
- 21. Prichard I., M. Tiggemann (2008) Relations among exercise type, self-objectification, and body image in the fitness centre environment: The role of reasons for exercise. Psychol. Sport Exerc., 9: 855-866.
- 22. Seigel K., J. Hetta (2001) Exercise and eating disorders symptoms among young females. Eat. Weight Disord.: EWD, 6: 32-39.
- 23. Slade P.D., M.E. Dewey, T. Newton, D. Brodie, G. Kiemle (1990) Development and preliminary validation of the body satisfaction scale (BSS). Psychol. Health, 4: 213-220.
- 24. Strelan P., S.J. Mehaffey, M.Tiggemann (2003) Self-objectification and esteem in young women: The mediating role of reasons for exercise. Sex Roles, 48: 89-95.
- 25. Stunkard A.J., T. Sorenson, F. Schlusinger (1983) Use of Danish adoption registers for the study of obesity and thinness. In: S.S. Kety, L.P. Rowland, R.L. Sidman, S.W. Mathysse (eds.) The Genetics of Neurological and Psychological Disorders. Raven Press, New York, pp. 115-20.
- 26. Sussman S., N. Lisha, M.D. Griffiths (2011) Prevalence of the addictions: A problem of the majority or the minority? Evaluation and the Health Professions, 34: 3-56.
- 27. Symons Downs D., H.A. Hausenblas, C.R. Nigg (2004) Factorial validity and psychometric examination of the exercise dependence scale: revised. Measur. Phys. Educ. Exerc. Sci., 8: 183-201.
- 28. Szabo A., R. Frenkl, A. Caputo (1997) Relation between addiction to running, commitment to running, and deprivation from running: A study on the Internet. Europ. Yearbook Sport Psychol., 1: 130-147.
- 29. Thome J.L., D.L. Espelage (2007) Obligatory exercise and eating pathology in college females: Replication and development of a structural model. Eat. Behav., 8: 3334-3349. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.11.009.
- 30. Tylka T.L., M.S. Hill (2004) Objectification theory as it relates to disordered eating among college women. Sex Roles, 51: 719-730.
- 31. Weik M., B.D. Hale (2009) Contrasting gender differences on two measures of exercise dependence. Br. J. Sports Med., 43: 204-207.
- 32. White J., E. Halliwell (2010) Examination of sociocultural model of excessive exercise among male and female adolescents. Body Image, 7: 227-233. DOI: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.02.002[Crossref]
- 33. Zmijewski C.F., M.O. Howard (2003) Exercise dependence and attitudes toward eating among young adults. Eat. Behav., 4: 181-195.