THE BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTIC ECOLOGY UNDER THE FLAG OF THE 'LANDSCAPE OF SOUND' SCHOOL
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The article discusses the inception and development of the acoustic ecology movement as it manifests itself in the soundscape school of thought. The origins of the term 'soundscape' in the mid 60s and its use by R. Murray Schafer are discussed; followed by a presentation of soundscape philosophy and the postulation of soundscape studies and acoustic design developed from then on. There follows an account of the activities of The World Soundscape Project (founded by Schafer in 1969 at Simon Fraser University; largely discontinued after 1975) and specific individual undertakings of several its former members: R. Murray Schafer, Barry Truax, and Hildegard Westerkamp, all of whom helped continue the tradition of soundscape activities: composition, research, and education. The last section of the article deals with the renewed interest in the field beginning with the First International Conference for Acoustic Ecology (Banff, Alberta, 1993) and the concurrent inception of the World Forum for Acoustic Ecology (WFAE), an 'organization of organizations' that provides a venue for international contacts, sponsors activities such as symposiums, and publishes a journal. The article closes with a look at some specific undertakings within the scope of acoustic ecology in Canada, Sweden, Finland, France, Germany, and Japan, and mentions Polish activity in the field.
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