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EN
The "Kępa Redłowska" reserve is located in the southern part of Kępa Redłowska. The location of the reserve is quite unique. Its eastern border runs along the coastline of the Baltic Sea, while on the other sides it is surrounded by highly urbanized districts of Gdynia. Its coastal location means that it is exposed to natural factors that operate in the coastal zone, whereas its urban surroundings are a threat to the natural environment through more or less controlled human activity. The landscape of the reserve owes its attractiveness mainly to the cliff coast it encompasses. Diversified geological structure of this area, both in terms of lithology and age, combined with progressive erosion, causes a continuous change in its appearance. It is this part of the reserve that is most exposed to the destructive activity of natural factors, mainly coast erosion as well as aeolian processes. The intensity of these processes is closely related to climate changes over the centuries, e.g. a significant reduction in the number of winters, during which there is ice cover in the shore zone means that cliffs are not protected against erosion by winter storms. A spectacular effect of winter storms in this area was a large landslide in the southern part of the cliff on February 15, 2018. The retreat of cliffs is a common phenomenon, however observations in recent decades clearly indicate its acceleration. The remaining part of the reserve area, not directly connected with the shore zone, is subjected to continuously growing anthropopressure. As mentioned above, the "Kępa Redłowska" reserve is located in Gdynia. The expansion of the Redłowo district has resulted in the housing development being located directly adjacent to the eastern border of the reserve. An additional element of anthropopressure is the creation of interpretive trails and tourist routes within the reserve. On the one hand, this is an attempt to "channel" tourist traffic in this area, on the other hand, it causes an increase in tourist traffic with all the negative phenomena associated with it, mainly for vegetation. Human interference in the reserve began already at the end of the 1930s. At that time, military facilities, such as bunkers and artillery positions, were built there. This process continued uninterrupted until the 1960s. Post-military objects are on the one hand an attraction for tourists, on the other hand they attract the attention of various types of seekers of military remnants who, during their explorations, cause additional damage to the surface of the area and vegetation.
EN
The aim of the article is to present selected geological and mining information concerning the area of the Sudetes Mts. and their foreland, which was published in the 19th century publications. The visitors were interested not only in natural outcrops and geological formations, but also in industrial facilities, such as quarries, mines, adits that were the part of the Sudetes landscape, thus increasing its attractiveness for tourists. Thanks to scientists, but also travellers and health resort visitors, such information was frequently published in periodicals (dailies, weeklies, annuals, etc.), or in the form of diaries, letters, textbooks, guides or brochures. The most important magazines included: Kroniki Wiadomości Krajowych i Zagranicznych, Kłosy, Wieniec, Pamiętnik Warszawski, Roczniki Gospodarstwa Krajowego. The manuscripts by S. Poniatowski and B.Z. Stęczyński as well as compact publications, including those by R. Saulson, Z. Urbanowska, A. Ostrowicz, I. Czartoryska, J.U. Niemcewicz were also published. This article presents the descriptive method and the method of historical analysis.
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