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EN
For over ten years the authors of this article have had a growing conviction, resulting from their observations, that regardless of the approach adopted, the role of the company's boss always turns out to be of paramount importance during the implementation of both technical and sociological aspects of Lean philosophy. Having analyzed their experience gained from cooperation with different enterprises, conversations with company bosses, the studies of subject matter literature and internet sources, the authors have put together their thoughts on this role in ten points, even daring to call them commandments. The methodology of affinity diagram has been used to aggregate gathered data.
2
Content available remote Last 10 years of lean movement in Poland. Conclusions and prospects for the future
EN
This article is a kind of report presenting the last 10 years of Lean Management development in Poland and forecasts for the future. It contains analyses of the interest in Lean concept in different industries and the results of its implementation over the last 10 years. The emphasis on different aspects of Lean Management in companies in Poland implementing this concept is discussed. The article presents current state of knowledge on effective implementation of lean approach. The importance of developing lean management culture and its components are highlighted. The last section discusses the prospects of further development of this concept and new areas of its applications that will be of greatest interest for industry in the forthcoming years.
PL
Koncepcja „szczupłego wytwarzania" (ang. Lean Manufacturing) staje się obecnie jednym z wiodących podejść do zarządzania przedsiębiorstwami produkcyjnymi i ma duży wpływ na procesy logistyczne. Referat opisuje najważniejsze metody Lean Manufacturing stosowane w procesie logistycznym począwszy od wysyłki materiału od dostawcy, a skończywszy na dostarczeniu materiału do linii produkcyjnej producenta.
EN
Lean Manufacturing approach concentrates on eliminating of all waste in production system. Lean Manufacturing is considered as an efficient way of radically improving productivity, decreasing waste and shortening lead time. The paper describes „lean" methods used to improve logistics processes in supply chain beginning from shipment from supplier to the moment of providing components to the production line of producer. The supply chain, based on the Lean Manufacturing concept, involves frequent deliveries with small transportation lots directly from the previous production phase to the next one. Such approach results in more frequent delivery cycles and in the elimination of the intermediate warehouses and cross-docks. The information flow is based on the simple signals exchanged among the production departments of the cooperating enterprises. In mass-production transport is realised in big transportation lots to the intermediate warehouses. The deliveries to the customer enterprise are collected and shipped together. Such approach has several disadvantages: long lead time for the supply chain, big inventories, grater work effort for supply chain management and worse flexibility. In opposite, in the lean supply chain the deliveries are realised directly to the customer enterprise and in the single transport the variety of different components and materials is carried. The single delivery contains only the materials and components, which are currently, e.g. within the next day, required by the customer. The exchanged information is much simpler (for example in the form of electronic kanban) and supply chain management is easier as well. Such approach leads to the much lower inventories, elimination of the intermediate warehouse costs, lower costs of supply management and improved flexibility. The costs of frequent transports could be reduced by exploitation of the milk runs. Within the single milk run the given truck visits several different suppliers and collects the different components for the customer. Similar ideas are used inside the factory to provide components frequently (e.g. every hour) in small batches from component warehouse to the production line. The benefits of using lean concept in supply chain, observed in the industry, were 80% lead time reduction within the supply chain and 70% inventory reduction in final product distribution centers with better customer service level.
EN
The paper describes how to use the principles of Lean Manufacturing to manage the value (supply) networks. This level of management is named a „macro" level. The fundamental lean tool for managing the value networks is Extended Value Stream Mapping (Macro-Mapping). Within the mapping process the material and information flows are depicted for the given value stream running through several cooperating enterprises. The value stream is defined for the particular product family. Here product family is seen from the technological point of view (not functional). Section 1 presents briefly the Lean Manufacturing philosophy. Lean Manufacturing is a worldwide proven approach for the improvement of production processes through eliminating wastes. The results are better quality, lower costs, and shorter lead-time. It also includes decreasing manufacturing lot sizes, which gives enterprises the ability to reach a higher level of flexibility. Single enterprise could gain many benefits after implementation of Lean Manufacturing but not all of them could be exploited without the propagation of Lean approach to the suppliers' and distribution networks. The paper interprets the Lean principles for area of supply network management. Authors use Value Network term to emphasize the role of the production facilities, where the value is created. Section 2 describes the new Lean tool to manage the Value Networks provided by Lean Enterprise Institute - Extended Value Stream Mapping. The tool is derived from the proven method of Value Stream Mapping addressed to the analysis and improvement of the single enterprise. Value Stream encompasses ail the actions performed on the product from raw materials to final products as well as accompanying information flows. The value stream could be defined on the „micro" level - within the single enterprise and on the „macro" level' - for the whole Value Network of several cooperating enterprises. For Extended Value Stream Mapping also the Macro-Mapping term is used. Section 2 shows the overall approach of Macro-Mapping to the analysis of the complex Value Networks. Section 3 depicts how to use the elaborated map to design the new Macro-Value Steam, improved according to the Lean measures (e.g. Lead-Time, Demand Amplification). The first step of the improvement relates to the changes within single enterprise, however it may also address the requirements of the whole Value Network. The benefits could be estimated. The next step is to redesign the way how companies cooperate together (e.g. using electronic Kanban system instead of purchase orders) as well as introduce the changes to the transportation and warehousing system. The third step is suggested for new investments and helps to allocate the production facilities geographically. It could be also used to justify the collocation of some suppliers with OEM. Section 4 describes the exploitation of Macro-Mapping for analysis and improvement of the relations between customer and supplier. It is based on the example of two production companies - 1st and 2nd tier suppliers. The example shows what kind of information could be obtained from the map and how to use it. The Macro-Mapping could be the first step for supplier and customer to built real win-win relation. Section 5 is the summary and gathers the conclusions for using the Lean Manufacturing philosophy and Extended Value Stream Mapping method to manage the value networks.
PL
Produkcyjna sieć wartości to grupa przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych współpracujących ze sobą w celu wytworzenia produktu na rynek. W ostatnich latach obserwuje się wzrost złożoności sieci wartości, co pociąga to za sobą szereg problemów. Do najważniejszych z nich należy planowanie i sterowanie przepływem materiałów. Nie wystarczają tu już metody dedykowane dla pojedynczych przedsiębiorstw. Aktualnie stosowane rozwiązania dla sieci wartości takie jak systemy SCM (ang. Supply Chain Management), czy model VMI (ang. Vendor Managed Inventory) wykazują szereg wad. Nowa koncepcja planowania i sterowania produkcją w sieciach wartości, określona nazwą Planowania z Przekazywaniem Stanu PPS, została opracowana w ramach pracy doktorskiej realizowanej w CAMT Politechniki Wrocławskiej. W referacie opisano wady stosowanych dziś rozwiązań, opis metody PPS oraz potencjalne korzyści z jej stosowania.
EN
The papec pve.se.nte \he ntw method of production planning and control within the whole value adding networks. The method has been elaborated in CAMT and named Status Exchange Planning SEP (poL Planowanie z Przekazywaniem Stanu PPS). The first part of the article describes currently available methods of planning across the supply chains: Supply Chain Management SCM, Vendor Managed In-j ventory VMI and Lean Manufacturing tools. All the gaps found by the authors within these methods are depicted. Then the new method is proposed. SEP is based on the exchange of the status data set among companies in real time. Status data set reflects the current state of the production company including its sales plans and forecasts, production plans, inventory reports and the disturbances. This information is available on-line to the supplier. Supplier uses it to plan the material replenishment for the customer. The method has been verified using simulation tools as well as analytical models built for chosen companies. SEP enables the companies to reduce information flow time (50%), planning process effort (20%), mater-1 ial inventory (20%).
PL
Strategia organizacyjna określana mianem przedsiębiorstwa wirtualnego (ang. virtual entrprise) postrzegana jest dziś jako sposób przetrwania zwłaszcza małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw na rynku zmieniającym się dynamicznie w sposób nieprzewidywalny. Efektywne działanie takiej formy organizacyjnej wymaga odpowiednich podstaw administracyjno-prawnych i sprawnej, elastycznej infrastruktury organizacyjnej. Wspomaganie procesów rozwoju produktu czy planowania i nadzorowania wykonania zleceń produkcyjnych jest realizowane na bazie rozproszonych, otwartych systemów informatycznych. Wprowadzono na rynek, w ostatnim czasie, systemy z obszaru tzw. Gospodarki elektronicznej (e-biznes), znacznie ułatwiają szybką integrację informacyjną przedsiębiorstw.
EN
The organization strategy called Virtual Enterprise (VE) is today perceived as a chance, especially for small to medium enterprises SMEs, to function successfully on the marketplace, witch changes dynamically and unpredictably. This strategy assumes temporary cooperation to profit from new orders or market opportunities. It requires fast and cheap integration of information systems of cooperating firms. New e-business systems (e-exchange, electronic supply chain management) let to build immediately complex information systems encompassing whole net of cooperating enterprises, their customers and potential future partners.
PL
Opisano nowe podejście w projektowaniu i implementacji rozproszonych układów sterowania na poziomie gniazda wytwórczego. Rozpatrzono rozwój układów sterowania NC i CNC, rozproszonych systemów komputerowego sterowania obrabiarek DNC oraz możliwości integracji tych systemów w sieci wewnątrz-zakładowch intranet. Wskazano także na zalety wynikające z zastosowania otwartych rozwiązań w budowie i użytkowaniu takich układów. Przedstawiono budowę i działanie wykonanego systemu DNC, w którym zastosowano zamknięte i otwarte układy CNC oraz otwarte technologie informatyczne CORBA, Jara, HTML stosowane w sieciach intranet.
EN
The new approach design and implementation of Distributed Numerical Control! DNC systems is presented. In the area of DNC systems we can observe the evolution to higher functionality and bigger openness. More controllers can be integrated in intranet network. We can find on the marketplace uprising number of open NC controllers designed as PC extension cards. In the DNC system described in the article such solutions and open, common "internet" technologies (Java. Cobra, HTML) were used to implement highly open, flexible and reasonable cheap DNC system.
8
Content available remote Kierunki rozwoju systemów DNC do sterowania obrabiarek
PL
Przedstawiono najnowsze koncepcje systemów DNC. Dokonano ich klasyfikacji na systemy bezposrednie i rozproszone oraz kompleksowe i proste. W tym kontekście zestawiono systemy obecne aktualnie na rynku (DLoG, Siemens, Predator, Memex). Opisano ich architekturę oraz funkcjonalność. szczególny nacisk połozono na te funkcje, ktore pojawiaja się w najnowszych produktach i wykraczają poza dotychczasową, ogólnie przyjęta definicję systemów DNC. Systemy rozproszonego/ bezpośredniego sterowania numerycznego, zwane DNC (Distributed/Direct Numerical Control), służą do łączenia obrabiarek sterowanych numerycznie (NC) z komputerem centralnym. Umożliwiają one dystrybucję programów NC oraz śledzenie stanu maszyn a także pozwalają na wyświetlenie rysunków CAD, zdjęć, filmów demonstrujących sposób mocowania obrabianych przedmiotów. Wygodę pracy zapewniają także wbudowane edytory programów NC, bogate funkcje zarządzania programami oraz możliwość integracji z innymi systemami CAM.
EN
The newest conceptions of DNC systems are presented. These systems are classified in two ways: direct-distributed and complex-simple. In this conext 4 available on the market systems are compared (DLoG, Siemens, Predator, Memex). The architecture and functionality of them are described. The emphasis is put on these functions, which apper in the latest solutions and go beyond the generally accepted definition of DNC systems.
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