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EN
The study involved investigation of the relationship between the radon concentrations in the ground air – and thus in the indoor air – and the geological structure of the Lubelskie Voivodeship (eastern Poland). Both passive and active methods were used for measuring the radon concentrations in coal, phosphate and chalk mines, caves, wells as well as indoor environments. The study also included elemental, uranium and lead isotope analyses of rocks. The performed research showed that Paleogene and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks rich in radionuclides are the sources of radon in the Lubelskie Voivodeship. In the case of the buildings located in proximity to such rocks, characterized by relatively high radon exhalations, radon remediation methods are recommended. Already at the designing stage of buildings, the measures which protect against the hazardous radon gas should be applied.
2
Content available remote Strefowość ekshalacji radonowych w rejonie Nałęczowa
EN
The studies on the radioactivity of waters in health resorts around the world have been conducted for over a hundred years. At first, they were strictly connected with the use of radioactive radon 222Rn for the purpose of treating patients. In Health Resort Nałęczów, the first studies on the content of radon in water were carried out in 1909. Encouraged by promising results, an attempt was made to expand the treatment possibilities/potential of this resort. Balneological treatment procedures were devised; however, they were not implemented in practice. In the following years, no research on the radioactivity of waters in Nałęczów was conducted. In 2005, pilot measurements of radon exhalations were carried out in the vicinity of Lublin. Their results showed no significant concentrations of radon in the air. The paper presents the results of radon studies performed in the years 2009-2011 in the water intake area of the resort and its proximity. The measurements of radon exhalations and its content in water were conducted. The former were carried out using the CR-39 passive dosimeters at the underground level, above the aquifer. Measurements of radon concentrations in soil air and water were performed in selected locations. In the areas in which abnormally high radon exhalations were detected, additional measurements were made using active methods by means of an Alpha GUARD PQ 2000 PRO meter. The performed studies enabled to determine the background exhalation values as 42-190 Bq/3. According to the contemporary knowledge, these values correspond to the concentrations detected in other regions of Lubelskie Voivodeship and the strip of Polish low- and highlands. In the water intake area of the resort, as well as selected parts of Bystra river valley and the Kocianow rift fault, the radon concentrations of 1130-4535 Bq/3 were detected. Such high concentrations should be considered abnormally high, and have not been previously noted in the Lubelskie Voivodeship. These concentrations are comparable to the ones in Sudety mountains and certain parts of Carpathian Mountains. Radon exhalations in the underground mining excavation measured with active method in open crevices and cracks of paleogene rocks reached the value as high as 14110 Bq/3. Locally, water in the zones of elevated radon exhalation levels (except for the resort) can be considered as radon-poor. Zone-related variability of radon exhalations connected with the local tectonic, lithological, and hydrogeochemical conditions of rock mass in this part of Lublin Upland, was determined in the paper. Most probably, the source of radon constitutes glauconite layers with phosphorites from the borderline of Cretaceous and Paleogene. The transportation of radon to the ground level and building cellars is induced and directed by the local tectonics, cracks in rock mass and the flow of water within. Significant difference in the 222Rn-saturation level of iron springs and normally-mineralized waters in similar hydrodynamic conditions, is an interesting phenomenon. Determining a possible influence of ferric ions on the emanation coefficient requires further research, especially as this issue has not been previously investigated. Another important problem is the detection of radon concentrations (over 200 Bq/3) in the existing and designed objects in Nałęczów and its vicinity. Repeating the research on the prospective balneological use of radon in Health Resort Nałęczów – which was conducted a hundred years ago – seems justified as well.
EN
Most people spend the majority of their time in indoor environments where the level of harmful pollutants is often significantly higher than outdoors. Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the example of radioactive pollutants. These radioisotopes are the main source of ionizing radiation in non-industrial buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air-conditioning system on radon and its progeny concentrations and thus on the effective dose. The measurements were carried out in the auditorium at the Environmental Engineering Faculty (Lublin University of Technology, Poland). Measurements of radon and its progeny (in attached and unattached fractions) as well as measurements of the following indoor air parameters were performed in two air-conditioning (AC) operation modes: AC ON and AC ON/OFF. The air supply rate and air recirculation were taken into consideration. The separation of radon progeny into attached and unattached fractions allowed for determining, respectively, the dose conversion factor (DCF) and the inhalation dose for teachers and students in the auditorium. A considerable increase of the mean radon progeny concentrations from 1.2 Bq/m3 to 5.0 Bq/m3 was observed in the AC ON/OFF mode compared to the AC ON mode. This also resulted in the increase of the inhalation dose from 0.005 mSv/y to 0.016 mSv/y (for 200 h/year). Furthermore, the change of the air recirculation rate from 0% to 80% resulted in a decrease of the mean radon concentration from 30 Bq/m3 to 12 Bq/m3 and the reduction of the mean radon progeny concentration from 1.4 Bq/m3 to 0.8 Bq/m3. This resulted in the reduction of the inhalation dose from 0.006 mSv/y to 0.003 mSv/y.
EN
Radon concentration was measured in 11 thermal spas in Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). The results showed that in 84% of spas radon activity concentration is less than 400 Bq·m–3. However, areas with radon activity concentration exceeding 1000 Bq·m–3 were found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia as well. Preliminary analyses indicated that the highest radon activities in spas were found in places with thermal pools. Radon concentration in waters used in spas ranged from 0.5 Bq/l to 384 Bq/l. The influence of radon activity concentration in water on radon activity in the air inside the spa was observed. It was found to increase indoor radon with increasing radon in the waters. Correlation with indoor radon and radon in water was more significant for baths and less significant for pool waters. In the cases filling of the bath from water taps, significantly contribute to the increased radon was observed in the pool and bath areas of the spa.
EN
Radon exhalation from ground is a process dependent on the emanation and migration of radon through ambient air. Most studies on radon exhalation from soil were performed regarding the influence of meteorological and soil parameters. As radon exhalation rate can be affected by the internal properties of the sample, it may also be influenced by the exhalation chamber geometry such as volume-to-area (V/S) ratio or other construction parameters. The measurements of radon exhalation from soil were made using different constructions of accumulation chamber and two types of radon monitors: RAD7 (Durridge) and AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (Genitron). The measurements were performed on one site in two locations and approximately at the same time. The first tests did not show the correlations of exhalation rate values and the chamber’s construction parameters and their geometrical dimensions. However, when examining the results, it seems that there are still too many factors that might have affected the process of radon exhalation. The future experiments are planned to be conducted in controlled laboratory conditions.
EN
Snow samples were collected during winter 2011/2012 in three posts in the Western Sudety Mountains (Poland) in 3 consecutive phases of snow cover development, i.e. stabilisation (Feb 1st), growth (Mar 15th) and its ablation (Mar 27th). To maintain a fixed number of samples, each snow profile has been divided into six layers, but hydrochemical indications were made for each 10 cm section of core. The complete data set was subjected in the first run of chemometric data interpretation to Cluster Analysis as well as Principal Components Analysis. Further, Self-Organizing Maps, type of neutral network described by Kohonen were used for visualization and interpretation of large high-dimensional data sets. For each site the hierarchical Ward’s method of linkage, squared Euclidean distance as similarity measure, standardized raw data, cluster significance test according to Sneath’s criterion clustering of the chemical variables was done. Afterwards this grouping of the chemical variables was confirmed by the results from Principal Components Analysis. The major conclusion is that the whole system of three sampling sites four patterns of variable groupings are observed: the first one is related to the mineral salt impact; the second one - with the impact of secondary emissions and organic pollutants; next one - with dissolved matter effect and the last one - with oxidative influence, again with relation to anthropogenic activities like smog, coal burning, traffic etc. It might be also concluded that specificity of the samples is determined by the factors responsible for the data set structure and not by particular individual or time factors.
PL
Praca dotyczy ustalenia wpływu stosowania drobnego kruszywa z recyklingu na wybrane właściwości kompozytów cementowych. Frakcję z recyklingu uzyskano w wyniku rozdrobnienia wcześniej przygotowanych do tego celu próbek laboratoryjnych z normowej zaprawy cementowej. Do zrealizowania badań zaplanowano pełny eksperyment obejmujący w sumie 11 serii, w którym zmiennymi były: zawartość drobnego kruszywa z recyklingu (0-60%) oraz temperatura jego prażenia (0-850°C). Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników badań stwierdzono, że drobne kruszywo z recyklingu generalnie negatywnie wpływa na badane właściwości kompozytów cementowych. Efekt ten może być jednak ograniczony poprzez zastosowanie obróbki termiczno-mechanicznej drobnej frakcji recyklingowej.
EN
The paper concerns the determination of the influence of using the fine recycled aggregates on selected properties of cement composites. Fine recycled aggregate was achieved as a result of crushing laboratory samples made of standardised cement mortar. To perform the test complete experiment consisting of 11 series was planned. Two different variables were: X1 – content of fine recycled aggregate (0-60%) and X2 – the temperature of mortar rubble roast (0-850°C). Based on the obtained results it was found that the fine recycled aggregate generally deteriorates the tested properties of cement composites. On the other hand this effect may be significantly limited by the use of thermal-mechanical treatment of recycled rubble.
PL
Zasadniczym celem studiów eksperckich CELU 1 było opracowanie szczegółowych procedur pozwalających na stworzenie sieci monitoringu w otoczeniu obiektu jądrowego, ze zróżnicowaniem na monitoring na terenie EJ (w strefie kontrolowanej) oraz otoczenia elektrowni jądrowej rozumianego jako obszar ograniczanego użytkowania, jak również sieci monitoringu na obszarze całego kraju. Opracowania adresowane są do szerokiego kręgu użytkowników, jak np: służby pomiarów skażeń promieniotwórczych środowiska, kierowników projektów badawczych ukierunkowanych na prowadzenie badań środowiskowych, operatorów i personelu przyszłej polskiej elektrowni jądrowej, ekspertów w zakresie ochrony środowiska. Podstawą tych opracowań były ostatnie zalecenia i poradniki Międzynarodowej Agencji Energii Atomowej (MAEA) oraz Dyrektywy UE jak również metodyka wdrożona przez Komisję do spraw Energii Atomowej USA (NRC). W szczególności opracowana w ramach CELU 1 metodyka pozwala na profesjonalne planowanie badań środowiskowych oraz na przestrzenną analizę uzyskanych danych pomiarowych metodami geostatystycznymi.
EN
The main goal of Objective 1 was development of detailed procedures that could provide guidance how design and construct the monitoring networks around nuclear facility both inside the object i.e. for controlled zone and outside the object i.e. in restricted area as well as network for whole country. Presented techniques are addressed to large groups of users as: radiation monitoring service of environmental contamination, leaders of environmental research projects, operators and staff of planned polish NPP, specialists of environmental protection etc. The Objective 1 documentation was elaborated base on last IAEA recommendations, Directives of European Commission and USA Nuclear Regulatory Commission procedures. Particularly, developed methodology can be used for professional planning of environmental research and special analysis of measurement data by advanced geostatistics models.
PL
Zwiększona antropopresja wpływa negatywnie na stan polarnych ekosystemów, powodując ich zanieczyszczenie różnorodnymi związkami chemicznymi, w tym metalami ciężkimi.
PL
Rejon Arktyki od wieków stanowi obiekt zainteresowań naukowców. Procesy zachodzące na terenach polarnych w znaczący sposób oddziałują na środowisko w skali globalnej.
PL
W Polsce żyje prawie 5,5 miliona osób niepełnosprawnych, a połowa z nich to osoby niepełnosprawne ruchowo. Samochód osobowy stanowi często podstawowy środek ułatwiający im samodzielne przemieszczanie się. Aby osoby niepełnosprawne w pełni mogły korzystać z jego walorów, konieczne jest przygotowanie odpowiedniej ilości i jakości miejsc postojowych dostosowanych do wymagań tej specyficznej grupy użytkowników.
EN
There are almost 5,5 million disabled persons in Poland, and half of them are physically disabled persons. A car is often a basic mean to facilitate their independent transportation. For the disabled persons to fully utilize its advantages, it is necessary to prepare adequate number of quality parking spaces adapted for the needs of this specific group.
EN
Based on the analysis and generalization of the obtained and published experimental data the analytical dependencies were established, necessary for the determination of the energy efficiency regulation of the light source's luminous flux. The analysis of the energy efficiency was carried out by determining the specific costs of the light energy unit produced within the average duration of the lighting by cheap, low-efficient, but still very popular thermal, and expensive, highly energy efficient semiconductor light sources.
PL
Na podstawie analizy i uogólnienia opublikowanych rezultatów badań i eksperymentalnych danych otrzymanych przez autorów ustalono zależności analityczne niezbędne do określenia efektywności energetycznej regulacji strumienia świetlnego źródeł światła. Analizę efektywności energetycznej przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyznaczanie kosztów właściwych jednostki energii świetlnej wytwarzanej w ciągu średniego czasu świecenia przez termiczne źródła światła, tanie i o niskiej efektywności energetycznej, ale nadal bardzo popularne, oraz półprzewodnikowe źródła światła, kosztowne i o wysokiej energoefektywności. Stwierdzono, że dla każdego rodzaju źródeł światła, w zależności od zasad fizycznych ich działania (termicznych, półprzewodnikowych, wyładowczych niskiego i wysokiego ciśnienia itp.) są swoje, wyłącznie tylko dla nich charakterystyczne zakresy, w których regulacja strumienia świetlnego jest rzeczywiście opłacalna ekonomicznie. Dla termicznych źródeł światła przedział ten ograniczony jest znormalizowanymi wartościami napięcia na lampie od 1 do 0,4, natomiast dla półprzewodnikowych źródeł światła takiego ograniczenia nie ma. Tak więc im większa cena źródła światła, tym mniejszy wpływ na przebieg zależności efektywności energetycznej regulacji strumienia świetlnego mają takie uboczne czynniki jak straty mocy w układach stabilizacyjno-zapłonowych, koszt energii elektrycznej zużytej przez zestaw "źródło światła – statecznik" i spadek strumienia świetlnego źródeł światła w trakcie eksploatacji. Optymalnymi pod względem efektywności energetycznej regulacji strumienia świetlnego źródeł światła są takie wartości okolic argumentu, dla których charakterystyczne są nie tylko najmniejsze wartości znormalizowanych kosztów właściwych jednostki energii świetlnej, ale również wytwarzano maksymalną jej ilość.
13
Content available remote Pollutants present in different components of the Svalbard archipelago environment
EN
During last years an interest in the processes of transport and fate of pollutants to the polar regions located distantly from industrial centers, has significantly increased. The current analytical techniques enabling conducting studies prove that the Arctic regions (in the past considered as a pollution free area) have become an area of highly intensive anthropopresion. Svalbard archipelago stands out from the other polar regions due to its specific environmental conditions and geographic location, which results in becoming a reservoir of contamination in this area. Systematic environmental monitoring of arctic regions is extremely important due to an unique opportunity of observing a direct impact of pollution on the ongoing processes in the area of interest. In this way measurement data obtained are a valuable source of information, not only on changes occurring in the Arctic ecosystem, but also on estimated global impact of certain xenobiotics present in the environment. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative studies on particular chemicals deposited in different regions of the Arctic ecosystem may constitute the basis for undertaking actions aimed at preventing negative effects caused by these pollutants.
PL
Na przestrzeni ostatnich lat znacząco wzrosło zainteresowanie procesami transportu i losem trwałych zanieczyszczeń w miejscach odległych od centrów przemysłowych, takich jak obszary polarne. Nowoczesne techniki analityczne pozwoliły na przeprowadzenie badań, które dowiodły, że również Arktyka, która w przeszłości była uważana za teren pozbawiony zanieczyszczeń, stała się obszarem o dużej intensywności antropopresji. Archipelag Svalbard wyróżnia się na tle innych rejonów polarnych ze względu na specyficzne warunki środowiskowe oraz położenie geograficzne, które czynią ten obszar rezerwuarem zanieczyszczeń. Monitorowanie stanu środowiska rejonów arktycznych jest niezwykle ważne ze względu na unikatową możliwość obserwacji bezpośredniego wpływu zanieczyszczeń na procesy zachodzące w badanym obszarze. Uzyskane w ten sposób dane pomiarowe stanowią cenne źródło informacji nie tylko o zmianach zachodzących w ekosystemie Arktyki, ale również pozwalają na oszacowanie wpływu określonych ksenobiotyków na środowisko w skali globalnej. Ponadto badania rodzaju i ilości substancji chemicznych zdeponowanych w różnych elementach ekosystemu stanowią podstawę do podejmowania działań, które mają na celu zapobieganie negatywnym oddziaływaniom zanieczyszczeń.
EN
Following the dynamic development of the automotive industry and economic changes in the last 20 years Polish transport-related needs and citizen mobility have changed as well. An increased demand for traveling and easy access to individual means of transport in the form of passenger cars put Poznań in the top ten of the largest cities of Poland in terms of the motorization level. The paper analyses the current situation of the level of motorization of the city of Poznań based on statistical data from Central Vehicle and Driver Register, Department of Motor Vehicles in Poznan and published by Central Office of Statistics. A synthetic analysis has been presented of the situation in Poznań against other largest cities of Poland and the average situation in the country. The paper also presents the analysis of the preferences of the citizens of Poznań in terms of engine capacity, type of fuel, engine type as and the most popular vehicle makes.
PL
W ślad za dynamicznym rozwojem motoryzacji oraz zmianami gospodarczymi zachodzącymi na przestrzeni ostatnich 20 lat w Polsce znaczącym zmianom uległy również potrzeby transportowe oraz mobilność mieszkańców. Zwiększony popyt na realizację podróży oraz łatwy dostęp do indywidualnego środka transportu jakim jest samochód osobowy stawia Poznań w czołówce pod względem wartości wskaźnika motoryzacji wśród największych miast w Polsce. W artykule dokonano analizy stanu motoryzacyjnego Poznania na podstawie danych statystycznych z Centralnej Ewidencji Pojazdów i Kierowców, Wydziału Komunikacji Urzędu Miasta Poznania oraz publikowanych przez Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Zaprezentowano syntetyczną analizę sytuacji panującej w Poznaniu na tle największych miast w Polce oraz średniej sytuacji w kraju. Przedstawiono także analizę preferencji mieszkańców Poznania w zakresie pojemności silnika, rodzaju stosowanego paliwa i napędu oraz najczęściej wybieranych marek samochodów osobowych.
EN
The objective of the study was to investigate temporal variability of outdoor radon (222Rn) concentration registered in the center of Łódź (urban station), at Ciosny (rural station) and Kraków (suburban station) in relation to meteorological parameters (i.e. air temperature, temperature vertical gradient, wind speed, soil heat flux, volumetric water content in soil) with special consideration of urban-rural differences. Continuous measurements of 222Rn concentration (at 60 min intervals) were performed at a height of 2 m above the ground using AlphaGUARDŽ PQ2000PRO (ionization chamber) from January 2008 to May 2009. 222Rn levels were characterized by a diurnal cycle with an early morning maximum and a minimum in the afternoon. The well-marked 24 h pattern of radon concentration occurred in summer at anticyclonic weather with cloudless sky, light wind and large diurnal temperature ranges. The urban measurement site was characterized by the lowest atmospheric 222Rn concentration and an urban-rural differences of radon levels increased from winter to summer and during the nighttime periods. The maximum contrasts of 222Rn levels between Łódź and Ciosny, reaching – 30 Bqźm–3, were registered in June and July during the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon (a positive thermal anomaly of a city if compared to rural area) and strong thermal inversion near the ground in the rural area.
EN
Six radon laboratories, which perform indoor radon measurements to jointly investigate temporal variations of radon concentration in houses in a couple of regions in Poland, participated in the intercomparison exercise. There are involved three commercially available Hungarian RadoSys systems and four own laboratory methods. All of them are based on the etched-track CR-39 detectors. The intercomparison was conducted in a calibration laboratory of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR), Warsaw, Poland, accredited by the Polish Center for Accreditation (previously AP 101, at present AP 057). Comparison measurements were performed during three expositions in the CLOR’s radon calibration chamber under controlled normal climatic conditions and steady radon concentration. The results were referred to the value of the radon concentration determined by AlphaGUARD monitor traceable to the primary 222Rn standard in Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunchweig, Germany. The mean performance ratio defined as a ratio of the reference to participant’s result range from 0.88 to 1.31.
EN
The experiment aiming at testing the possibility of using AlphaGUARD monitors based on an ionization chamber for thoron measurements is presented. A single AlphaGUARD monitor working in the flow mode was applied to measure thoron concentration in the radon-free atmosphere. The sensitivity (correction factors) of the monitor to thoron was estimated by comparison with a RAD7 portable detector (Durridge Company), based on spectrometric analysis, in the thoron, radon-free atmosphere in a calibration chamber. This depends on the applied flow rate and changes from 8% for the flow rate of 0.3 dm3/min to 36% for 1 dm3/min. It was also revealed that the sensitivity of the monitor to thoron in the diffusion mode is equal to ca. 5% and may be neglected. The method involving two Alpha-GUARD monitors working in two different modes (diffusion and flow) at the same time may be used to evaluate radon and thoron concentration in the natural environmental conditions where usually both isotopes appear together. In this method thoron concentration is estimated as the difference of results obtained from two AlphaGUARD monitors multiplied by the correction factor corresponding to the applied flow rate. The devices based on spectrometric analysis, e.g. RAD7 seem to be a better tool for thoron measurements in the environmental conditions.
EN
The paper describes a laboratory facility (radon transport device – RTD) which makes it possible to study radon transport. The measuring position is a vertical cylindrical vessel with a height of 202 cm and a diameter of 24 cm. It can be filled with sand, gravel or other soil materials to be studied. The facility is providing radon gas from the source to the studied material and making it possible to measure radon concentration at different vertical distances from the source. The parameters of the medium (temperature, humidity) can be measured at the same time. The preliminary measurements using the RTD with sand as medium are presented.
19
Content available remote Produkcja bioenergii ze ścieków przemysłu spożywczego
PL
W artykule przedstawiono możliwości wytwarzania bioenergii ze ścieków przemysłowych. Skoncentrowano się na możliowści produkcji biowodoru, biometanu, bioetanolu oraz bioenergii elektrycznej. Omówiono podstawy biochemicznych szlaków, w oparciu o które wytwarzana jest bioenergia oraz zwrócono uwagę na produktywność energetyczną poszczególnych procesów. Głównym celem publikacji jest wskazanie, że istnieje możliwość wykorzystania ścieków z przemysłu spożywczego jako taniego surowca do produkcji bioenergii, z jednoczesnym oczyszczeniem ścieków
EN
Paper presents the technical possibilities to produce bioenergy from agricultural wastewater. It concentrates on biohydrogen, bioethanol, biomethane and biological electricity production. It discussed the bases of biochemical processes generated bioenergy and takes into consideration the efficiencies of each biological step. The main aim of this paper is to point that food processing wastewater are the cheap materiał to produce bioenergy with simultanic wastewaters treatment.
PL
Zaproponowano technologię biokonwersji biomasy poprodukcyjnej z przemysłu mleczarskiego (serwatka) do wysokoenergetycznych paliw gazowych – biowodoru i biometanu na podstawie szeregowego połączenia biochemicznych szlaków fermentacyjnych: fermentacji „kwaśnej”, fotofermentacji i fermentacji metanowej. Następujące po sobie etapy biodegradacji zapewniają skuteczne sterowanie procesami rozkładu poprzez wzmacnianie lub wyciszanie biochemicznych procesów jednostkowych, przez co możliwe staje się uzyskanie maksymalnej efektywności jednoczesnej produkcji biopaliw i unieszkodliwienia serwatki.
EN
In the paper the conversion technology of the after-production waste bio-mass from the dairy industry (whey) into high energy gas fuels (bio-hydrogen and bio-methane) has been proposed.
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