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PL
Badania prowadzono w skali technicznej na Stacji Uzdatniania Wody (SUW) o maksymalnej wydajności 150 000 m3/d. Woda dopływająca do SUW charakteryzuje się zawartością specyficznych zanieczyszczeń organicznych. W celu ich eliminacji z wody oraz zapewnienia biologicznej stabilności wody w sieci wodociągowej, w styczniu 2015 r. uruchomiono drugi stopień oczyszczania wody, oparty o zintegrowane procesy ozonowania i filtracji przez złoże węglowe. Co miesiąc, w okresie od stycznia do maja 2016 r., pobierano próbki wody oraz złoża filtracyjnego z czterech filtrów węglowych. Próbki wody pobierano bezpośrednio znad złoża filtracyjnego oraz na odpływie z filtrów. Próbki złoża filtracyjnego pobierano z jego górnej warstwy, w pięciu punktach każdej komory filtracyjnej. Przeprowadzono analizy fizyczno-chemiczne i bakteriologiczne wody oraz złóż filtracyjnych. W celu wykazania aktywności mikrobiologicznej złóż wykonywano test aktywności esteraz z dwuoctanem fluoresceiny FDA. W próbkach wody i węgla aktywnego w celu zidentyfikowania mikroorganizmów prowadzono diagnostykę biochemiczną z wykorzystaniem zautomatyzowanego systemu Vitek 2 Compact (bioMerieux). Przeprowadzone badania wykazały obniżenie zawartości związków organicznych wyrażonych jako OWO i ChZT (KMnO4) oraz biologiczną aktywność analizowanych filtrów węglowych. Złoża filtrów węglowych zasiedlone były przez Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Aeromonas salmonicida oraz Sphingomonas paucimobilis. W żadnym z analizowanych filtrów nie wyhodowano natomiast szczepów z rodziny Enterobacteriaceae stanowiących potencjalne zagrożenie dla zdrowia konsumentów. Wprowadzenie filtrów węglowych do ciągu technologicznego SUW spowodowało obniżenie zawartości materii organicznej w wodzie uzdatnionej, co znacznie obniżyło zapotrzebowanie na środek stosowany do dezynfekcji wody.
EN
The research was carried out on the full scale Water Treatment Plant with maximal capacity of 150 000 m3/d. Treated water is characterized by a high content of organic pollutants. In order to eliminate them from water and ensure the biological stability of water in the water supply network, in January 2015 a second stage of water treatment was launched, based on integrated ozonation and filtration through carbon filter beds. Between January and May 2016, samples of water and a filter bed were collected from four carbon filters and then physicochemical and bacteriological analysis were done. The FDA test and biochemical diagnostics were made to prove the microbiological activity of the filter bed. The studies showed a decrease in the content of organic compounds, meassured as TOC and COD (KMnO4), and the biological activity of the analyzed carbon filters. The carbon filter beds were populated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Aeromonas salmonicida and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. In none of the analyzed filters were found strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family which may have a potential threat to health of the consumers. The application of carbon filters has reduced the organic matter content in treated water, which significantly reduced the dose of disinfectant.
EN
GPR method is perfectly suited for recognizing of sedimentary facies diversity in shallowly occurring sediments if there is a contrast of electrical properties between and/or within each layer. The article deals with the issue of the correlation between GPR surveys results and sedimentological analyses. As a result of this correlation a conceptual model of depositional systems of studied areas was developed. Studies were performed in two areas located in central Poland, where glacial deposits formed in the Middle Polish (Saalian) Glaciation are present. The study was based on 49 sediment samples and 21 GPR profiles. Analyses of litho facies as well as granulometric and mineralogical composition of deposits of collected samples were carried out, showing the diversity of glacial deposits in both study sites. During GPR measurements shielded antenna with a frequency of 500 MHz was used which allowed high-resolution mapping of the internal structure of deposits and to identify four characteristic radar facies. Correlation of GPR profiles with point, one-dimensional sedimentological studies allowed the unambiguous interpretation of the GPR image and draw conclusions about the formation environment of individual units. Geophysical and sedimentological data obtained during study provide a new and detailed insight into selected glacial deposits in central Poland.
EN
The Neogene sedimentary succession of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin directly overlies the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin deposits, the Magura Unit, and the Pieniny Klippen Belt. It provides an excellent geological record that postdates the main Mesoalpine structural and geomorphological processes in the Western Carpathians. Sedimentological, petrographical and geochronological investigations have allowed forthe re-examination of pyroclastic material, zircon dating, and a discussion on the relation of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin to the exhumation of the Tatra Massif. The Bystry Stream succession is composed of NNW-inclined freshwater siltstones, sandstones and conglomerates. A few small, sometimes discontinuous, light grey intercalations of pyroclastic deposits and a single 1-2 m thick tuffite layer occur in the upper part of the succession. The tuffite contains an admixture of organic matter and siliciclastic grains (e.g., mica), suggesting that the volcanic ash fall was accompanied by normal deposition from weak currents. Sedimentation of deposits of the Bystry Stream succession took place in terrestrial settings, predominantly on floodplains and in rivers, in the vicinity of a hilly area supplying the basin with eroded material. The age of the tuffite layer from the Bystry Stream succession was determined at 11.87 +0.12/-0.24 Ma. The source of volcanogenic material in the tuffite was probably volcanic activity in the Inner Carpathians-Pannonian region, where effusive and volcanoclastic sillca-rich rocks were being produced by extrusive and explosive activity ~12 Ma. Obtained result connects the development of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin at ~12 Ma with the late stage of the main episode of the Tatra Massif exhumation between ~22-10 Ma.
EN
[...]First of all, we would like to note that our reply will concentrate on substantial comments on the presented results or/and questionable interpretations.[...]
EN
Shallow seismic survey was made along 1280 m profile in the marginal zone of the Carpathian Foredeep. Measurements performed with standalone wireless stations and especially designed accelerated weight drop system resulted in high fold (up to 60), long offset seismic data. The acquisition has been designed to gather both high-resolution reflection and wide-angle refraction data at long offsets. Seismic processing has been realised separately in two paths with focus on the shallow and deep structures. Data processing for the shallow part combines the travel time tomography and the wide angle reflection imaging. This difficult analysis shows that a careful manual front mute combined with correct statics leads to detailed recognition of structures between 30 and 200 m. For those depths, we recognised several SW dipping tectonic displacements and a main fault zone that probably is the main fault limiting the Roztocze Hills area, and at the same time constitutes the border of the Carpathian Forebulge. The deep interpretation clearly shows a NE dipping evaporate layer at a depth of about 500-700 m. We also show limitations of our survey that leads to unclear recognition of the first 30 m, concluding with the need of joint interpretation with other geophysical methods.
EN
The Cao Bang Basin is the northernmost of the basins related to the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone in northern Vietnam. The basin is filled with a thick series of continental deposits. However, the exact age of the sedimentary basin infill has been under discussion for a long time. Because of new published data, the authors have decided to revisit this basin. Palynological data has allowed us to assign the Cao Bang Basin infill to the Lower Oligocene PC1 complex of the Shangcun Fm. (southern China). Among the saccate grains of gymnosperms, the domination of Cathaya and Pinus was observed, whereas angiosperms are represented by Carya, Celtis, Hammamelidaceae, Ulmus and also Pterocarya, Quercus, the Castanea–Castanopsis–Lithocarpus group, and the Loranthaceae. Among pteridophytes occur Laevigatosporites, Osmundaceae, and Pteris. The sedimentological features of the Cao Bang Basin are distinct from those of other basins from the Cao Bang-Tien Yen Fault Zone. The basin is filled with a wide variety of clastic deposits, from some of coarse-grained, alluvial-fan origin, through sandy beds of fluvial origin up to fine, organic-rich lacustrine deposits. The coarse-grained lithofacies are built of clasts derived mainly from local sources. The sandstones from the basin equally are submature or immature. They contain a lot of lithoclasts, the composition of which depends on the sample location within the basin. The potential source area is composed of older sedimentary units and of granitic rocks. The geochemical samples studied reflect the geochemical composition of silicic source rocks with only a minor contribution of basic components. The succession that fills the basin is interpreted as a typical fill for relatively long-lasting evolving half-graben or strike-slip basins. Moreover, the basin is partly occupied by a subsequent present-day sedimentary basin of Quaternary age.
EN
The Hoanh Bo Basin has developed over multiple periods since the Miocene period in association with the tectonic activity of the Chi Linh-Hon Gai and Trung Luong Faults. The basin is filled with Neogene continental sediments, comprising mainly polymictic conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and shales. Coarser-grained polymictic deposits predominate along the northern and western margins of the basin, whereas different types of siltstones, claystones, and sandstones occur in its centre, as well as along its southern and eastern parts, toward the Ha Long Bay. The conglomerates and sandstones are composed mainly of quartz and sedimentary rock fragments, and a small amount of mica. Cement is mainly built of iron-oxide, clay or carbonate mud. The source area for the Hoanh Bo Basin sediments was located in the close vicinity of the basin. It was built of strongly weathered rocks of the Hon Gai, Ha Coi, Cat Ba Formations.
EN
The research on the Oligocene succession of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (CCPB) in the Kacwin region focused on sedimentological and palynofacies analyses. Observations were carried out in natural exposures along three streams flowing in the Polish Spisz: Kacwinianka, Łapszanka and Kacwiński. Three main groups of lithofacies have been distinguished: coarse-grained, mixed and sandy-grained, and fine-grained. The lithofacies are characterized by variable sedimentary structures, e.g. massive structure, horizontal lamination, ripple cross-lamination, hummocky cross-stratification, deformation structure. Sedimentological analyses showed that structures typical for turbidity currents and those characteristic of relatively shallow deposition (HCS, wave ripples) could coexist in the investigated succession interpreted as typical for turbidity currents influenced by storm waves. This indicates relatively shallow-water environments. The palynofacies analysis enabled identification of the following components: black wood, brown wood, cortex, resin, sporomorphs, cuticle, algae, dinoflagellates and AOM. A high proportion of black wood and low diversity of components point to an origin related to turbidity currents. Furthermore, results of the palynofacies analysis have allowed determining that, during the deposition of the CCPB sediments in the Polish Spisz area, the distance between the deposition area and the source area became relatively large. The biostratigraphic analysis of dinoflagellate cysts from the Podhale Basin (Szaflary, Zakopane, and lower Chochołów beds) indicates an Early Rupelian age. Moreover, kerogen analysis in the UV was applied for the first time to study the CCPB succession. As a result, reworking was documented, so far unrecognized by other methods, and the mutual verification of the obtained results was possible.
EN
A gravel horizon is preserved in several locations within the world-wide known archaeological site in Saqqara (northern Egypt). It is characterized by a variable thickness, composed of coarse, quartz, quartzitic and flint pebbles, and considered to correspond to gravels of the Edfu Formation, deposited in the Early Pleistocene by the early phase of the Nile development (Protonile Phase). This relatively short (ca. 200 ka) and at the same time very dynamic period of Protonile activity during the Edfu Pluvial is one of the most poorly recognized hydrological-climatic episodes of the Quaternary in north-eastern Africa. This paper is focused on the preliminary sedimentological-petrographic characteristics of these deposits and an attempt to indicate their source areas as well as mechanisms of transportation and deposition in the context of Pleistocene pluvial episodes.
11
Content available remote Dydaktyka geologii w Polsce : głos w dyskusji. Część 2
EN
The paper is an opinion in the discussion on the reconversion of uniform 5-year studies in geology. Our teaching experience, coupled with the opinions of our students, indicate that both models of teaching (2-level studies within the Bologna system and uniform 5-year studies) contain elements favouring the development offuture graduates. We postulate putting more emphasis on practical courses and individualized teaching methods.
PL
Teren badań znajduje się około 60 km na południowy zachód od Warszawy. Żwirownia w Paplinie zlokalizowana jest na Wysoczyźnie Rawskiej w strefie wysoczyzny polodowcowej zlodowacenia środkowopolskiego. Badaniom sedymentologicznym poddano osady polodowcowe odsłaniające się wzdłuż południowo-wschodniej ściany wyrobiska. Przeprowadzono analizy: uziarnienia, charakteru obtoczenia i zmatowienia powierzchni ziaren kwarcu frakcji 0,5–1,0 mm według Krumbeina (1941) w modyfikacji Goździka (1980) oraz Mycielskiej-Dowgiałło i Woronko (1998), a także analizę mineralno-petrograficzną frakcji 0,5–1,0 mm według Kenig (1999). Wskaźniki teksturalne, tj.: średnia średnica (Mz), wysortowanie (σ1), skośność (Sk1) oraz spłaszczenie (KG) obliczono metodą Folka i  Warda (1957) z  wykorzystaniem programu Gradistat. Uzyskane wyniki pozwoliły na ilościową charakterystykę cech osadu. Zaobserwowano stosunkowo duże zróżnicowanie badanych osadów: od dominujących osadów drobnoziarnistych deponowanych w niskoenergetycznym środowisku, charakteryzujących się warstwowaniami przekątnymi i rynnowymi, do osadów gruboziarnistych deponowanych w środowisku intensywnego przepływu wód z topniejącego lądolodu. Większość osadów była transportowana w zawiesinie. Zaobserwowana została duża jednorodność osadów ze względu na charakter obtoczenia i zmatowienia powierzchni ziaren kwarcu oraz skład mineralno-petrograficzny.
EN
The study area is located approximately 60 km south-west of Warsaw. Gravel pit in Paplin is located on the Rawa Upland in the glacial upland area of Middle-Poland glaciation. Post-glacial sediments exposing along the southeast wall of the excavation were subjected to sedimentological research. Following analyses were performed: the granulometric composition of deposits, the frosting and rounding analyses of sand quartz grains (1.0–0.5 mm) according to Krumbein (1941) and refined by Goździk (1980) and Mycielska-Dowgiałło and Woronko (1998) and mineralogical studies of sand fraction. Textual indicators i.e. mean grain size (Mz), standard deviation (σ1), skewness (Sk1) and kurtosis (KG) were calculated according Folk and Ward formulas (1957) using the Gradistat program. The obtained results allowed the quantitative characteristics of the sediment features. Relatively high diversity of investigated sediments was observed: from dominating fine-grained sediments deposited in the low-energy environment, characterized by cross-stratification, to coarse-grained sediments deposited in the environment of intense flow of water from the melting glacier. Most of deposits was transported in suspension. High uniformity of deposits was observed regarding the rounding and frosting of quartz grains and mineral-petrographic composition.
EN
The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of sedimentary rocks has been used for interpreting wide range of processes: early rock deformations, palaeotransport directions, as well as the evolution of mineral content. Various sedimentary factors which may determine magnetic susceptibility within lacustrine, river, floodplain and swamp deposits have been examined in the Oravica section of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin. Multiple components of mineral content: illite, chlorite, smectite, kaolinite, quartz and unidentified high susceptibility phase make an AMS interpretation of this content ambiguous. However, this method may be useful for tracing early diagenetic geochemical/microbial processes where iron element is involved. Some sedimentary processes may be recognized from AMS when an assemblage of parameters is studied together: bulk susceptibility, the degree and the shape of anisotropy, principal directions, and the distribution of all these parameters within a set of specimens. Debris-flow processes, as well as lacustrine and floodplain sedimentation are especially well-defined in AMS results. Palaeotransport directions are ambiguous because studied rocks have undergone weak deformation what overprints this sedimentary feature. Most specimens represent an oblate shape of anisotropy and show a good correlation of minimum susceptibility axis and normal to bedding plane.
EN
Studies of Miocene sediments in the Fore-Carpathian Basin, conducted by geologists from the University of Warsaw have provided new insights on the distribution of the facies infilling the basin, particularly in the forebulge and back-bulge zones. The origin of the large-scale sand bodies, evaporitic deposits and large-scale organic buildups is discussed, described and verified. These deposits originated in variable, shallow marine settings, differing in their water chemistry and the dynamics of sedimentary processes, and are unique with regard to the fossil assemblages they yield. Many years of taxonomic, biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and ecotaphonomic investigations have resulted in the identification of the fossil assemblages of these sediments, their age, sedimentary settings and post-mortem conditions. Detailed studies were focused on corals, polychaetes, most classes of molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, and fishes.
PL
W referacie przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów diagnostycznych kabli średniego napięcia (SN) o izolacji polietylenowej, o różnym czasie eksploatacji do lat 15. Analizowano poziom wyładowań niezupełnych (wnz) oraz współczynnik strat dielektrycznych tgδ mierzony przy oddziaływaniu napięcia o częstotliwości 0,1 Hz (VLF). Znaczne zróżnicowanie otrzymanych wyników pomiarów wskazuje na skuteczność wykrywania zachodzących procesów starzeniowych związanych z drzewieniem wodnym oraz uszkodzeniami wewnętrznymi układu izolacyjnego, z możliwością lokalizacji miejsca ich występowania. Wprowadzony system badań diagnostycznych z prawidłowo określonymi poziomami krytycznymi umożliwia zmniejszanie kosztów poprzez wczesne wykrywanie zmian zachodzących w izolacji w początkowej ich fazie rozwoju, jak i w późniejszej eksploatacji.
EN
This paper presents the results of diagnostic measurements of 31 medium voltage cable lines (MV) with polyethylene isolation with different lifetime up to 15 years. The partial discharge (PD) and dissipation factor tgδ were analysed when exposed to voltage with frequency 0,1 Hz (VLF). Significant differences in the results carried out with U0 and 2U0 voltage measurements of power cables indicate the effectiveness of locating surface discharges in cable fittings and in the aging process connected with electrical and water treeing of insulation. Moreover, applied method of partial discharge measurement enables, in case of PD concentration, the location of their occurrence. The implemented diagnostic measurements system with properly defined critical levels may result in cost reduction by early detection of changes occurring in insulation in their initial stage of development as well as during the subsequent exploitation.
EN
The Hoanh Bo Basin is a multiple period formed basin which is associated with the tectonic mechanism due to the activity of the Chi Linh-Hon Gai and Trung Luong Faults during the late Paleogene – early Neogene time. The basin is filled with continental sediments, comprising mainly polymictic conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, claystones and shales. Coarser-grained polymictic deposits predominate along the northern and western margins of the basin, while different types of siltstones, claystones, even sandstones occur in its center, as well as along its southern and eastern parts toward the Ha Long Bay. The source rocks for sedimentary materials are mainly originated from rocks of the Hon Gai and Ha Coi Formations. Based on the dominant grain-size class, texture, stratification, degree of clast rounding and sorting, 17 lithofacies were determined in the Hoanh Bo Basin infill. The basin is filled by gravelly, sandy and fine-grained lithofacies just covers a modest area but it represents a full of succession of 4 depositional systems including alluvial fan, fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments. Alluvial fan and fluvial environments are characterized by an assemblage of lithofacies such as sand- and mud-supported disorganized breccias (Gb), clast- to sand-supported conglomerates (Gmm), clast-supported inverse-graded conglomerates (Gig), planar-cross-bedded conglomerates (Gp), trough cross-bedded conglomerates (Gt), horizontally stratified conglomerates (Gh), planar cross-bedded sandstones (Sp), trough cross-bedded sandstones (St), ripple cross-laminated sandstones (Sr), horizontally bedded sandstones (Sh), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstones, siltstones (Fsm), laminated siltstones and mudstones (Fl), massive claystones (Fm) and coaly lithofacies (C); the deltaic assemblage is dominated by planar-cross-bedded conglomerates (Gp), horizontally stratified conglomerates (Gh), planar cross-bedded sandstones (Sp), horizontally bedded sandstones (Sh), low-angle cross-bedded sandstones (Sl); while the lacustrine assemblage consists of ripple cross-laminated sandstones (Sr), horizontally bedded sandstones (Sh), normally graded sandstones (Sng), massive mudstones, siltstones (Fsm), laminated siltstones and mudstones (Fl), massive claystones (Fm) and coaly lithofacies (C).
EN
The Orava-Nowy Targ Basin is an intramontane depression located at the border of the Inner and Outer Carpathians. It is filled mostly with fine-grained terrestrial and fresh-water deposits of Neogene and Quaternary age, which record the structural evolution and denudation processes of the surrounding regions: Orava, Podhale, and the Tatra Mts. The Orava-Nowy Targ Basin fill was studied in the Oravica River section, which reveals 90 m thick Neogene deposits and allows observation of their lateral diversity. Fifteen lithofacies and seven facies associations distinguished here document the depositional evolution of the basin fill, starting from hill-slope debris flow through silt turbidite-bearing lake, to flood-dominated fluvial plain, swamp and alluvial fan deposits, as well as a pyroclastic event. The palaeorelief was low during deposition and the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin could have spread significantly more to the south.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono starania o ocalenie stuletniego mostu żelbetowego, przypadkowo odnalezionego w nasypie drogowym w miejscowości Łabunie koło Zamościa. Zaangażowanie środowisk inżynierów drogowo-mostowych doprowadziło do przeniesienia mostu na tereny Politechniki Lubelskiej, gdzie będzie obiektem dydaktycznym i ozdobą uczelni. Przedstawiona działalność jest przykładem prawidłowych zabiegów o ochronę technicznego dziedzictwa narodowego.
EN
Efforts for saving the one hundred years old RC bridge discovered accidentally as embedded in road embankment at the vicinity of site Labunie near Zamość were presented in the paper. The engagement of the road and bridge engineers allow to transfer the bridge on the Lublin Polytechnic area where it will serve as educational object and valuable specimen for the school. Presented activity is an example of correct efforts for preservation of national technical heritage.
PL
Współcześnie przedsiębiorstwa starają się zoptymalizować koszty wynikające z ich działalności. W artykule poruszono kwestię kosztów eksploatowania własnych środków transportowych. Przedstawiono wyniki badań wśród przedsiębiorstw przemysłowych. Celem artykułu była analiza kosztów transportu gospodarczego, istotna w kontekście wspomagania strategicznych działań przedsiębiorstw. Jednym z rozwiązań, jakie można zastosować w celu podjęcia decyzji o wyborze rodzaju transportu, jest metoda make or buy (MoB). Została jej poświęcona druga część artykułu.
EN
In modern times and in the current economic situation, companies are trying to optimize the costs resulting from their activities. The article discusses the issues of exploitation cost of its own means of transport. It has been presented the results of research among industrial companies. The purpose of this article is to analyze strategic support for businesses. One of the solutions that can be used for this purpose is the method of “make or buy”.
EN
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys and sedimentological outcrop analyses were combined in order to determine the reflection patterns and internal architecture of terrace deposits of the Vistula River at Kępa Zawadowska in the southern part of Warsaw (central Poland). The sedimentary analyses concerned the granulometric composition and lithofacies analysis. The 34 GPR profiles, which were obtained in two outcrops, using a Malå RAMAC/GPR system with 500-MHz and 250-MHz shielded antennas, were up to 100 m long. The most characteristic ground-penetrating radar profiles are presented; they show a high-resolution data set of radar facies. The GPR data suggest the presence of three geophysically different units, namely with high-angle inclined reflections (radar facies 1), with discontinuous undulating or trough-shaped reflections (radar facies 2), and with low-angle reflections (radar facies 3). The internal structure of the fluvial deposits was obtained by integration of the GPR and sedimentological data, which combination provides a more accurate visualisation of sedimentary units than do reconstructions that are based only on standard lithologic point data.
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