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1
Content available remote Trends of joining composite AlSi-SiC foams
EN
The paper consist of characterization of the essence of structure, properties and application of AlSi-SiC composite foams as well as limitations and possibilities of their joining. Porous structure with porosity up to 80% and exceptional properties of aluminium foams are the reason of their numerous application and interest of their joining. Consideration of methods of welding, soldering and gluing AlSi9-SiC10 composite foams, the joint structure, and properties. Recommendations for surface preparation of foam, and different joining procedures aimed at control the porosity of the foam and glued surface roughness were established. Result of EDS and XRD investigations of the AlSi9-SiC10 composite foams joint were considered.
2
Content available remote Impact Tests of UHSS Steel Welded Joints Using the Drop - Tower Impact Drop Method
EN
The article characterizes the impact test method using Drop-Tower Impact Test with the registration of the value of force and energy of breaking. Based on sources, the possibilities and scope of the current application of this method were determined and the current state of knowledge on the results of these tests was reviewed. In order to determine the possibility of using the method in impact tests of high strength steel joints, investigations of hybrid PTA - GMA welding conditions on impact strength of joints of MART S1300QL steel were carried out. In particular, the influence of t8/5 cooling time on the impact strength of welded joints by the Drop - Tower Impact Test method was determined. It has been shown that the use of dropping machine with computer-based registration of breaking force and energy values was possible in the case of impact strength testing of UHSS welded joints and enabled precise analysis of the energy distribution dynamics absorbed by the tested.
EN
The article discusses the primary issue related to the verification of properties of joints made in AHSS in relation to conventional structural steels and based on the identification of cooling time t8/5. The solution suggested in the study involving the application of the Finite Element Method is based on two computational models. In addition the article presents a material model allowing for properties of single metallic phases and their interaction during the welding cycle. The study also describes the numerical model of the HPAW (plasma + MAG) heat source composed of two models predefined in the Simufact.Welding software programme corresponding to the nature of constituent processes. The research-related tests also involved welding simulations and experimental verification. The tests demonstrated the conformity of simulation results and the high usability of simulation when verifying properties of joints.
PL
Scharakteryzowano podstawowy problem kontroli właściwości złączy wykonanych ze stali AHSS w odniesieniu do konwencjonalnych stali konstrukcyjnych, bazujący na wyznaczaniu czasu stygnięcia t8/5. Zaproponowane rozwiązanie w postaci zastosowania metody elementów skończonych bazuje na dwóch modelach obliczeniowych. Przedstawiono model materiałowy, który uwzględnia właściwości pojedynczych faz metalicznych oraz ich interakcje w trakcie cyklu spawania. Jako drugi, opisano numeryczny model hybrydowego źródła ciepła HPAW (plazma + MAG) składający się z dwóch predefiniowanych w oprogramowaniu Simufact.Welding modeli, adekwatnych do charakterów procesów składowych. Przeprowadzono symulację spawania oraz eksperyment weryfikujący. Wykazano zgodność wyników symulacji i jej wysoką przydatność w zakresie kontroli właściwości analizowanych złączy.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono perspektywiczne systemy badań nieniszczących kompozytów polimerowych w aspekcie aktualnych rozwiązań w obszarze metodyki i urządzeń. Opracowano wykaz dostępnych norm dotyczących badań nieniszczących kompozytów polimerowych ustanowionych przez ASTM International, Międzynarodową Organizację Normalizacyjną ISO oraz SAE . W eksperymencie przeprowadzono próby możliwości zastosowania kamery Flir ONE w warunkach warsztatowych do badaniach NDT kompozytowych płyt węglowo-epoksydowych. Wykazano możliwość wykorzystywana kamery termowizyjnej Flir One do podstawowej kontroli kompozytów polimerowych w małych zakładach produkcyjnych.
EN
This article presents non-destructive polymer composite systems in terms of current solutions in the area of methodology and devices. A list of available standards for non-destructive polymer composites established by ASTM International, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) and the SAE has been developed. In the experiment, Flir ONE cameras were tested in the NDT workshop for carbon-epoxy composites. The possibility of using the Flir One thermal imaging camera for basic control of polymer composites in small production facilities has been demonstrated.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano podstawową problematykę związaną z pomiarem odkształceń spawalniczych metodami skanowania 3D. Dokonano przeglądu dostępnych rozwiązań przemysłowych na rynku skanerów 3D oraz wykonano analizę wyników badań eksperymentalnych wielkości odkształceń stali o wysokiej wytrzymałości S960QL napawanej metodą SAW. Dobrano technikę skanowania dla prostokątnych próbek stalowych, wykorzystując następujące technologie: Kinect dla systemu Windows v1 oraz v2, DAVID SLS-3. Podczas pomiarów odkształceń wykorzystano skaner GOM ATOS III Triple Scan. Wyniki badań uzasadniają zastosowanie przemysłowego skanera 3D do pomiaru wielkości odkształceń, który pozwala na rejestrację najmniejszych różnic pomiędzy próbką przed i po napawaniu.
EN
The article describe major problems related to measurement of welding deformations, in particular using the 3D scanning methods are presented. The study includes a review of already available industrial 3D scanning technology solutions. Experimental investigation of high strength steel welding deformations has been done. Surfacing was performed on S960QL steel by SAW method with different welding parameters applied. Appropriate 3D scanning technology was selected. 3D scans were obtained, using Kinect for Windows v1 and v2, DAVID SLS-3. Steel plates were measured using GOM ATOS III Triple Scan. Metrology grade 3D scanner used for measurements of weld distortions ensured required accuracy of measurement. Results proved the rightness and accuracy of such solution.
EN
The aim of this article is to provide a quantitative comparison and efficiency verification of the methods of estimating t8/5 cooling time in the process of HPAW of S960QL steel. The measurements of t8/5 welding time were conducted at the face of weld with the use of thermoelectric, pyrometric and thermovision methods. A FEM model of the joint was made, and welding simulation was done. The results of the calculations were then confronted with experimental data, and measuring methods were evaluated. Differences in the results of t8/5 time measurements were determined for the analysed methods and arranged according to the precision of results presented; the applicability of FEM for predicting the value of t8/5 time was investigated. The usability of temperature measuring methods for determining cooling time was determined, the weaknesses of non-contact measurement in terms of diversification of cooling time in a section of a welded joint were shown, and the advantages of numerical method were demonstrated. It was established that joining experimental methods for measuring cooling time of a joint with FEM analysis allows to obtain a desired resolution of prediction. In this way, the technology for hybrid welding of advanced high-strength steels can be designed more efficiently.
7
Content available remote Lutowanie pian aluminiowych i kompozytowych oraz właściwości złączy
PL
Porowatość i wyjątkowe właściwości pian aluminiowych powodują trudności w ich łączeniu. Artykuł zawiera charakterystykę właściwości i zastosowania pian aluminiowych oraz ograniczeń i możliwości lutowania aluminium. Przedmiotami pracy są lutowanie pian AlSi9 i pian kompozytowych AlSi9+SiC oraz struktura i właściwości mechaniczne złączy. Potwierdzono możliwość lutowania pian AlSi9 i pian kompozytowych AlSi9+SiC za pomocą stopów lutowniczych ZnAl i wykazano, że złącza wykazują większą wytrzymałość na zrywanie niż materiał rodzimy.
EN
The porosity and exceptional properties of aluminium foams make it difficult to join them. The article contains the characteristics of the properties and use of aluminium foams, as well as of the limitations and possibilities of their soldering. The subject of the paper are the soldering of the AlSi9 foams and AlSi9+SiC composite foams as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the joints. The possibility to solder the AlSi9 foams and AlSi9+SiC composite foams with the ZnAl solders has been confirmed and it has been shown that the joints exhibit greater break strength than the native material.
EN
Purpose: Analysis of non-destructive testing systems polymer composite in terms of current solutions in the area of methodology and devices. Analysis of contemporary standards for non-destructive testing of polymer composites established by ASTM. Analysis of Flir ONE camera capabilities in non-destructive testing composite carbon-epoxy composites. Design/methodology/approach: The thermal imaging tests of the carbon-epoxy composite discontinuity were carried out using a thermal imaging camera and Flir One accessory for an iOS phone. The tests were performed on carbon-epoxy composite samples measuring 100x100 mm. In order to simulate the discontinuity in a sample by the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) method, a 30x30 mm PTFE film was inserted between the reinforcement layers. The thickness of the sample with discontinuity was 2 mm. Water was added to the selected sample sites. Samples were placed on a 50°C heated plate to record thermal images and thermal images combined with visual contours of samples with simulated defects. Area Calculator – SketchAndCalc Icalc, Inc. was used to describe the size and location of the defects. Findings: As a result of the tests, the use of the Flir One thermal imaging device in epoxycarbon composite discontinuity tests has been demonstrated, and a methodology has been proposed to measure geometrical features of defects. Research limitations/implications: The description of welded joint structure and mechanical properties was based on welding toughened steels by using an innovative welding method and a filler that has been proposed. Practical implications: The development of thermal imaging studies of polymer composite discontinuity using the Flir One thermal imaging camera and accessory with iOS opens up the possibility of conducting a basic inspection of composite materials in production plants, and even for simplicity – also in small laboratories. Originality/value: In order to improve the quality of imaging of small items using the Flir One mobile camera, the use of cheap and readily available lenses used in laser optics has been tested positively.
9
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problematykę symulacji procesu spawania przy użyciu metody elementów skończonych i dedykowanego do tego procesu specjalistycznego oprogramowania simufact.welding. Zaprezentowano przykładowe wyniki obliczeń numerycznych stali o zróżnicowanych właściwościach spawanych metodą hybrydową PAW-MAG oraz zakres możliwości symulacji nowoczesnej i innowacyjnej metody spawania hybrydowego PAW-MAG, wspomagające optymalny dobór parametrów we wczesnej fazie wprowadzania nowego produktu. Zaprezentowano wyniki modelowania rozkładu temperatury, struktury, twardości, naprężeń i odkształceń w złączu oraz duże zróżnicowanie modeli materiałowych zaimplementowanych w wykorzystanym w badaniach środowisku obliczeniowym oraz określono możliwości Metody Elementów Skończonych w analizie historii cieplnej dowolnego obszaru złącza spawanego, dowodzące, że stanowi ona innowacyjne narzędzie projektowania złączy spawanych stali.
EN
The article presents the issue of simulating the welding process using the finite element method and the specialized software simufact.welding dedicated to this process, as well as the exemplary results of the numerical calculations of steels of different properties welded using PAW-MAG – a modern and innovative method of hybrid welding – and the range of its simulation capabilities supporting the optimal selection of parameters in the early phase of a product introduction. Moreover, it addresses the results of the modelling of temperature distribution, structure, hardness, stress and strain in the joint and a large diversity of material models implemented in the computing environment used in the research and identifies the possibilities of the element method in the analysis of the thermal history of any area of the welded joint proving that it constitutes an innovative tool for the design of welded joints of steel.
10
Content available remote Ocena parametrów krawędzi ciętej masywnych i porowatych stopów metali
PL
Scharakteryzowano cechy i zakres stosowalności procesów cięcia w odniesieniu do materiałów masywnych i porowatych. Przedstawiono główne aspekty oceny parametrów krawędzi ciętej tworzyw metalicznych i uwarunkowania prawne badania krawędzi ciętych. Przedstawiono opracowaną przez autorów metodykę badania struktury geometrycznej płaszczyzny cięcia kompozytowych pian aluminiowych po cięciu laserowym. Zaproponowano mikroskopię konfokalną jako metodę umożliwiającą badanie powierzchni o dużym udziale nieciągłości spowodowanych porowatością. Scharakteryzowano parametry jakości płaszczyzny cięcia oraz problemy metodyczne i techniczne wynikające z porowatej struktury pian metalicznych, a także obraz 2D i 3D krawędzi piany aluminiowej po cięciu termicznym laserowym.
EN
The features and scope of the applicability of the cutting processes for massive and porous materials have been characterized. The paper presents the main aspects of the assessment of the cutting edge parameters of metallic materials and the legal conditions of the cutting edges inspection. The study methodology of the cutting plane geometric structure of aluminium composite foam after laser cutting, developed by the authors, has been discussed. Confocal microscopy has been proposed as a method for examining surfaces with a large share of discontinuity caused by porosity. The quality parameters of the cutting plane have been characterized, as well as methodological and technological problems arising from the porous structure of metallic foams and also 2D and 3D image of the aluminium foam edge after thermal laser cutting.
EN
The assessment of results method of calculation tensile strength and yield strength of this cold rolled steels using the artificial neural networks in modelling relationship of elements composition (chromium, manganese, silicon, carbon), thermal treatment and properties of HCT600X, HCT780X, HCT980X steels was proposed. Was made further research using the new element chromium.
PL
W artykule użyto sztucznych sieci neuronowych do obliczenia zależności między wytrzymałością na rozciąganie i umowną granicą plastyczności, a pierwiastkami (chrom, mangan, krzem i węgiel), obróbką cieplną i właściwościami stali HCT600X, HCT780X, HCT980X walcowanych na zimno należących do stali karoseryjnych dwufazowych. Dokonano kontynuację badań z uwzględnieniem nowego pierwiastkachromu.
12
Content available remote Optimizing glue joint of aluminium metallic foams
EN
Purpose: Characteristics of aluminium foams as construction material were given, along with some exemplary applications. The purposefulness of lowering the mass of constructions comprising aluminium foams was discussed, and bonding techniques as well as prospects of reducing the mass of a joint were analysed. A computer simulation was performed for a representative fragment of a glue joint in aluminium foam with the purpose of analyzing existing stresses for three variants of thickness of a layer of epoxy glue. Design/methodology/approach: Preliminary tests on the complete test specimen were conducted, and then a new model of a joint was made, based on a small part of the geometry of the joint. The methodology employed allowed for a precise investigation of the working conditions of a glue joint in a statics hear test depending on the thickness of a layer of glue. Findings: A high interdependence between stresses in a metallic foam and the thickness of a glue joint was observed – the thicker the layer of glue, the stiffer the joint. The thickness of the glue layer inspected in the simulation does not influence the strength of the joint. Research limitations/implications: The tests were conducted with the use of an improved yet simplified model of a joint that allowed to determine stresses present both in metallic foam and in the weld. Further course of action in the modelling of glue joints was set with the aim of establishing a more detailed definition of weld work conditions. Practical implications: Basic factors affecting the efficiency of joining aluminium foams by means of gluing were defined, and guidelines concerning the technology for producing a proper joint were given. Originality/value: A problem concerning gluing aluminium foams with regard to mass optimization was highlighted. A mechanism for minimizing stresses in the structure of a weld through the regulation of weld thickness was presented.
PL
Zbadano możliwość wyznaczania czasu t8/5 za pomocą metody elementów skończonych. Badaniom poddano modelowe złącze spawane metodą hybrydową PAW-MAG ulepszanych cieplnie stali AHSS S960QL. Porównano czas t8/5 dla charakterystycznych stref złącza przy stałej ilości wprowadzonego ciepła. Dostrzeżono istotne różnice w szybkości stygnięcia wynikające ze zróżnicowanej geometrii złącza i niesymetrycznej dystrybucji ciepła. Zdefiniowano możliwości metody elementów skończonych z zastosowaniem modelowania przestrzennego w badaniu historii cieplnej dowolnego obszaru złącza spawanego. W wyniku porównania analizowanego sposobu określania czasu t8/5 z tradycyjnymi metodami pomiarowymi i analitycznymi wykazano znacząca przewagę MES polegającą na dokładnej i całościowej indukcji cyklu w całym przekroju złącza w przeciwieństwie do eksperymentalnych metod stykowych i bezstykowych, które uśredniają pomiar na jego powierzchni lub tylko w osi spoiny. W aspekcie różnic w czasie t8/5 sięgających 1,5 s w obszarze złącza i bardzo wąskiego zakresu tolerancji wartości czasu stygnięcia stali AHSS ulepszanej cieplnie, uznano metodę elementów skończonych z zastosowaniem modelowania przestrzennego za niezbędne narzędzie do projektowania złączy spawanych stali AHSS.
EN
The research described in the article was concerned with the possibility of determining time t8/5 using the Finite Element Method. The research-related tests involved a joint made of AHSS S960QL using the PAW-MAG method. Values of time t8/5 were compared in relation to characteristic zones of the joint and constant heat input values. Differences in cooling rates related to the diversified geometry of a joint and the asymmetric distribution of heat proved significant. The research involved the identification of possibilities offered by the Finite Element Method involving space modelling in the examination of the thermal history of any welded joint area. The comparison of the analysed manner of determining time t8/5 with traditional measurement and analytical methods revealed the significant advantage of the FEM consisting in the accurate and complete induction of a cycle in the entire cross-section of the joint in contrast with experimental contact and non-contact methods averaging the measurement on the joint surface or only in the weld axis. In view of differences related to time t8/5 reaching 1.5 seconds in the joint area and the very narrow range of the tolerance concerning the value of the cooling time of AHSS, the Finite Element Method involving the use of space modelling was recognised as a necessary tool when designing welded joints made of Advanced High Strength Steels.
EN
Microstructure transformations of a welded joint of the of quenched and tempered advanced high-strength S1100QL steel in relation to the heat input and its effect on the strength of the joint. The gas metal arc welding method was used with varying values of the heat input in the range from 5.5 to 7.1 kJ/cm. Metallographic examination, hardness, impact strength, and tensile strength tests were carried out. Innovative methodology of welding impact test using drop tower impact resistance tester, has been applied. Joints with strength higher than that of welded steel were created. The amount of heat input necessary to produce joints of S1100QL steel whose strength would be higher than that of parent material was determined. The advantages of using S1100QL steel were indicated and a method of one-pass welding that allows for production of joints of optimum strength parameters with the use of mismatched filler metals was presented. As the result of detailed weld cracking dynamics analysis of the S1100QL steel the course of joint deformation was determined as a function of time, loading force and impact energy. It was found that the dynamically loaded samples welded with lower heat input display higher limit of elasticity, which is manifested by higher loading forces and longer deformation time.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problemy zastosowania i spawalności odpornej na korozję austenityczno-ferrytycznej stali dupleks w wielkogabarytowych konstrukcjach do transportu i składowania płynów na przykładzie wybranych aspektów budowy statków do transportu i zbiorników do magazynowania chemikaliów. Opierając się na analizie spawalności stali dupleks i doświadczeniu produkcyjnym autora, sformułowano podstawowe założenia spawania wielkogabarytowych konstrukcji z tej stali.
16
Content available remote PTA-GMA hybrid welding of UHSS steel in structures of large-scale
EN
Purpose: An analysis of application possibilities for PTA-GMA hybrid welding in large-sized high- strength steel structures that require using particularly effective and high-performance technologies as related to quality and costs. Design/methodology/approach: Welded joints were made of S960QL steel by employing plasma and GMA hybrid welding by using various welding parameters. The tests were designed so that interrelations between particular welding technologies can be demonstrated. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations as well as hardness and tensile strength tests for welded joints were carried out. Findings: It has been shown that traditional welding methods SAW and GTA can be replaced by PTA-GMA hybrid welding. The obtained welded joints show different geometric features and hardness depending on welding technology used. Research limitations/implications: The description of welded joint structure and mechanical properties was based on welding toughened steels by using an innovative welding method and a filler that has been proposed. Practical implications: The parameters of plasma and GMA hybrid welding for industrial uses were established at the company Teleskop Sp. z o.o. The selected best welding technologies will be subject to welding procedure approval according to PN-EN 15614-1 and implemented into mass production. The information gained from toughened steel welding is an important basis for future research on metallurgical walkability by using high-performance methods of hybrid welding of large-sized structures. Originality/value: The problems associated with welding S960Q steels by using various welding technologies, including the use of an innovative GMA plasma hybrid welding method that is still at the initial stage of research work and there are no original references regarding the suitability of the a/m welding method for large-sized structures made of high-strength toughened steels were established. It has been shown that PTA-GMA hybrid welding has a significant effect on base metal structural changes resulting from a unique nature of combined heat sources of plasma and electric arc.
17
Content available remote Welding of metallic AlSi foams and AlSi–SiC composite foams
EN
In this paper, possibilities as well as limitations of aluminium foam welding are defined, and current state of the art methods are presented. In the face of difficulty of achieving joints with TIG welding, the authors’ own innovative methods of preparation of aluminium and composite foams top layer are proposed in order for the foams to be TIG and laser beam welded. Filler consumption was estimated for different variants of edge preparation. Joint structure was examined and tensile strength of the joints was tested. Joints whose strength exceeded the strength of parent material were obtained.
18
Content available remote Stal dupleks i jej spawalność
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwój odpornych na korozję stali dupleks, mikrostrukturę, właściwości, zastosowania oraz metalurgiczne podstawy spawalności odpornej na korozję austenityczno-ferrytycznej stali dupleks na tle innych chromowo-niklowych stali nierdzewnych. W oparciu o analizę spawalności stali dupleks i badania eksperymentalne autora sformułowano podstawowe zasady spawania wielkogabarytowych konstrukcji z tej stali.
EN
The paper presents the development of corrosion-resistant duplex steels, their microstructure, properties and applications, as well as the metallurgical basis of weldability of corrosion-resistant austenitic-ferritic duplex steel as compared to other chromium-nickel stainless steels. Based on the analysis of duplex steel and the author’s research, basic principles of welding large structures made of this steel have been formulated.
19
Content available remote Problemy lutowania pian aluminiowych
PL
Komórkowa struktura i wyjątkowe cechy pian aluminiowych są przyczyną problemów z ich lutowaniem. W artykule przedstawiono metody wytwarzania, strukturę, właściwości i zastosowanie pian aluminiowych. Scharakteryzowano również sposoby cięcia pian wodą, laserem i obróbką elektroerozyjną, jako metod przygotowania brzegów do lutowania oraz techniki łączenia pian: mechanicznych i spawalniczych ze szczególnym naciskiem na ich lutowanie miękkie i twarde. Określono ograniczenia i możliwości lutowania pian aluminiowych.
EN
The cellular structure and unique properties of aluminum foams cause problems with their cutting and bonding. This paper describes the production methods, structure, properties and application of aluminum foams. It also discusses foam cutting methods such as water jet, laser and electrical discharge machining as means of edge preparing for brazing and soldering. Among methods of foam mechanical and weld joining, particular focus is put on brazing and soldering techniques. The limitations and possibilities of aluminum foam brazing and soldering are characterised.
20
Content available remote Welding of MART steel with the use of matching fillers
EN
Purpose: This paper attempts to determine the influence of using fillers of various kinds on strength of a welded joint of MART steel depending on the amount of heat supplied. Design/methodology/approach: Test welded joints were made of S1100QL steel with GMAW method, and using different fillers as well as different values of supplied heat. The tests were designed in such a way so as to demonstrate the prospected interdependencies as clearly as possible. Macroscopic examination was carried out, Vickers hardness, impact strength and tensile strength were measured, and technological bend test was conducted on the joint. Findings: Significant differences between the joints obtained resulting from the fillers used and welding parameters applied were noticed. The strength of a joint is lower than that of welded steel, it concentrates in the weld and is similar to the strength of parent material. Research limitations/implications: Conducting research concentrating on welding using particular filler in a wider range of heat supplied would make it possible to obtain more precise results. By delineating the interdependencies between strength parameters, it would be possible to optimise the mechanical properties of welded joints made of MART steels. It would require the employment of automated welding that allows for unrestricted and stable control of parameters. Practical implications: The conditions for making a proper joint of S1100QL steel were determined. Reasons were given for the choice of joint testing methodology and the purposefulness of comprehensive tests of joint parameters. The need for changing test procedures in order to eliminate the causes of inappropriate evaluation was manifested. The influence of automation as an important factor that determines the fulfilment of strict parameter regime of joint formation was emphasised. Determination of the interrelations between mechanical properties of a joint and welding parameters applied would allow to conduct a welding process in such a way so as to obtain a joint of desired usefulness in given technological conditions. Originality/value: Problems associated with welding of S1100QL steel with the use of filler metals of matching materials were defined and possible solutions for these problems were presented. The mechanism of welding thermal cycle influencing structural changes in the joint that result from the complex cycle of hardening and tempering was demonstrated.
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