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EN
In recent years, with the progress of science, more and more detection methods are being used in various fields. However, the nondestructive testing of nonmetallic materials still needs further study. In this paper, an analysis of the time domain characteristics of rubber materials using terahertz detection technology was carried out, obtaining different defect rubber material spectral characteristics as well as imaging results and data. The results show that the THz spectrum imaging technique can detect the thickness of rubber material in the 0.1 ~ 4.0 terahertz band, and the image is clear and the resolution high. Meanwhile the time domain waveform obtained is sensitive to the debonding defects of the sample rubber, is suitable for judging the overall performance of the rubber inner defect detection, and can provide the scientific basis for rubber material performance.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę charakterystyk materiałów gumowych z wykorzystaniem technologii wykrywania terahercowego, uzyskując różne charakterystyki spektralne defektów gumy, a także wyniki i dane obrazowe. Wyniki pokazały, że technika obrazowania widma THz może wykrywać grubość materiału gumowego w paśmie 0,1 ~ 4,0 terahercowym, a obraz jest wyraźny i ma wysoka rozdzielczość. W międzyczasie otrzymany przebieg domeny czasu jest wrażliwy na defekty badanej gumy, jest odpowiedni do oceny ogólnej wydajności wykrywania wewnętrznego defektu gumy i może zapewnić podstawy dla oceny właściwości materiału gumowego.
EN
Different from the stacked seismic data, pre-stack data includes abundant information about shear wave and density. Through inversing the shear wave and density information from the pre-stack data, we can determine oil-bearing properties from different incident angles. The state-of-the-art inversion methods obtain either low vertical resolution or lateral discontinuities. However, the practical reservoir generally has sharp discontinuities between different layers in vertically direction and is horizontally smooth. Towards obtaining the practical model, we present an inversion method based on the regularized amplitude-versus-incidence angle (AVA) data to estimate the piecewise-smooth model from pre-stack seismic data. This method considers subsurface stratum as a combination of two parts: a piecewise smooth part and a constant part. To fix the ill-posedness in the inversion, we adopt four terms to define the AVA inversion misfit function: the data misfit itself, a total variation regularization term acting as a sparsing operator for the piecewise constant part, a Tikhonov regularization term acting as a smoothing operator for the smooth part, and the last term to smoothly incorporate a priori information for constraining the magnitude of the estimated model. The proposed method not only can incorporate structure information and a priori model constraint, but also is able to derive into a convex objective function that can be easily minimized using iterative approach. Compared with inversion results of TV and Tikhonov regularization methods, the inverted P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density of the proposed method can better delineate the piecewise-smooth characteristic of strata.
EN
In this paper, a fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme is proposed for actuator faults, which is built upon tube-based model predictive control (MPC) as well as set-based fault detection and isolation (FDI). In the class of MPC techniques, tube-based MPC can effectively deal with system constraints and uncertainties with relatively low computational complexity compared with other robust MPC techniques such as min-max MPC. Set-based FDI, generally considering the worst case of uncertainties, can robustly detect and isolate actuator faults. In the proposed FTC scheme, fault detection (FD) is passive by using invariant sets, while fault isolation (FI) is active by means of MPC and tubes. The active FI method proposed in this paper is implemented by making use of the constraint-handling ability of MPC to manipulate the bounds of inputs. After the system has been detected to become faulty, the input-constraint set of the MPC controller is adjusted to actively excite the system for achieving FI guarantees on-line, where an active FI-oriented input set is designed off-line. In this way, the system can be excited in order to obtain more extra system-operating information for FI than passive FI approaches. Overall, the objective of this paper is to propose an actuator MPC scheme with as little as possible of FI conservatism and computational complexity by combining tube-based MPC and set theory within the framework of MPC, respectively. Finally, a case study is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed FTC scheme.
EN
Spiking neural P systems with rules on synapses (RSSN P systems, for short) are a class of distributed and parallel computation models inspired by the way in which neurons process and communicate information with each other by means of spikes, where neurons only contain spikes and the evolution rules are on synapses. RSSN P systems have been proved to be Turing universal, using the strategy that restricts all the applied rules to consume the same number of spikes from the given neuron, termed as equal spikes consumption strategy. In this work, in order to avoid imposing the equal spikes consumption restriction on the application of rules, a new strategy for rule application, termed as sum spikes consumption strategy, is considered in RSSN P systems, where a maximal set of enabled rules from synapses starting from the same neuron is nondeterministically chosen to be applied, in the sense that no further synapse can use any of its rules, and the sum of these numbers of spikes that all the applied rules consume is removed from the neuron. In this way, the proposed strategy avoids checking whether all the applied rules consume the same number of spikes from the given neuron. The computation power of RSSN P systems working in the proposed strategy is investigated, and it is proved that such systems characterize the semilinear sets of natural numbers, i.e., such systems are not universal. Furthermore, RSSN P systems with weighted synapses working in the proposed strategy are proved to be Turing universal. These results show that the weight on synapses is a powerful ingredient of RSSN P systems in terms of the computation power, which makes RSSN P systems working in sum spikes consumption strategy become universal from non-universality.
EN
The study pays attention to disturbances in early successional communities of wetland vegetation. We conducted artificial disturbances in a community of Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis in the Yellow River Delta (China). Eight types of disturbances combining mowing treatments with species treatments were applied. Removal of the standing litters of P. australis or not was defined as mowing treatments, and removal of two species solo or both was defined as species treatments. We sampled 80 quadrats from the treatments plots at different intervals after the disturbance to investigate plant height, abundance, aboveground biomass, the distance between plants to reflect the effect of disturbance on composition, structure, productivity, and function of the plant communities. The strategies of seedling emergence and height growth differed as the canopy changed. Biomass contribution of different species, combined with disturbance intensity, was the main factors that affected the productivity. Homogeneity of disturbance was better for maintaining the functions of plant community in compared with the competitiveness (C), stress-tolerance (S) and ruderality (C-S-R) signatures with the control. Facilitations were reflected by the stagger arrangements in relative growth rates of the two species and in plant-plant interactions calculated by a modified function of competition. Adapting to symmetric disturbance and developing facilitative interactions are important requirements for early succession terrestrial vegetation to establish and stabilize in the seriously saline environments of wetlands.
EN
To acquire a better understanding of the early ignition phenomena in a 100 mm ignition simulator loaded with a packed propellant bed, a theoretical model of the ignition gas flow through the rigid porous medium was developed. Three pressure gauges were installed in the lateral side of the ignition simulator for post ignition measurement of the chamber pressure. The pseudo-propellant loaded into the chamber was similar in size to the standard 13/19 single-base cylindrical propellant. It was composed of a rigid ceramic composite with low thermal conductivity. It was assumed that the pseudo-propellant bed was rigid in contrast to the assumption of an elastic porous medium. The calculated pressure values were well verified by the experimental data at a low loading density of the pseudo-propellant bed of 0.18 g•cm-3. However, there was still error between the experimental and the calculated results in the early pressure peak position closest to the ignition primer when the loading density of the pseudo-propellant bed was increased to 0.73 and 1.06 g•cm-3. This error is attributed to the change in local permeability of the pseudo-propellant bed at high loading densities, which is assumed, for ease of modelling, to be constant in the model. These calculations may enable a better understanding of the physical processes of ignition gas flow in an ignition simulator loaded with a pseudo-propellant bed.
7
Content available remote Climbing Robot Modelling Based on Grab Claws
EN
Though the wall-climbing robots have be used extensively, however, no effective adhesion system has been designed for robots deployed in high-altitude, rough concrete buildings that are subjected to large wind loads and vibrations. Therefore, an initial design of a wall-climbing robot based on grab claw is presented and a climbing model is proposed in the paper. The mathematical model is established to reflect the relations between sharp hook and the micro-protuberance on the rough wall surface The stress on the hook-like claws is analyzed under three different conditions, so the steady grasping condition of the hook-like claws is obtained. Simulation results are carried out which demonstrates the stability of the grasping. Finally, the system outline and field implement scheme are presented.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono projekt wspinającego się robota, opartego na chwytaku w postaci pazura. Zaproponowano także matematyczny model wspinania, pozwalający określić wpływ mikro-fałd na powierzchni pionowej na możliwość chwytania hakiem. Przeanalizowano możliwości obciążenia haka w trzech różnych warunkach pracy. Przeprowadzono badania symulacyjne i eksperymentalne w celu weryfikacji modelu.
EN
Leaf traits scaling relationships were compared in different months (May, June, July and August) in a temperate shrub species, Vitex negundo Linn. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. Leaf traits variation and the impact of environment were also studied. Our results showed that specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), leaf phosphorus content (Pmass) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chlmass) were positively correlated, and all of the pairwise relationships showed a common standardized major axis (SMA) slope in different months. The variation of SLA, chlorophyll a content (Chlmass a), chlorophyll b content (Chlmass b), Chlmass a/b and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) were mainly habitat-dependent, while the variation of Pmass and Nmass/Pmass were mainly month-dependent. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to further explore the relationships between leaf traits and environmental factors. We found that plants under shade (the relative photosynthetic photon flux density was about 10%) developed light-capturing behavior at leaf level (higher SLA) and cellular level (higher Chlmass/Nmass and lower Chlmass a/b). The increased Nmass/Pmass with month was mainly resulted from the large absorption of soil nitrogen and the decrease of soil pH. In a word, our study indicates that species may not have fundamentally different carbon capture strategies in different months. Variation of different leaf traits are related to different environmental factors in the field.
EN
A framework is proposed for studying a particular class of set-theoretic approaches to granular computing. A granule is a subset of a universal set, a granular structure is a family of subsets of the universal set, and relationship between granules is given by the standard set-inclusion relation. By imposing different conditions on the family of subsets, we can define several types of granular structures. A number of studies, including rough set analysis, formal concept analysis and knowledge spaces, adopt specific models of granular structures. The proposed framework therefore provides a common ground for unifying these studies. The notion of approximations is examined based on granular structures.
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