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EN
The SatBałtyk (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) project is being realized in Poland by the SatBałtyk Scientific Consortium, specifically appointed for this purpose, which associates four scientific institutions: the Institute of Oceanology PAN in Sopot – coordinator of the project, the University of Gdańsk (Institute of Oceanography), the Pomeranian Academy in Słupsk (Institute of Physics) and the University of Szczecin (Institute of Marine Sciences). The project is aiming to prepare a technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic Sea ecosystem. The main sources of input data for this system will be the results of systematic observations by metrological and environmental satellites such as TIROS N/NOAA, MSG (currently Meteosat 10), EOS/AQUA and Sentinel -1, 2, 3 (in the future). The system will deliver on a routine basis the variety of structural and functional properties of this sea, based on data provided by relevant satellites and supported by hydro-biological models. Among them: the solar radiation influx to the sea’s waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic waters, spatial distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of coastal upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary production of organic matter and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water and many others. The structure of the system and preliminary results will be presented.
EN
The process-based XBeach model has been used to simulate changes in beach and dune morphology in terms of influence of the significant storm event on the sandy Dziwnow Spit, located in the western part of the Polish coast. The research was carried out as part of the SatBałtyk project and represents the first stage of XBeach model application to create a system for recording the selected effects and hazards caused by current and expected storm events. The significant storm event, registered in 2009, was used for model calibration. Ten cross-shore profiles were selected and compared against preand post-storm morphological data. Model performance was verified on the basis of BSS values for the terrestrial part of the profiles. Verification of the results was performed using two different approaches: on the basis of the highest mean BSS value for all profiles together and for one set of parameters (approach no. 1) and on the basis of the highest BSS value for each profile and most adequate sets of parameters (approach no. 2). Additionally, the observed and modelled beach and dune volume changes were calculated. The research showed that the XBeach model is well capable of simulating the dune and beach erosion caused by the storm event, but the model requires site-specific calibration. High sensitivity of the XBeach model to the facua parameter was determined; the parameter defines the wave shape and affects the sediment transport. The best fit of the profiles was obtained for BSS, ranging between 0.71 and 0.93, with the parameter hmin = 0.01 or 0.05, facua = 0.2-0.5, wetslp = 0.2-0.4 and dryslp = 1 or 1.5. The volume estimation error ranged from +0.6 m3 m-1 to -7.7 m3 m-1, which represents 2.7% to 31.6%.
EN
This article is the first of two papers on the remote sensing methods of monitoring the Baltic ecosystem, developed by a Polish team. The main aim of the five-year SatBałtyk (2010-2014) research project (Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment) is to prepare the technical infrastructure and set in motion operational procedures for the satellite monitoring of the Baltic environment. This system is to characterize on a routine basis the structural and functional properties of this sea on the basis of data supplied by the relevant satellites. The characterization and large-scale dissemination of the following properties of the Baltic is anticipated: the solar radiation influx to the sea's waters in various spectral intervals, energy balances of the short- and long-wave radiation at the Baltic Sea surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere over the Baltic, sea surface temperature distribution, dynamic states of the water surface, concentrations of chlorophyll a and other phytoplankton pigments in the Baltic water, distributions of algal blooms, the occurrence of upwelling events, and the characteristics of primary organic matter production and photosynthetically released oxygen in the water. It is also intended to develop and, where feasible, to implement satellite techniques for detecting slicks of petroleum derivatives and other compounds, evaluating the state of the sea's ice cover, and forecasting the hazards from current and future storms and providing evidence of their effects in the Baltic coastal zone. The ultimate objective of the project is to implement an operational system for the routine determination and dissemination on the Internet of the above-mentioned features of the Baltic in the form of distribution maps as well as plots, tables and descriptions characterizing the state of the various elements of the Baltic environment. The main sources of input data for this system will be the results of systematic recording by environmental satellites and also special-purpose ones such as TIROS N/NOAA, MSG (currently Meteosat 9), EOS/AQUA and ENVISAT. The final effects of the SatBałtyk project are to be achieved by the end of 2014, i.e. during a period of 60 months. These two papers present the results obtained during the first 15 months of the project. Part 1 of this series of articles contains the assumptions, objectives and a description of the most important stages in the history of our research, which constitute the foundation of the current project. It also discusses the way in which SatBałtyk functions and the scheme of its overall operations system. The second article (Part 2), will discuss some aspects of its practical applicability in the satellite monitoring of the Baltic ecosystem (see Woźniak et al. (2011) in this issue).
EN
Wetlands are endangered ecosystems. The main, most observe and forecast risk for the wetlands is global climate change. The paper presents the analysis of multiyear tendencies of changes of climatic and hydrologic characteristics in the Biebrza River basin in 1966-2003 with the use of Mann-Kendall test. The analysis of climatic characteristics let to state, that climate warming is noticeable in Poland and in the Biebrza River too. In case of the analysis of hydrologic characteristics the changes are less noticeable. Nevertheless we can talk about the initial phase of lowering of maximum water levels and of maximum discharges which in decisive way influence the wetlands.
EN
Let Xj =Σ∞r=0 ArZj−r be a one-sided m-dimensional linear process, where (Zn) is a sequence of i.i.d. random vectors with zero mean and finite covariance matrix. The aim of this paper is to prove the moment inequalities of the form [formula] where G is a real function defined on Rm: The form of the constant C in (0.1) plays an important role in applications concerning the problems of M-estimation, especially the Ghosh representation.
EN
Let: {Xi} be a sequence of r.v.'s, and: Mn := max (X1,..., Xn), mn := min (X1,..., Xn). Our goal is to prove the almost sure central limit theorem for the properly normalized vector {Mn,mn}, provided: 1) {Xi} is an i.i.d. sequence, 2) {Xi} is a certain standardized stationary Gaussian sequence.
PL
Strefa brzegowa morza to bardzo ważny gospodarczo i społecznie obszar wzajemnej interakcji pomiędzy trzema żywiołami: lądem, morzem i atmosferą a obecnością i działalnością ludzką. Od wieków człowiek obserwuje i bada wybrzeże w celu przewidzenia jego zmiennej natury i ujarzmienia jej. Ochrona brzegu morskiego zmierza przede wszystkim do powstrzymania i usuwania skutków niszczącej działalności morza. Aby działania takie mogły przynieść pożądany skutek niezbędna jest wiedza o miejscu występowania najbardziej wrażliwych i narażonych części brzegu. W tym celu przeprowadzono analizę rzeźby dla pasa technicznego Urzędu Morskiego w Szczecinie z wykorzystaniem numerycznego modelu terenu. Numeryczny model terenu z uwagi na duże możliwości jakie daje informatyka stał się istotnym elementem w modelowaniu różnorodnych zjawisk przestrzennych w systemach GIS. W niniejszym opracowaniu model utworzony na podstawie mapy zasadniczej z roku 2002 w skali 1:2000 był podstawą do przeprowadzenia analiz i w rezultacie pozwolił na stworzenie klasyfikacji morfologicznej badanego terenu i jego ocenę pod kątem zagrożeń od strony morza. Niniejsze badania mogą służyć jako podstawa do bardziej złożonych analiz zmian rzeźby brzegu morskiego z uwzględnieniem dodatkowych parametrów takich jak tempo erozji i akumulacji oraz wzrost poziomu morza.
EN
The coastal zone of the sea is an economically and socially important area of interaction between three basic elements: the land, the sea and the atmosphere; it is also affected by human activities. Coastal processes have been for ages investigated to forecast, restrain, and tame their nature. Coastal defence systems are mostly designated to stop or mitigate destructive effects of the sea. Such activities can succeed only if there is sufficient knowledge on the most sensitive and fragile parts of the coast. To identify such areas, a coast strip managed by the Szczecin Maritime Office was analysed with a digital terrain model. Due to its large technical potential, the digital terrain model (DTM) has become a very important tool in modelling of a variety of spatial phenomenon within GIS systems. In this work, a TIN model developed from a 1:2000 map of a technical strip belt for 2002 was used to analyse the morphology of the Polish coast. The analysis allowed to distinguish several morphological classes; in addition, coastal safety classes were identified. The results should be analysed in a wider context taking into account additional variables such as erosion and accumulation rates or the mean sea level rise.
EN
In our paper, we give the simulation results concerning the multiple-comparison procedures, especially their error measures, such as FWER and FDR. We compare the powers of four popular multiple-comparison procedures, applied to three standard statistical models. All of our simulations were carried out by using the R-project package.
EN
In this paper we consider the central limit theorems for functionals G: Rm-> R of one-sided m-dimensional linear processes Xt=∑∞r=0 where Ar is a nonrandom matrix mxm and Zt’s are i.i.d. random vectors in Rm.
PL
W naszej pracy rozważamy różne podejścia do problematyki jednoczesnego testowania wielu hipotez zerowych. W tym kontekście omawiamy procedury testowania typu single-step, step-down i step-up. W szczególności, przedstawiamy własności i zastosowania takich miar błędów testowania, jak: FWER, k-FWER, FDP, FDR, pFDR. Wspomniane procedury testowania są intensywnie wykorzystywane w analizie mikromacierzy DNA, która to analiza umożliwia monitorowanie poziomów ekspresji wielu genów jednocześnie oraz znajduje ostatnio szerokie zastosowania w diagnostyce, leczeniu i badaniach medycznych.
EN
In our paper, we consider different approaches to the problem of simultaneous testing of many null hypotheses. In this context, we discuss the single-step, the step-down and the step-up procedures of multiple testing. In particular, we are concerned with their properties and applications in the control of the error rates, such as: FWER, k-FWER, FDP, FDR, pFDR. The mentioned procedures are intensively used in the DNA microarrays analysis, which enables the monitoring of expression levels of many genes simultaneously and is widely applied in recent medical diagnostics, treatment and research.
EN
In this paper, we consider the characterizing theorems for positive quad-rant dependence model with bivariate variables (X, Y) and Lancaster bivariate probabil-ity distributions. They arę characterized by the marginal distributions and the regression functions E(Y \ X = x), E(X \ Y = y), for some simple model, and, by E(Yi \ X = x), E(Xi | Y = y), i = 1,2,..., for generalizations. In this paper, some connections with copulas, has been also considered.
EN
The Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Marine Cartography is a part of the Faculty of Natura Sciences at the University of Szczecin and it was established in 1985. In the present organizational structure and under this name it has existed since 1992. Research activity of the Laboratory is focused on: Remote sensing analysis of coastal zone morphodynamics. Analysis of coastal zone circulation systems with the use of aerial photographs and satellite images Remote sensing analysis of southern Baltic surface streams. Issues of coastal zone GIS implementation to coastal zone management. Cartography and GIS on the web. Elements of thematic marine cartography. Methods of cartographic presentation of dynamic phenomena This paper presents some of the most important projects undertaken by the Laboratory.
EN
The knowledge about long- and short-term coastal changes plays a key role in Integrated Coastal Zone Management processes. This project was realized in the Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Marine Cartography of the University of Szczecin, within the framework of .Remote sensing research of the tendency the coastline changes of the Pomeranian Bay (3P04E05023). financed from the State Committee for Scientic Reseaerch (KBN) resources. The following data were used in this project: historical aerial photographs taken in 1938, 1951, 1973, 1996, topographic maps in the scale 1:10000, technical belt maps in the scale 1:2000 and DEM created for 2 km wide coastal belt. The area of research is 100 km long and is located at the Eastern part of Pomeranian Bay from Swinoujscie to Kolobrzeg. On the basis of the aerial photographs taken in 1996 with the use of DEM and OrthoMaster software an orthophotomap was created. The others aerial photographs taken in 1938, 1951 and 1973 were calibrated on the basis of this orthophotomap. Finally, all aerial photographs and maps were transfered into the same coordinate system PUWG1992/19. A dune base line / cliff food line and the geodetic monuments (kilometrage of the coast) were identified on every picture. Changes of dune base line / cliff food line location in time were measured. Results were presented for three selected areas of the coast located near Swina, Dziwna and Rega river mouths. The analysis of the coastal changes in the river mouth areas shows that this sections of the coast are very dynamic and have a big variability of the morphodynamic processes. This research can be useful in the protection of the coast, indicating relatively stable or dynamic places along the coast. The knowledge about such places is very important in the aspect of erosion hazard and safe planning in the Integrated Coastal Zone Management.
15
Content available remote Wykorzystanie GIS w badaniach zmian krajobrazu
EN
The objective of this paper is to present a methodology of using surface analysis in evaluating the degree of landscape changes. Landscape defined as a comprehensive system consisting of forms of relief, waters, vegetation and atmosphere enriched by the effects and impact of man management was analyzed in GIS applications. Maps of landscape classes forming different timelines created on the basis of aerial photographs were divided into elementary fields which allowed to calculate attributes connected with particular landscape classes. This helped to distinguish and calculate the scale of landscape changes. The methodology of elementary fields analysis was tested on the pilot area in western part of the Terschelling Island. It helped to recognize both natural and anthropological landscape changes and evaluate landscape reconstruction methods used on the island.
EN
In the paper applications for DTM use are presented. The authors treat the 3D model as a good tool for coastal zone studies. They used DTM for connection of two kinds of data: historical aerial photographs and current topographic maps. The first data are very accurate and, what is most important, have historical character. The second data are current, but within the coastal zone they are not so accurate to be useful in coastal zone studies. The authors tried to elaborate the .model. of procedure to size up the volume changes in coastal zone. They assumed some simplifications, which allowed to make measurements of the quantity of eroded or accumulated sandy materials. The measurements were made in four 1 km long test sections: two concerned accumulation and two erosion of sandy materials. The way of proceeding proposed by the authorsmay be useful for preparing the material balance in the coastal zone, for better recognition of quantitative changes and for studies of migration ways.
EN
The study of sedimentological features in the Guadiana River Estuary on the Portugal and Spanish border is an excellent example of making use of the GIS systems and especially 3D models. This Estuary is a part of southernmost area of Portugal and the Guadiana River is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula. Due to rapid sedimentation during the most recent postglacial transgression, estuarine sedimentary records offer an excellent opportunities to study the sequence of events which have led to the present morphology of the coast. Based on the sedimentological records, macro and micro paleontological data and C14 dates an information about the deep structure of Guadiana valley infill was gained. Also data about the depth of the sediment layers occurrence was defined. With the use of all gained data two 3D models representing both the actual surface relief and the relief of the delta from about 13000 year ago were created. Prepared models were used to calculate the area and volume for all of the distinguished sediment layers. Data gained in this process allowed for more detailed analysis of the pace of sedimentation and sea level rise as well as other aspects and geological processes which took place in the Estuary of Guadiana River.
18
Content available remote Rola multimedialnej kartografii i GIS w zarządzaniu strefą brzegową
EN
Multimedia cartography and GIS play very important role in landscape visualization. Using GIS database and visualization software packages assures visual presentation identified as an effective means of communicating landscape-related information. 3D visualization of GIS databases becomes increasingly common in presenting complex urban and rural environments, and mountainous, forested or coastal landscapes. This paper presents the use of multimedia cartography and GIS in coastal landscape visualization. Image draping, photorealistic rendering, virtual worlds and static images viewed in the Internet browser were the main methods used in the process of visualization of geospatial data in mapping and monitoring coastal areas. Although many limitations occurred during the research, basic multimedia presentation of available spatial data showed new possibilities for the management of coastal zone environment within the study area. Coastal zone - an area of intense activity, an area of interchange within and between physical, biological, social, cultural and economic processes . is composed of multiple interacting systems: maritime, terrestrial and riverine. That is why Coastal Zone Management (CZM was established) as a continuous, proactive and adaptive process of resource management for environmentally sustainable development in coastal areas. The implementation of Coastal Zone Management can stimulate and guide the sustainable development of coastal areas and minimize the degradation of the natural system. Multimedia presentations can play an important role in CZM only when they provide appropriate information about the issues of concern with a better understanding of geospatial matters; and also when they allow to perform analyses and to forecast future demand on coastal resources.
19
Content available remote Rola geomatyki w zintegrowanym zarządzaniu obszarami przybrzeżnymi
EN
Coastal areas are the most important part of the human world. On the other hand, because of the human interest, they are the most threatened part of world. Numerous world organizations and governments consider the Integrated Costal Zone Management (ICZM) as a key, powerful and effective tool leading to sustainable development of the coast areas. The Integrated Costal Zone Management requires proper information. Managers of coastal zones are faced with decision dilemmas and they need tools for supporting these processes. These two aspects are vital factors in implementation of IT and GIS technology to the Integrated Costal Zone Management Evolution and progress of geomatics coupled with development of multimedia technologies allows to collect data in different spatial and temporal scales, to manage them, to analyse and visualise them in many different ways. The access to information via Internet and the possibility of sharing data by wireless technology are essential for better knowledge and understanding as the basis for planning and decision-making. In this paper, the transformation process of information and data into knowledge is discussed. Also technologies useful in ICZM geomatics are presented. In this paper the role of geospatial tools in ICZM is stressed and obstacles and perspectives of development of these tools are considered. Finally, the initial stage of the project for Managing European Shoreline and Sharing Information on Nearshore Areas are presented.
EN
We consider the problem of density estimation for a one-sided linear process [formula] with i.i.d. square integrable innovations [formula]. We prove that under weak conditions on [formula], which imply short-range dependence of the linear process, finite-dimensional distributions ofkernel density estimate areasymptotically multivariate normal. In particular, the result holds for |an|=O (n−a) with a >2, which is much weaker than previously known sufficient conditions for asymptotic normality. No conditions on bandwidths bn are assumed besides bn→0 and nbn→ ∞.The proof uses Chanda’s [1], [2] conditioning technique as well as Bernstein’s “large block-small block” argument.
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