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EN
Fritillaria unibracteata is a classic perennial alpine herb. In this study, we examined it's responses to shading (SH) and nitrogen addition (NA), as well as its correlation with internal C-N balance to detect how it adjusted to the changes of habitat conditions. Randomized block experiment was carried out in the field in Chuanbeimu Research Station in Songpan County, Sichuan Province, China (32°09′54″N, 103°38′36″E, altitude 3300 m a.s.l.). Two growing seasons after NA and SH, Fritillaria unibracteata's total plant biomass decreased significantly, with the proportion of biomass allocated to aboveground significantly increased. In addition, in this study, under both SH and NA treatments, Fritillaria unibracteata increased its biomass allocation to above-ground, which consisted with optimal partitioning theory. Moreover, Fritillaria unibracteata's biomass allocation was significantly correlated with its internal C-N status, regardless of nitrogen and light condition. We conclude that Fritillaria unibracteata optimizes its biomass allocation between root and shoot by adjusting its internal C-N balance, which would not be changed by the specialized resource storage organ-bulb.
EN
Time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF) is an effective tool for the removal of random noise and can be used to process seismic data with a low signal-to-noise ratio. A crucial aspect of this algorithm is the choice of window length (WL) of the time-frequency distribution. Whereas a fixed WL cannot simultaneously preserve signal and attenuate noise, timevarying WLs can achieve this goal. We propose a new method, L-DVV (delay vector variance), which successfully processes non-stationary signals by using the surrogate to measure the non-linearity of a time series. This method is sensitive to random noise and can accurately recover seismic signal masked by noise. Since the linearity criterion also meets the unbiased estimation criterion of the TFPF algorithm, the L-DVV method can be used for time-varying WL TFPF processing. Analysis of synthetic and real seismic data shows that the time-varying WL TFPF algorithm is effective at removing noise and recovering seismic signal.
EN
Amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis is a conventional seismic exploration technique in geophysical and lithological interpretation and has been widely used in onshore and offshore exploration. Its use in marine gas hydrate research, however, is still in initial stages. In this study, AVO analysis is applied to seismic profiles at drilling sites where hydrate samples have been recovered. The AVO responses of free gas, bottom simulating reflector (BSRs), and gas hydrates are discussed, and the AVO attributes in relation to gas hydrates are summarized. The results show that changes in intercept, gradient, fluid factor and Poisson’s ratio clearly reflect: (i) location of free gas and the BSR, and (ii) spatial relations between blank zone, BSR, gas hydrate, and free gas.
EN
Microbes remain active and play an important role in soil nitrogen (N) cycle during the winter in soil of the alpine zone. A shift from microbial N immobilization process dominant during summer to prevailing microbial mineralization process during the winter is observed. Warmer soil under deep snow cover may increase the microbial activity and rate of organic matter decomposition over the winter. Furthermore, severe shortages of dissolved carbon (C) in the winter may cause microbial mortality and lyses. Thus, C limitation on microbial growth and activity may have an important effect on winter N mineralization and even on soil N pools. However, the combined effects of additional organic C (litter inputs) and snow cover on soil N biogeochemical processes in the Tibetan Plateau remain unclear. In the current study, the in situ effects of snowpack and litter decomposition on N dynamics in the alpine zone of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau were investigated. Intact soil core incubations in three different snow regimes (0, 30 and 100 cm depth snow) in the winter were used to solve the problem by measure concentrations of mineral form of soil N. In addition, the litter bag method was used to analyze the litter decomposition over the winter. Our results indicate that the snow cover reduced the ammonium (NH4+-N) content, accelerate N mineralization in soil, and did not significantly change the dissolvable organic nitrogen (DON) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). Meanwhile, snowpack increased the litter N content and accelerated litter decomposition in late winter. Litter addition reduced the MBN and NH4+-N contents in soil, but increased the nitrate (NO3--N) content and net N mineralization, suggesting that N availability to plants during the spring thaw period may be enhanced.
5
Content available remote Winter methane emission from an alpine open fen on Tibetan Plateau
EN
Methane (CH4) emission was measured from an open fen on the Zoige Plateau (3500 m a.s.l.) (the eastern edge of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau) during two winters of 2006 and 2007. Three dominant plant stands, including Carex muliensis Hand-Mazz. (CM), Eleocharis valleculosa Ohwif. setosa (Ohwi) Kitagawa.(EV) and Kobresia tibetica Maxim (KT) were chosen to be monitored. Winter CH4 emissions were roughly estimated to be 0.94 mg CH4 m[^-2] h[^-1]. High spatialtemporal variations of the emission were found in this fen (the sequence of CM> EV> KT; 0.63 and 1.24 mg CH4 m[^-2] h[^-1] for 2006 and 2007, respectively). Factors involved in the spatial-temporal variation were: 1) water table in summer determining the winter amount of "old" CH4 stored in peat; 2) ice layer determining the release of CH4; 3) plant growth determining both the quantity of CH4 stored in peat and available substrates for CH4 production in winter. However, due to the homogeneity of freezing in winters, predictive factors such as plant growth and water table in summer could contribute more to winter CH4 emission than in situ freezing conditions. Considering that plant growth and water table are also the key factors controlling the spatial-temporal variation of CH4 emission in summer, we therefore suggested that winter CH4 emission represents the "inertia" of summer CH4 emission.
6
Content available remote Soil seed bank and extant vegetation of a dry valley
EN
Although crucial for guiding vegetation improvement efforts, soil seed bank (SSB) and extant vegetation (EV) in dry valleys remains poorly understood. A germination method and field surveys were applied to address this problem and investigate the characteristics of SSB and corresponding EV of eight sites across the dry Minjiang River valley in Southwest China. Furthermore, the relationships between SSB and EV were compared to provide guidance for vegetation enhancement. Eight sites were classified into two groups - central and transitional sites that differ according to moisture conditions. Seed density and species richness in SSB were lower in less moist central sites compared with those in more moist transitional sites of the valley as well as the coverage of the community. Moreover, species richness and litter thickness were lower in central sites. Comparing SSB strategies of species from eight sites, transient strategy was the most frequently observed category, followed by short-term persistent and long-term persistent strategies. In terms of both SSB and EV, the most abundant life forms were hemicryptophytes, intermediate phanerophytes, and therophytes, whereas less abundant were chamaephytes and cryptophytes. Low Sorenson.s similarity indices (22.32%) and significantly negative Kendall.s correlation in species composition indicate that species composition of SSB was not closely related to corresponding EV for each of the eight sites. Low seed density, especially the lack of viable dominant shrub seeds, dominant transient SSB strategy species, and low correspondence in species composition between SSB and EV imply that the potential for vegetation enhancement in the dry valley is weak, particularly in less moist central sites. To preserve the good EV of more moist transitional sites and introduce seeds of dominant species to improve poor EV in central sites, EV is likely to be a feasible standard for improving vegetation in dry valleys.
EN
Soil phosphorus (P) availability and fractions are influenced to a large extent by land use and cover changes. Inorganic P (IP) and organic P (OP) fractions in surface soils (0-20 cm) under typical vegetation types, including subalpine coniferous forests, alpine shrubs, and alpine shrub-meadows, near the alpine timberline of the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China, were measured by a modified Hedley fraction method. The results showed that OP is the dominant soil P fraction and the main source of available P in alpine soils near the timberline. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total P contents were higher in subalpine coniferous forests than in alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows. Concentrations of soil labile P (the sums of Resin-IP, NaHCO3-IP, and NaHCO3-OP) were higher in subalpine coniferous forests than in alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows, an observation that may be partially ascribed to the presence of deep litter layers generated by trees. Concentrations of soil labile and moderately organic P (NaHCO3-OP and NaOH-OP) in subalpine coniferous forests were also greater than in alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows. Greater amounts of soil stable OP (extracted by concentrated HCl and cHCl.OP) were accumulated in alpine shrub-meadows compared to alpine shrubs or subalpine coniferous forests. The reduced availability of OP may be attributed mainly to increasing recalcitrant soil organic matter input in alpine shrub-meadows and alpine shrubs. Concentrations of IP associated with Ca minerals and parent materials (extracted by diluted HCl and HCl-IP, and extracted by concentrated HCl and cHCl-IP, respectively) were lower in subalpine coniferous forests, indicating that coniferous forests are more likely to use recalcitrant IP than alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows. In this alpine region, land cover changes from subalpine coniferous forests to alpine shrubs and alpine shrub-meadows near the alpine timberline could decrease soil P conservation, availability, and supplementation.
EN
In the present study, we selected a total of 26 Salix sphaeronymphe Gorz shrubs of various sizes on a cutover in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to evaluate the effects of shrub size on richness, cover and biomass of the understorey herbaceous community, grasses and forbs, as well as litter cover and biomass. Results indicated that the richness of herbaceous community, grasses and forbs significantly increased with the increased area of both undershrub canopies and open field. However, the cover and biomass of the herbaceous community beneath the shrub canopies decreased with increasing shrub size. Grasses and forbs, as different functional groups, responded differently to the increasing area of shrubs: the cover and biomass of grasses decreased while those of forbs increased. The cover and biomass of herbaceous community, grasses and forbs in the open field did not obviously vary with area. Under the shrub canopies, the cover and mass of litter positively correlated to area, but this was not the case in the open field. Our results suggest that shrubs have a positive effect on diversity and a negative effect on the cover and productivity of the herbaceous community in forest secondary succession on the alpine cutovers, and that these effects are size.dependent. Moreover, different functional groups of herbaceous plants can respond differently to the presence of shrubs.
9
Content available remote Soil seed banks in lakeshore wetlands : relation to the extant vegetation
EN
Seed bank composition and germination characteristics are necessary for modeling wetland vegetation composition. Yet there are few studies about the seed bank difference between plant communities in lakeshore wetlands. Seed banks are also known to play important roles in the vegetation restoration process. Environmental factors such as water level, temperature, or nutrient levels can affect vegetation composition and seed bank composition. The relationships between environmental factors and seed banks of wetlands in the field are still unknown. The Jiuzhaigou Nature Reserve is located at the eastern edge of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The lakeshore wetland vegetation is dominated by Phragmites australis (Cav.)Trin. ex Steud., Typha latifolia L., Carex pamirensis C. B. Clarke, Equisetum fluviatile L. The wetlands in Jiuzhaigou (118 lakes) are under strong pressure such as trampling and enhanced construction for travel. Plant restoration is necessary for protection of these areas. We investigated the soil seed bank in six lakeshore wetlands in this area using the seedling emergence method. Sediment samples (0-2 cm, 2-5 cm, 5-10 cm intervals from surface to bottom) were taken with core (diameter 5 cm) in April and from each replicate samples were spread on two plastic trays. Trays were randomly arranged in the greenhouse and watered daily. Seedlings were counted weekly after emergence, and removed as soon as they could be identified. Our study showed that seed density in all soil layers samples was negatively correlated to water depth. Water depth can explain 45% variance of species richness in surface layer in sediment. Species richness in extant vegetation can explain 45, 48, 25% variance of species richness in total 10 cm and in 2-5 cm and 5-10 cm layer sediment respectively. Dominant species cover in extant vegetation, site altitude, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total organic carbon in soil showed no correlation with species richness in seed bank. Mean seed densities in wetlands ranged from 0 to 15945 m[^-2]. A total of 23 species germinated in seed bank, while 85 species were found in extant vegetation. The dominant species in seed bank and extant vegetation showed great difference. The total number of species and seedlings that germinated in different layers was not significantly different. But the second layer had the greatest seed density. The relationship between seed bank and extant vegetation differed from one species to another. We should use different restoration strategies for different plant communities.
EN
Long-term overgrazing has resulted in grassland deterioration and even desertification on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In this paper, we examined the characteristics of vegetation and soil properties in the livestock-excluded pastures and the adjacent grazed pastures under two topographic habitats (the flat valley and the south-facing slope). Seven-year exclusion of livestock has enhanced aboveground live biomass, root biomass and litter accumulation. Livestock exclusion has also increased soil bulk density and soil water content, soil organic C concentration, total N concentration and its transformation rate, and soil microbial activity. The results showed that livestock exclusion has facilitated vegetation recovery and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. However, livestock exclusion has significantly decreased graminoid biomass accumulation, especially on the flat valley, the biodiversity also significantly decreased there. The results suggested that long-term livestock exclusion was disadvantageous for palatable forage production and biodiversity protection on the flat valley. Compared to the flat valley, the grassland on the south-facing slope was under more severe degradation, and the reversion was in a slower process. Thus, the optimal grassland management in the livestock-excluded pasture on the flat valley should include a low or moderate grazing intensity or adopt an alternate grazing system, but more effective and even longer livestock exclusion practice should be taken on the south-facing slope.
EN
In alpine zones, cold season processes, particularly those associated with snow accumulation and ablation, have a central role in ecosystem functioning. However, we know very little about soil carbon and nitrogen processes under the snowpack in these ecosystems, including the Tibetan Plateau. We conducted an experiment comparing three snow regimes (11 m x 1 m plots) of different snow depths and durations at an altitude of 4,100 m in the Minshan Range on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The three snow regimes included a shallow and short duration snowpack (SS; depth <10 cm), a moderate snow depth and medium duration snowpack (MS; depth <20 cm), as well as a deep and long duration snowpack (DS; depth > 30 cm). This study explores the effects of different snow conditions on soil temperature, and further describes the sequence and timing of dissolved nutrients and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) in soils under different snow regimes during the autumn-winter transition (i.e. November 7, 2008 - March 7, 2009). Three successive phases of temperature change were distinguished: I - initial decline - soil temperatures dropped steadily from 4[degrees]C to about 0[degrees]C at the same rate for all three snow regimes; II - moderate freezing - soil temperatures fluctuated between 0[degrees]C and -7[degrees]C under all three snow regimes; III - multiple freeze-thaw cycles took place in the SS and MS regimes, but permanent freezing occurred in the DS regime. Under moderate freezing, we found that soil temperature fluctuation was an essential factor for the transformation of soil C and N. Our results indicate that larger temperature fluctuations correlate with a greater increase in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content increased markedly only under the most drastic temperature fluctuations. In contrast, MBC content increased significantly only when soil temperatures were relatively steady. Under the permanent freezing, only a large number of freeze-thaw cycles caused a significant decline of NO[^][3] -N and DOC concentrations. DON content declined markedly under permanent freezing and multiple freeze-thaw cycles. However, MBC content declined significantly only under permanent freezing. Ultimately, multiple freeze-thaw cycles resulted in the export of dissolved nutrients (organic and inorganic nitrogen) from the alpine ecosystem which had previously accumulated in the moderate freezing phase of the soil.
EN
To explore and describe the species richness patterns along altitudinal, high mountain gradients, two transects . northern exposure (YG) and southern exposure (TD) at Mt. Jiuding (1200.4200 m) in Western China (31[degrees]13'- 31[degrees]46'N, 103[degrees]29'-104[degrees]05'E) were selected. They differ from south to north in climate conditions and vegetation zonation, and each transect was sampled according to a uniform method. Every 200 m along the altitudinal gradient we set a sampling belt of 3000 m x 5 m to record the tree species, and 30 plots of 5 m x 5 m within every vegetation belt were used to investigate shrub and herb species. We compared the composition of plant species and calculated the coefficient of similarity between the two transects. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to describe the richness patterns. For the whole Mt. Jiuding, the richness at all three levels (species, genus and family) showed a monotonically decreasing pattern. As for the different growth forms, richness of the trees, shrubs and pteridophytes showed hump-shaped patterns; and herbs showed a slow decreasing pattern along the altitudinal gradients. In TD transect, the richness of species, genus and family also showed monotonically decreasing patterns; tree richness decreased with the increase of altitude; the shrub richness showed a humpshaped pattern; but pteridophytes and other herbs showed wave-like patterns. In YG transect, altitudinal gradient of richness at different taxonomic levels all showed hump-shaped patterns; and the species richness patterns for different growth forms peaked at middle attitude except for the graminoids and other herbs. The evolutionary history of the vegetation in Mt. Jiuding was quite consistent, and different richness patterns along altitudinal gradients might be resulted from different contemporary ecological conditions. Human disturbance and different range of altitudinal gradients were also important factors for different richness patterns between the two transects. In our study, species in different growth forms showed different altitudinal patterns, but those species with similar requirements to environmental conditions showed similar richness patterns along altitudinal gradients.
13
Content available remote Preparation and properties of organic/inorganic hybrid nanofibres
EN
Considerable attention has been paid to hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposites in recent years. Organic–inorganic hybrids have both the advantages of organic materials, such as a light weight, flexibility and good moldability, and inorganic materials, such as high strength, heat stability and chemical resistance. In this work, a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) organic-inorganic hybrid was prepared by the sol–gel technique. Electrospinning was used to fabricate PVAc/TiO2 hybrid nanofibres. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was employed to study the morphology of the hybrid nanofibres. The mechanical and thermal properties were examined by an electronic tensile instrument and thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. The results indicated that the mechanical and thermal properties were improved with TiO2 included in the hybrids.
PL
W ostatnich latach znacznie wzrosło zainteresowanie hybrydowymi włóknami organicznonieorganicznymi. Włókna te maja korzystne właściwości włókien organicznych takie jak małą gęstość, giętkość i dobrą podatność na zmianę kształtu oraz nieorganicznych jak wysoką wytrzymałość, stabilność termiczną i odporność chemiczną. Praca przedstawia otrzymywanie hybrydowych włókien PVAc/TiO2 metodą zol-żel poprzez elektroprzędzenie. Morfologia włókien była badana metodą SEM. Właściwości mechaniczne sprawdzano stosując zrywarkę sterowaną elektronicznie, podczas gdy właściwości termiczne badano metoda TGA. Wyniki wykazały, że właściwości mechaniczne i termiczne zostały poprawione dzięki wprowadzeniu TiO2 do matrycy polimerowej.
14
Content available remote The effect of habitat on methane emission from an alpine wetland
EN
Alpine wetland is a source for methane (CH[4]), an important greenhouse gas, but little is known about how this habitat influences the emission. To understand this wetland habitats were selected at the altitude of 3430 m a.s.l. (in National Wetland Nature Reserve of Zoige, Quingle - Tibetan Plateau) and the methane flux was measured with static chambers in three different sites, including hollows with Carex muliensis Hand - Mazz. and Eleocharis valleculosa Ohwi f. setosa (Ohwi) Kitagawa., grass hummocks composed of Kobresia tibetica Maxim, Cremanthodium pleurocaule R. D. Good, Potentilla bifurca L. and Pedicularis sp. We have found that in alpine wetland these habitats significantly affect CH[4] emissions in the onset (April, 2006) and peak (August, 2005) stages of growing season. Hollows covered with Carex muliensis and Eleocharis valleculosa had higher values of emission than grass hummocks built by several grass species. Slight difference of CH[4] emission was found between two kinds of hollows with Carex muliensis and Eleocharis valleculosa. These results were consistent with the change of water table, which was found best correlated with CH4 emissions (r[^2] = 0.43, P <0.01) in the peak stage of growing season. Directly measured shoot biomass and plant heights were best related to CH[4] emissions (r[^2] = 0.59, P <0.01). However, in the onset stage of growing season, variation of CH[4] emission may not be simply ascribed to changes in water table and vegetation structure.
EN
Natural regeneration of forest depends on the light regimes of floor. Point-based methods such as fisheye photo and radiometer can not provide a full panorama of light regime of heterogeneous forest stand. Eastern Tibetan Plateau is a major forest belt characteristic of diverse forest type and topographic differentiation. Understanding the trend of changes of light regime along succession series of forest may be helpful for the management of ecosystems. Fragmented forest patches due to tectonic activity and human intervention have made this prediction difficult. We use a spatially explicit forest stand light model (tRAYci) to simulate light distribution within forest in typical subalpine forest succession series of eastern Tibetan Plateau. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of tree distribution in the subalpine area, the forest stand can be approximated with a spatially explicit model of trees. Three typical subalpine forest stands (Sabina forest (SF), Fir forest (FF) and Birch forest (BF)) are selected in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. The dominant species are sabina (Sabina saltuaria (Rehd. et Wils.) Cheng), fir (Abies faxoniana Rehd. et Wils.) and birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) for each stand and they are spatially clumped in distribution. They represent old growth coniferous forest (SF, 330 years old), coniferous-broadleaved forest (FF, 180 ys) and pioneer broadleaved forest (BF, 40 ys). The parameters of the three-dimensional model of trees are calibrated with field measurements. The simulated values are generally consistent with observed values of radiation measured by radiometers installed in these stands and values derived from fisheye photos. Test failures may be caused by the incomplete submodel of crown as a gap free one. Light regimes in old growth and pioneer forest are much more heterogeneous than intermediate stages of forest. Light regimes of these forests are also reflected by the composition of understory herb layers.
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