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EN
Mid-infrared laser spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for trace gases detection. In this study, a spectroscopic system based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) was developed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements. Primary laboratory test on ethanol spectroscopy was investigated and compared with traditional direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS). Experimental results show that the proposed QEPAS is more sensitive than the conventional DAS method. In addition, the significant linear dependence of photoacoustic signal on sample pressures and laser operating parameters was observed.
EN
The field of mechanical manufacturing is becoming more and more demanding on machining accuracy. It is essential to monitor and compensate the deformation of structural parts of a heavy-duty machine tool. The deformation of the base of a heavy-duty machine tool is an important factor that affects machining accuracy. The base is statically indeterminate and complex in load. It is difficult to reconstruct deformation by traditional methods. A reconstruction algorithm for determining bending deformation of the base of a heavy-duty machine tool using inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is presented. The base is equivalent to a multi-span beam which is divided into beam elements with support points as nodes. The deflection polynomial order of each element is analysed. According to the boundary conditions, the deformation compatibility conditions and the strain data measured by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), the deflection polynomial coefficients of a beam element are determined. Using the coordinate transformation, the deflection equation of the base is obtained. Both numerical verification and experiment were carried out. The deflection obtained by the reconstruction algorithm using iFEM and the actual deflection measured by laser displacement sensors were compared. The accuracy of the reconstruction algorithm is verified.
EN
The traditional reliability analysis methods based on probability theory and fuzzy set theory have been widely used in engineering practice. However, these methods are unable directly measure the uncertainty of mechanism reliability with uncertain variables, i.e., subjective random and fuzzy variables. In order to address this problem, a new quantification method for the mechanism reliability based on chance theory is presented to simultaneously satisfy the duality of randomness and the subadditivity of fuzziness in the reliability problem. Considering the fact that systems usually have multilevel performance and the components have multimode failures, this paper proposes a chance theory based multi-state performance reliability model. In the proposed method, the chance measure is adopted instead of probability and possibility measures to quantify the mechanism reliability for the subjective probability or fuzzy variables. The hybrid variables are utilized to represent the random and fuzzy parameters, based on which solutions are derived to analyze the chance theory based mechanism reliability with chance distributions. Since the input parameters of the model contain fuzziness and randomness simultaneously, an algorithm based on chance measure is designed. The experimental results on the case application demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
PL
Tradycyjne metody analizy niezawodności oparte na teorii prawdopodobieństwa i teorii zbiorów rozmytych znajdują szerokie zastosowanie w praktyce inżynierskiej. Jednak metod tych nie można stosować do bezpośredniego pomiaru niepewności niezawodności przy niepewnych zmiennych, tj. subiektywnych zmiennych losowych i rozmytych. Aby zaradzić temu problemowi, przedstawiono nową metodę kwantyfikacji niezawodności opartą na teorii szansy, która jednocześnie spełnia aksjomaty dwoistości losowości oraz subaddytywności związanej z rozmytością w problemach niezawodności. Biorąc pod uwagę fakt, że systemy zazwyczaj charakteryzują się wielopoziomową strukturą, a uszkodzenia elementów składowych mają charakter wieloprzyczynowy, w niniejszym artykule zaproponowano model niezawodności eksploatacji systemu wielostanowego oparty na teorii szansy. W proponowanej metodzie, zamiast miar prawdopodobieństwa i możliwości, do kwantyfikacji niezawodności, w przypadku gdy dane są subiektywne zmienne losowe lub zmienne rozmyte, przyjęto miarę szansy wystąpienia zdarzenia. Do reprezentacji parametrów losowych i rozmytych wykorzystano zmienne hybrydowe, które stanowią podstawę dla wyprowadzenia rozwiązań w celu analizy niezawodności mechanizmu opartej na teorii szansy z rozkładem szans. Ponieważ parametry wejściowe modelu noszą jednocześnie znamiona rozmytości i losowości, opracowano algorytm oparty na mierze szansy. Wyniki eksperymentalne otrzymane na podstawie studium przypadku dowodzą poprawności proponowanej metody.
EN
In this study, the modification mechanism and growth process of Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in as-cast Al-Si-Mg-Cu based alloy with addition of Sc and Zr were systematically investigated. It was found that 0.57 wt-%Sc addition caused a significant refinement in the average grain size of the investigated alloy, which brought about a remarkable transformation in as-cast microstructure, from thick dendritic shape to fine equiaxed structure. A large amount of primary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles with the dimension of around 5-6 μm were also observed within the equiaxed grain. Due to the identical orientation and similar crystal structure between primary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles and α-Al matrix, the primary particles always served as heterogeneous nucleus for the α-Al matrix. In addition, these cusped cubic primary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles showed triangle, star, rhomboid morphologies are generated from sectioning the particle in (111), (100) and (110) planes, respectively. Particularly, the typical eutectic structure which contained odd number-layer (Al3(Sc, Zr)+α-Al+ ... +Al3(Sc, Zr)) was observed within the investigated particles.
EN
Volcanic ash clouds threaten the aviation safety and cause global environmental effects. It is possible to effectively monitor the volcanic ash cloud with the aid of thermal infrared remote sensing technology. Principal component analysis (PCA) is able to remove the inter-band correlation and eliminate the data redundancy of remote sensing data. Taking the Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash clouds formed on 15 and 19 April 2010 as an example, in this paper, the PCA method is used to monitor the volcanic ash cloud based on MODIS bands selection; the USGS standard spectral database and the volcanic absorbing aerosol index (AAI) are applied as contrasts to the monitoring result. The results indicate that: the PCA method is much simpler; its spectral matching rates reach 74.65 and 76.35%, respectively; and the PCA method has higher consistency with volcanic AAI distribution.
EN
This paper is concerned with the problem of designing a robust modified repetitive-control system with a dynamic output feedback controller for a class of strictly proper plants. Employing the continuous lifting technique, a continuous-discrete two-dimensional (2D) model is built that accurately describes the features of repetitive control. The 2D control input contains the direct sum of the effects of control and learning, which allows us to adjust control and learning preferentially. The singular-value decomposition of the output matrix and Lyapunov stability theory are used to derive an asymptotic stability condition based on a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). Two tuning parameters in the LMI manipulate the preferential adjustment of control and learning. A numerical example illustrates the tuning procedure and demonstrates the effectiveness of the method.
7
Content available remote Positional accuracy of GPS satellite almanac
EN
How to accelerate signal acquisition and shorten starting time are key problems in the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS satellite almanac plays an important role in signal reception period. Almanac accuracy directly affects the speed of GPS signal acquisition, the start time of the receiver, and even the system performance to some extent. Combined with precise ephemeris products released by the International GNSS Service (IGS), the authors analyse GPS satellite almanac from the first day to the third day in the 1805th GPS week (from August 11 to 13, 2014 in the Gregorian calendar). The results show that mean of position errors in three-dimensional coordinate system varies from about 1 kilometer to 3 kilometers, which can satisfy the needs of common users.
EN
A simple process of texturing silicon (Si) surfaces using gold (Au)-catalyzed wet chemical etching was used to form black Si (BS) on a (100) p-type substrate. The surface became uniformly black after 6 min, with a resulting reflectivity of < 2% over the 400 nm to 1100 nm wavelength range. Large areas (153.18 cm2) of black Si solar cells (BSSCs) with an n+-p-p+ structure were also fabricated using conventional processes, including POCl3 diffusion, screen printing, and co-firing. The resulting cells were divided into two groups according to the emitter (46 and 37 [omega]/􀀀), and their output parameters were studied. The best convention efficiency (Eff) was < 10%. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) was particularly low because of poor surface passivation, and the shunt resistance (Rsh) linearly decreased with the series resistance (Rs). Electroluminescence (EL) and infrared thermography (ITG) measurements were conducted to characterize the BSSCs. Both the emissivity and temperature were low and nonuniform. Optimizing the fabrication process by reducing the etching depth and lowering the dopant sheet resistance led to significant improvement in Voc (~48 mV) and Eff (~3.8% absolute). EL and ITG measurements indicate that Rs is another important factor that accounts for the poor properties of the BSSCs.
PL
W artykule opisano proces teksturowania powierzchni krzemowej w procesie wytrawiania chemicznego z katalizatorem w formie złota, na potrzeby produkcji czarnego krzemu (BS) na podłożu p. Zastosowane rozwiązanie m. in. optymalizacji procesu teksturowania, poprzez redukcję głębokości wytrawiania dało znaczącą poprawę napięcia Voc oraz Eff. Wykonane badania wskazują, że rezystancja szeregowa Rs stanowi ważny czynnik wpływający na działanie ogniw słonecznych, zbudowanych z czarnego krzemu.
EN
A simple process of texturing silicon (Si) surfaces using gold (Au)-catalyzed wet chemical etching was used to form black Si (BS) on a (100) p-type substrate. The surface became uniformly black after 6 min, with a resulting reflectivity of < 2% over the 400 nm to 1100 nm wavelength range. Large areas (153.18 cm 2) of black Si solar cells (BSSCs) with an n + -p-p + structure were also fabricated using conventional processes, including POCl3 diffusion, screen printing, and co-firing. The resulting cells were divided into two groups according to the emitter (46 and 37 Ω/), and their output parameters were studied. The best convention efficiency (Eff) was < 10%. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) was particularly low because of poor surface passivation, and the shunt resistance (Rsh) linearly decreased with the series resistance (Rs). Electroluminescence (EL) and infrared thermography (ITG) measurements were conducted to characterize the BSSCs. Both the emissivity and temperature were low and nonuniform. Optimizing the fabrication process by reducing the etching depth and lowering the dopant sheet resistance led to significant improvement in Voc (~48 mV) and Eff (~3.8% absolute). EL and ITG measurements indicate that Rs is another important factor that accounts for the poor properties of the BSSCs.
PL
Do wytworzenia czarnego krzemu (BS) na podłożu typu p-Si(100) zastosowano prosty sposób teksturowania powierzchni krzemowej metodą chemicznej akwaforty na mokro z zastosowaniem, jako katalizatora, nanocząstek złota (Au). Podłoże staje się jednolicie czarne po 6 min, osiągając współczynnik odbicia < 2% w zakresie długości fali od 400 nm do 1100 nm. Wykonano również dużą powierzchnię czarnych krzemowych ogniw słonecznych (BSSC), ze strukturą n + - p -n +, konwencjonalnymi metodami obejmującymi dyfuzję POC13,drukowanie maski i wyżarzanie. Otrzymane ogniwa dzielą się na dwie grupy w zależności od emitera (46 i 37Ω/): zbadano ich wyjściowe parametry. Najlepsza uzyskana wydajność wynosi < 10%. Napięcie obwodu otwartego (Voc) jest szczególnie niskie z powodu słabej pasywacji powierzchni, a rezystancja równoległa (Rsh) liniowo maleje z rezystancją szeregową (Rs). Charakterystykę BSSC określają pomiary elektroluminescencji (EL) i tomografii w podczerwieni (ITG).Zarówno emisyjność jak i temperatura są niskie i niejednorodne. Optymalizacja procesu wykonana przez zmniejszenie głębokości akwaforty i obniżenie rezystancji warstwy domieszkowania prowadzi do znaczącej poprawy Voc (ok. 48mV) i Eff (ok. 3,8%).
10
Content available remote Enrichment and molecular diversity of anammox bacteria in uasb reaktor
EN
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria were successfully enriched in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. In this balanceable ecosystem, the proportion between the conversion of ammonium and nitrite and the production of nitrate was found to be 1: 1.30: 0.29, and the removal efficiency of TN reached 90.35%. The microbial community and its diversity in enrichment cultures have been characterized using microscopy and molecular biotechnology. Based on 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis, we found four strains in the amplified DNA fragments. Three new species of anammox bacteria were found in this ecosystem.
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