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EN
An investigation made on the effect of Hall currents on double-diffusive convection of a compressible synovial (couple-stress) fluid in the presence of a horizontal magnetic field through a porous layer is considered. The analysis is carried out within the framework of linear stability theory and normal mode technique. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, compressibility, magnetic field and porous layer is derived. For the stationary convection, a synovial fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. The stable-solute gradient, compressibility, and magnetic field have postponed the onset of convection, whereas Hall currents and medium permeability have not postponed the onset of convection, moreover, a synovial fluid has a dual character in the presence of Hall currents, whereas in the absence of Hall current in synovial fluid have postponed the onset of convection, which is in contrast in case of thermal convection couple-stress fluid with same effects. These analytic results are confirmed numerically and the effects of various parameters are depicted graphically. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, magnetic field, porous medium and Hall currents which were non- existent in their absence. The sufficient conditions for the non-existence of overstability are also obtained.
EN
Thermal Instability (Benard’s Convection) in the presence of uniform rotation and uniform magnetic field (separately) is studied. Using the linearized stability theory and normal mode analyses the dispersion relation is obtained in each case. In the case of rotatory Benard’s stationary convection compressibility and rotation postpone the onset of convection whereas the couple-stress have duel character onset of convection depending on rotation parameter. While in the absence of rotation couple-stress always postpones the onset of convection. On the other hand, magnetic field on thermal instability problem on couple-stress fluid for stationary convection couple-stress parameter and magnetic field postpones the onset of convection. The effect of compressibility also postpones the onset of convection in both cases as rotation and magnetic field. Graphs have been plotted by giving numerical values to the parameters to depict the stationary characteristics. Further, the magnetic field and rotation are found to introduce oscillatory modes which were non-existent in their absence and then the principle of exchange of stability is valid. The sufficient conditions for non-existence of overstability are also obtained.
EN
The thermal instability of a Kuvshiniski viscoelastic fluid is considered to include the effects of a uniform horizontal magnetic field, suspended particles saturated in a porous medium. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear stability theory and normal mode technique. For the case of stationary convection, the Kuvshiniski viscoelastic fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid and the magnetic field has a stabilizing effect, whereas medium permeability and suspended particles are found to have a destabilizing effect on the system, oscillatory modes are introduced in the system, in the absence of these the principle of exchange of stabilities is valid. Graphs in each case have been plotted by giving numerical values to the parameters, depicting the stability characteristics. Sufficient conditions for the avoidance of overstability are also obtained.
4
Content available remote Development of a real time emotion classifier based on evoked EEG
EN
Our quality of life is more dependent on our emotions than on physical comforts alone. This is motivation enough to classify emotions using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. This paper describes the acquisition of evoked EEG signals for classification of emotions into four quadrants. The EEG signals have been collected from 24 subjects on three electrodes (Fz, Cz and Pz) along the central line. The absolute and differential attributes of single trial ERPs have been used to classify emotions. The single trial ERP attributes collected from each electrode have been used for developing an emotion classifier for each subject. The accuracy of classification of emotions into four classes lies between 62.5–83.3% for single trials. The subject independent analysis has been done using absolute and differential attributes of single trial signals of ERP. An overall accuracy of 55% has been obtained on Fz electrode for multi subject trials. The methodology used to classify emotions by fixing the attributes for classification of emotions brings us a step closer to developing a real time emotion recognition system with benefits including applications like Brain-Computer Interface for locked-in subjects, emotion classification for highly sensitive jobs like fighter pilots etc.
EN
Stochastic resonance (SR) performs the enhancement of the low in contrast image with the help of noise. The present paper proposes a modified neuron model based stochastic resonance approach applied for the enhancement of T1 weighted, T2 weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences of magnetic resonance imaging. Multi objective bat algorithm has been applied to tune the parameters of the modified neuron model for the maximization of two competitive image performance indices contrast enhancement factor (F) and mean opinion score (MOS). The quality of processed image depends on the choice of these image performance indices rather the selection of SR parameters. The proposed approach performs well on enhancement of magnetic resonance (MR) images, as a result there is improvement in the gray-white matter differentiation and has been found helpful in the better diagnosis of MR images.
EN
An investigation is made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible couple-stress fluid in the presence of a horizontal magnetic field saturated in a porous medium. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear stability theory and normal mode technique. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, Hall currents, compressibility, magnetic field and porous medium is derived. For the stationary convection a couple-stress fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. Compressibility, the magnetic filed and couple-stress parameter have stabilizing effects on the system whereas Hall currents and medium permeability have a destabilizing effect on the system, but in the absence of Hall current couple-stress has a destabilizing effect on the system. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, magnetic field porous medium and Hall currents which were non-existent in their absence.
EN
The instability of the plane interface between two uniform, superposed and streaming Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluids through porous media, including the ‘effective interfacial tension’ effect, is considered. In the absence of the ‘effective interfacial tension’ stability/instability of the system as well as perturbations transverse to the direction of streaming are found to be unaffected by the presence of streaming if perturbations in the direction of streaming are ignored, whereas for perturbation in all other directions, there exists instability for a certain wave number range. The ‘effective interfacial tension’ is able to suppress this Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for small wavelength perturbations, the medium porosity reduces the stability range given in terms of a difference in streaming velocities.
8
Content available Resource scheduling in cloud environmet: a survey
EN
Cloud Computing offers the avant-garde services at a stretch that are too attractive for any cloud user to ignore. With its growing application and popularization, IT companies are rapidly deploying distributed data centers globally, posing numerous challenges in terms of scheduling of resources under different administrative domains. This perspective brings out certain vital factors for efficient scheduling of resources providing a wide genre of characteristics, diversity in context of level of service agreements and that too with user-contingent elasticity. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of research related to various aspects of cloud resource scheduling is provided. A comparative analysis of various resource scheduling techniques focusing on key performance parameters like Energy efficiency, Virtual Machine allocation and migration, Cost-effectiveness and Service-Level Agreement is also presented.
EN
Cloud computing is a business model with high degree of flexibility, scalability in providing infrastructure, platform and software as a service over the internet. Cloud promises for easiness and reduced expense to service providers and consumers. However, a lack of trust between these two stakeholders has hindered the universal accep¬tance of cloud for outsourced services. In this paper, a fuzzy based trust management system is proposed to facilitate cloud consumers in identifying trustworthy providers. The performance of the proposed system is validated through a simulation using CloudAnalyst and Simulink.
EN
In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel’s third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K (K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a “very high” K index which is 6.
EN
The alternative system of medicines like Unani and Ayurveda is preferred worldwide nowadays due to its therapeutic efficacy, lower side effects, holistic approach, psychological dimensions, and qualitative action of weather and seasonal requirement. A simple procedure is described for the simultaneous extraction and estimation of piperlongumine and piperine in a well-known Unani polyherbal formulation using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatography was carried out on reversed-phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm) column with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile—water (50:50 v/v). Detection was accomplished with ultraviolet (UV) detection at λ = 325 nm. The flow rate was kept as 1.0 mL−1. The proposed method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for accuracy (94.4–105.0%), precision (0.37–2.17% RSD), and robustness (0.14–2.11% RSD). The limit of detection (LOD) values were found as 30 and 10 ng mL−1, while limit of quantification (LOQ) was 100 and 30 ng mL−1 for piperlongumine and piperine, respectively, which proved the sensitivity of the method satisfactory enough for accurate analysis of the both piperlongumine and piperine.
EN
The influence of higher order fiber dispersions (like chromatic dispersion and dispersion slope) on the optical millimeter-wave generation is studied. Optical sideband suppression ratio and radio frequency spurious suppression ratio are given and discussed. Moreover, the mathematical results of the proposed model are verified by experiments and numerical simulations.
EN
The instability of plane interface between two superposed Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluids saturated through a porous medium has been studied to include the suspended (dust) particles effect. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis the dispersion relation is obtained. For stationary convection, the Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid behaves like Newtonian fluids. It found that for a potentially stable arrangement the Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid of different permeabilities in the presence of suspended particles in a porous medium is stable, whereas in a potentially unstable case instability of the system occurs. In the presence of a magnetic field for a potentially stable arrangement the system is always stable and for the potentially unstable arrangement, the magnetic field succeeds in stabilizing certain wave-number band which was unstable in the absence of the magnetic field.
EN
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed Walters’ B has elastico-viscous fluids in a uniform magnetic field through a porous medium with different permeability been studied to include the suspended (dust) particles effect. Using normal mode technique a dispersion relation has been derived. The stability analysis has been carried out. The magnetic field stabilizes the unstable configuration for the wave number band K > K* in chich the system is unstable in the absence of the magnetic field. It is also found that for a potential stable arrangement for Walters B’ elastico-viscous fluids of different permeabilities in the presence of suspended particles through a porous medium the system is stable, whereas in the potentially unstable case instability of the system occurs.
EN
High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the quantification of eugenol from nanostructured drug delivery systems was successfully developed and validated. The mobile phase consisted of n-hexane:acetone (7:3, v/v), and the densitometric scanning was performed in the absorbance mode at 280 nm. The method was valid with respect to linearity and range, accuracy, precision, specificity, detection limit (DL), and quantitation limit (QL). The linearity of the method was established by a correlation coefficient value of 0.9930 ± 0.0013. The precision was tested by checking intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (intermediate precision) variations. The method was established to be precise by low relative standard deviation (RSD) values for different concentration of eugenol. The results of the recovery studies of eugenol from preanalyzed samples demonstrated the accuracy of the method. The specificity of the developed method for the analysis of eugenol in the nanoemulsion gel and nanoparticles samples was confirmed by comparing the spectra obtained in standard and sample analysis. The DL and QL were determined to be 31.41 and 95.17 ng band−1, respectively, for the HPTLC method. The forced degradation studies revealed on eugenol established the effectiveness of the developed and validated method. The developed and validated HPTLC method was found to be a stability-indicating one, as indicated by the results of forced degradation studies, for its use during the accelerated stability studies of the nanoemulsion gels and nanoparticles of eugenol.
16
Content available remote On thermosolutal convection in presence of compressible fluid with fine dust
EN
A layer of a Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid heated and soluted from below in the presence of compressibility and suspended particles (fine dust) effect is considered. For stationary convection, the Rivlin- Ericksen, elastico-viscous fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of a stable solute gradient, suspended particles destabilize the system whereas the stable solute gradient has a stabilizing effect on the system and the effect of compressibility is to postpone the onset of thermosolutal convection. The stable solute gradient and compressibility postpone the onset of convection, whereas the suspended particles hasten the onset of convection. The stable solute gradient introduces oscillatory modes in the systems which were non-existent in its absence.
EN
An analytical solution for the space-time variation of contaminant concentration in one-dimensional transient groundwater flow in a homogenous semi-infinite aquifer, subjected to time-dependent source contamination, is derived. The uniform and time varying dispersion along transient groundwater flow is investigated under two conditions. First, the flow velocity distribution in the aquifer is considered as a sinusoidally varying function, and second, the flow velocity distribution is treated as an exponentially increasing function of time. It is assumed that initially the aquifer is not solute free, so the initial background concentration is considered as an exponentially decreasing function of the space variable which is tending to zero at infinity. It is assumed that dispersion is directly proportional to the square of the velocity, noting that experimental observations indicate that dispersion is directly proportional to the velocity with a power ranging from 1 to 2. The analytical solution is illustrated using an example and may help benchmark numerical codes and solutions.
EN
Andrographolide and betulinic acid are the terpenoids having potential anti-cancer activity. The cytotoxicity activity of both the drugs was carried out separately and in combination on liver cancer HepG2 cell lines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) methods were developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of these two terpenoids as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, which was applied for quantification in nanoformulation. The retention time by HPLC and retardation factor by HPTLC for andrographolide and betulinic acid were found to be 2.2 and 6.6 min, and 0.24 ± 0.01 and 0.66 ± 0.01, respectively. Both the methods were validated for accuracy, precision, repeatability, robustness, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The content of andrographolide and betulinic acid in nanoformulation was found to be 96.0% and 98.0% by HPLC and 96.59% and 98.33% by HPTLC, respectively, of labelled claim.
EN
The effect of Hall currents and suspended dusty particles on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible, electrically conducting Rivlin-Ericksen elastico viscous fluid in a porous medium is considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, Hall currents and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effects whereas compressibility and magnetic field have stabilizing effects on the system. The medium permeability, however, has stabilizing and destabilizing effects on thermal instability in contrast to its destabilizing effect in the absence of the magnetic field. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers are depicted graphically. The magnetic field, Hall currents and viscoelasticity parameter are found to introduce oscillatory modes in the systems, which did not exist in the absence of these parameters.
EN
The thermal instability of a layer of a Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid permeated with suspended particles in a porous medium acted on by a uniform magnetic field is considered. For stationary convection, the Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous field behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The magnetic field is found to have a stabilizing effect, whereas suspended particles and medium permeability have a destabilizing effect for the case of stationary convection. The magnetic field introduces oscillatory modes in the systems, which were non-existent in its absence.
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