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PL
Podstawowym celem pracy, wykonanej w ramach strategii badawczej dotyczącej aktualnie zachodzących zmian klimatu regionalnego Pomorza i Kujaw było zaprzeczenie hipotezie o zwiększającej się częstości i intensywności występowania susz w okresie wzmożonych potrzeb wodnych kukurydzy, obejmującym miesiące czerwiec i lipiec, w latach 1981-2010. Praca miała także na celu potwierdzenie istotnej zależności między wskaźnikami charakteryzującymi suszę meteorologiczną i rolniczą. Materiał do badań stanowiły dane z pięciu meteorologicznych punktów pomiarowych zlokalizowanych w regionie. Zastosowano metody statystyczne stosowane w opracowaniach klimatologicznych, między innymi metodę trendów z zastosowaniem równań regresji liniowej. Średnie wieloletnie 1981-2010 wysokości opadów w okresie wzmożonych potrzeb wodnych kukurydzy (VI-VII) w miejscowościach regionu Pomorza i Kujaw cechowała zmienność przestrzenna wynosząca 22,6%. Częstość występowania susz meteorologicznych w okresie czerwca i lipca wyniosła 26,7-33,3%. Nie stwierdzono istotnych zmian częstości i intensywności występowania tych susz wraz upływem lat od 1981 do 2010. Produkcja kukurydzy w regionie Pomorza i Kujaw jest prowadzona w warunkach częstego występowania niedoborów opadów atmosferycznych w okresie wzmożonych potrzeb wodnych, które maksymalnie wynoszą od -91 do -124 mm, w zależności od miejscowości. Niedobory te nie wykazały istotnych, ukierunkowanych zmian w latach 1981-2010.
EN
The objective of the work, carried out as part of research programme on current change of the regional climate, was to confirm the hypothesis about the increasing frequency and intensity of droughts occurring during the high water needs of corn, during the period of June and July, in the region of Pomorze and Kujawy in the years 1981-2010. Furthermore, the aim was to confirm a significant relationship between indicators characterizing meteorological and agricultural droughts. Material for the research was data from five meteorological measuring points located in the region. Statistical methods used in climatological studies were applied, particularly the method of trends. The average multi-annual totals (1981-2010) of rainfall in the period of high water needs of corn (June-July) in the region of the Pomorze and Kujawy were characterized by spatial variability amounts to 22.6%. The frequency of meteorological drought in June through July is 26.7-33.3%. In the analyzed period there were no significant changes in the frequency and intensity of these droughts with the passage of years. Rainfall shortages in corn production extend to maximum of - 91 to - 124 mm, depended on the locality. The shortages did not show any significant changes in the years of the study.
EN
In this paper we study the existence of solutions of a nonlinear quadratic integral equation of fractional order. This equation is considered in the Banach space of real functions defined, continuous and bounded on the real half axis. Additionally, using the technique of measures of noncompactness we obtain some characterization of considered integral equation. We provide also an example illustrating the applicability of our approach.
EN
The aim of the research was the evaluation of sprinkler irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on some selected features of the quality of malt and wort from ‘Marthe’ and ‘Mauritia’ malting barley grains. The field experiment was carried out in the years 2010-2012 at the Research Station of the University of Science and Technology in Mochełek near Bydgoszcz. As a result of 3-year field experiment and laboratory test of grain, malt and wort, it was found that introducing sprinkler irrigation into the production process of malting barley is a step justified by the obtained quality effects. It was found that in the case of irrigated malting barley cultivations nitrogen fertilization at the rate of 30 kg·ha-1 provides (in relation to control, non-irrigated treatment) the highest values of such parameters as weight of the technical barley crops, content of protein, extractivity of Pilsen type malt, amount of obtained wort and simplified mashing efficiency. The combination of sprinkler irrigation of malting barley plants with their nitrogen fertilization at the increased rates of 60 and 90 kg·ha-1, resulted in the following effect – high mass of the usable grain of crops remained but their quality deteriorated. Malt produced from malting barley fertilized with nitrogen at the rates of 60 and 90 kg·ha-1, in spite of applied sprinkler irrigation, was characterized by unacceptable – from the technological point of view - increased content of protein in malt in the amount of over 11.5% d.m., as well as huge decrease in malt extractivity (even by 2%) and lower, simplified mashing efficiency (below 70%).
EN
To evaluate the economic efficiency of irrigation in corn cultivated for grain, production effects were used, which were obtained from studies conducted by researcher team from the Department of Land Reclamation and Agrometeorology at the Experiment Station of the UTP University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz in 2005-2016. The research covered the effect of irrigation on yielding of the crop. Economic efficiency calculations were made using the direct surplus increase calculation method. In each variant irrigation enhanced production effects. It was not always economically justified, however. The irrigation costs (for drip and sprinkler irrigation systems) per hectare were decreasing with an increase in acreage. Applying drip irrigation was economically unjustified in moist years and on average in the multi-year period. In the years with dry and average precipitation conditions the direct surplus was positive, except for irrigation of 1 ha. As for the sprinkler-irrigation system, a lack of economic efficiency was reported in moist years, whereas in dry and average years as well as on average in the multi-year period, except for 1 hectare acreage, corn sprinkler-irrigation was economically justified.
EN
The aim of the research was an evaluation of the frequency and intensity of agricultural droughts and their effects in the province of Kujawsko-Pomorskie as well as to indicate ways of increasing productivity in such drought periods by applying irrigation. It was found that the drought periods around Bydgoszcz occurred in 17 vegetation seasons out of 30 analysed. They were differentiated by intensity and duration but were also characterized by high irregularity of their occurrence. In the past 30-year period, droughts were especially intensified in the years 1989-1995. In the years 2001-2005 droughts were rare (36%), as compared with the previous 15-year period of 1986-2000 (64%). Crop production of some selected agricultural cultivations in the province of Kujawsko-Pomorskie depended to a large extent on the degree of precipitation shortages in the periods of intensified water demand. The best correlations and determination coefficients exceeding 80% concerned maize cultivations. The occurrence of droughts, expressed by the degree of atmospheric precipitation shortages in June and July, led to a decrease in grain crops in the province by 13%, on average. In the extremely dry year of 2006, a decrease by 27%, in relation to average crops, was observed. Active methods of minimizing effects of agricultural droughts are connected mainly with the development of irrigation systems. In the experiments conducted in the years 2006-2016, it was shown that the application of irrigation of barley and maize in the drought periods not only prevented 40-45% decrease in crops but also provided higher cropping level (by 33-40%) than the one obtained on average without irrigation.
EN
The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect and interaction of sprinkler irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation on the grain yield and baking value of ‘Monsun’ spring wheat cultivar grown in light compacted soil. A field experiment was performed in 2013-2014 in an experimental field of the Department of Land Improvement and Agrometeorology, the UTP University of Science and Technology, at Mochełek, in the vicinity of Bydgoszcz. It was found that sprinkler irrigation significantly increased the spring wheat grain yield. The grain from sprinkler-irrigated stands demonstrated greater plumpness; it contained significantly less protein and gluten and showed a lower sedimentation value, as compared with the grain of non-sprinkler-irrigated plants. However, the protein yield produced under sprinkler irrigation conditions was on average 11% higher, compared to the control conditions. The effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the spring wheat grain yield and quality corre¬spond to earlier findings. Similarly to other research reports, a regular yield increase and enhanced quality of baking features along with an increase in the nitrogen rate were identified. Considering the quantitative and baking features of the grain yield, it was found that the optima nitrogen fertilisation rate in ‘Monsun’ spring wheat, in both water variants, was 180 kg.ha-1 (pre-sowing 120 kg .ha-1 and top dressing 60 kg ha-1).
EN
Inconel 718 is a precipitation hardenable nickel-iron based superalloy. It has exceptionally high strength and ductility compared to other metallic materials. This is due to intense precipitation of the γ’ and γ” strengthening phases in the temperature range 650-850°C. The main purpose of the authors was to analyze the aging process in Inconel 718 obtained in accordance with AMS 5596, and its effect on the mechanical properties. Tensile and hardness tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties, in the initial aging process and after reheating, as a function of temperature and time respectively in the ranges 650°-900°C and 5-480 min. In addition, to link the mechanical properties with the microstructure transmission microscopy observations were carried out in selected specimens. As a result, factors influencing the microstructure changes at various stages of strengthening were observed. The authors found that the γ’’ phase nucleates mostly homogenously in the temperature range 650-750°C, causing the greatest increase in strength. On the other hand, the γ’ and δ phases are formed heterogeneously at 850°C or after longer annealing in 800°C, which may weaken the material.
8
Content available remote The development of metal spinning — new opportunities and possibilities
EN
Metal spinning is a forming process known since ancient times. However on an industrial scale it is used from the beginning of the twentieth century. Thanks to the technology it is possible to obtain complex axisymmetric shapes with excellent mechanical and surface properties. It is a promising forming technology that is becoming more popular especially in advanced application such as aircraft industry. It has a lot of advantages; among others it allows shaping the material properties in a larger extent than the commonly used metalworking methods. Furthermore since 2001 for the first time laser assisted heating was used in the process enhancing it even further. The article presents the metal spinning technology and its current developments. Additional practical aspects were described in the research and underlined by the authors. The last paragraph concerns sample results of mechanical tests carried out on the fabricated elements that show the possible application of the method particularly in the aircraft industry. The hardness of the cold formed element increased more than twice after 70% reduction in cross section in a single tool movement. In the longer term perspective laser assisted metal spinning could reduce the costs and improve the properties of the currently used aircraft engine parts by eliminating intermediate annealing.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono technologię kształtowania obrotowego i najnowsze osiągnięcia w tej dziedzinie. Ponadto opisano praktyczne aspekty obróbki wraz z wytycznymi technologicznymi. Przedstawiono przykładowe wyniki badań właściwości mechanicznych elementów otrzymanych przez autorów w ramach projektu FLOWFO, które pokazują możliwości zastosowania opisywanej metody, szczególnie w przemyśle lotniczym. Twardość materiału po obróbce na zimno zwiększyła się ponad 2,5-krotnie w porównaniu z materiałem wyjściowym przy redukcji przekroju o ponad 70% w jednym procesie technologicznym.
EN
This paper analysed the direction and the degree of significance of changes in selected indicators of climate risk for grain maize in the long-term period of 1985-2014 for the Bydgoszcz region. On the basis of meteorological data originating from the Research Station of the Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology in Mochełek, the following unfavourable weather factors for maize cultivation were determined: a shortened period of plant active growth, the occurrence of late spring ground frosts, meteorological droughts and agricultural droughts. On the basis of the research conducted, a high temporal variability was found for weather conditions that are unfavourable for maize cultivation, as such conditions occurred with varied frequency, depending on the type of the adverse factor and the assumed criterion for its determination. No significant trends were found regarding the changes in the examined climate risk indicators for production of maize grain over the period between 1985 and 2014, apart from an increase in the number of moderate and strong late spring frosts. The research demonstrated an increase in temporal variability of the length of the plant active growth period and the occurrence of moderate and strong late spring frosts, as well as a clear decrease in temporal variability of maize water supply in 2000-2014 as compared to the previous 15-year period of 1984-1999.
EN
An effective optimization process carried out in industrial conditions requires multiple actions in many different areas and the dynamic nature of the manufacturing system and its environment enforce its constant repetition. The paper presents selected techniques for increasing production flow efficiency that can be regarded as a first step of production flow optimization. The considered model was built on the basis of a real production system of mechanical industry, located in Silesia, Poland. A number of improvement actions was proposes, among which the most significant are: elimination of unused and slightly loaded resources, changing transportation lots between workstations, strengthening bottlenecks and optimization of a schedule. In the study the KBRS scheduling system [10] as a tool for solve complex scheduling problems and supporting particular simulations was used. In the result of carried out activities the significant improvements of the production schedule was achieved, in comparison to initial schedule.
EN
The article presents welding imperfections in TIG-welded T-joints of thin-walled elements made using filler metal wire. The study discusses both typical, i.e. specified in PN-EN ISO 6520-1:2009 and untypical imperfections, i.e. not classified in the standard mentioned above.
PL
Przedstawiono niezgodności spawalnicze złączy teowych elementów cienkościennych wykonywanych metodą TIG z dodatkiem drutu, typowe objęte normą PN-EN ISO 6520-1:2009 oraz nietypowe, nie sklasyfikowane w tej normie.
EN
The study described in the article involved technological tests of mechanised TIG welding with an electrode wire fed at a possibly low angle in relation to a welding arc and based on various wire feeding control systems, e.g. enabling the adjustment of wire feeding rate pulsation and synchronisation of wire feeding rate with current impulses. The article also presents differences in sets of technological parameters of welding performed using such control systems.
PL
Przeprowadzono badania technologiczne zmechanizowanego spawania TIG z dodatkiem drutu podawanego pod możliwie małym kątem względem łuku spawalniczego i bazujące na różnych systemach sterowania podawaniem drutu, w tym z możliwością regulacji pulsacji prędkości podawania drutu i synchronizacji prędkości podawania drutu z impulsami prądowymi. Przedstawiono różnice w zestawach parametrów technologicznych spawania przy użyciu tych systemów sterowania.
EN
In Poland, irrigation of plants cultivated in field has been not developed yet on a larger scale mainly due to unfavorable economic conditions and infrastructure. An increase of irrigated area is still prospective, and is a major standby of agricultural production. Factors accelerating the development of irrigation next to providing higher and stable yields of good quality are a need for competitiveness and modernity in farms as well as the projected climate changes. Main indicators of the purpose of irrigation are the effects of production; it means absolute increases in yields obtained under the influence of this treatment in agricultural production technology. Quantity and value of the effects of irrigation production can be analyzed in terms of the average (mean years) or in relation to a particular growing season. In the first case, the effects depend primarily on the criterion of the soil, and the secondly – on the meteorological conditions, particularly the amount and distribution of rainfall. The cognitive aim of this study was finding a significant correlation between the amounts of the production effects under irrigation and selected indicators of meteorological and agricultural drought during periods of increased water needs for tested plants. The utility goal was to propose a forecast method of application of these results based on a temporal and spatial variability of these indicators. The research was accomplished on the basis of long-term, field experiments with irrigation of following crops: table potatoes, malting barley, beans and corn harvested for grain. The experiments were conducted in the years 2006-2012 at the Research Station of University of Technology and Life Sciences in Mochełek, located nearby Bydgoszcz on Luvisols, grouped to the class IVa and very good rye complex of valuation on agricultural suitability. The tested crops were optimally irrigated in periods of agricultural droughts, and were guaranteed by moisture content in a layer of soil with a controlled water supply readily available to plants over the whole period of increased water needs. In the seven-year research period the production effects of irrigation for the certain crops were characterized by very high temporal variability. For example, for malting barley the effects amounted to an average of 1.44 t.ha-1, varying from 0 (in the year 2009) to 3.39 t.ha-1. These effects authors subordinate to selected indicators of meteorological and agricultural droughts during periods of increased water needs for the studied crops: rainfall (P), standardized precipitation index (SPI), the relative rate of precipitation (RPI), climatic water balance (KBW) and agricultural-climatic water balance (RKBW). In all cases, authors obtained significant relationships between the compared data which lead to a determination of variability of production effects with irrigation in the region of Bydgoszcz in different growing seasons (temporal variability), and allowed to predict the effects of irrigation plants in a distinct Polish rainfall zones (spatial variability). Compilation of the variability of production effects of irrigation in field crops is the basis for the analysis of the purpose of the treatment, both in terms of environmental criteria, as well as economic.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena kierunku, zakresu i stopnia istotności zmian wskaźników, charakteryzujących występowanie przygruntowych przymrozków w latach 1971-2005 w rejonie Bydgoszczy. W hipotezie badawczej założono, że w związku z obserwowanymi zmianami klimatycznymi, w rejonie Bydgoszczy zmienia się klimatyczne ryzyko uprawy roślin, w tym także częstość i terminy występowania przymrozków. Stwierdzono między innymi, że liczba dni z przymrozkami w badanym 35-leciu istotnie zmniejszała się w okresie wiosennym. Coraz wcześniej również zanikały umiarkowane przymrozki wiosenne. Zaobserwowano też tendencję coraz późniejszego pojawiania się przymrozków jesiennych, w konsekwencji czego - wydłużania okresu bezprzymrozkowego.
EN
The aim of this study was to assess the direction, range and significance of changes in the indices characterising the occurrence of ground frost in the years 1971-2005 in the region of Bydgoszcz. Research hypothesis was that due to climate change observed also in the Bydgoszcz region, the climatic risk to plant crops may change as well, including the frequency and timing of frost occurrence. It was found that the number of days with ground frost in the analysed 35-year period significantly decreased in the spring time. Moreover, moderate spring frosts disappeared earlier. Autumn frosts tended to appear later and as a consequence there was a tendency to prolongation of the frost-free period.
15
Content available remote Zastosowanie natryskiwania cieplnego na przykładzie silnika turbinowego
PL
Przedstawiono informacje dotyczące systemu areologicznego natryskiwania cieplnego, omówiono jego istotę i odmiany, przedstawiono ich modele funkcjonalne i fizyczne. Omówiono różnice między właściwościami systemu elementów i właściwościami sumy elementów systemu areologicznego. Zaproponowano wprowadzenie pojęcia współczynnika synergizmu do oceny jakości systemu i do kwantyfikowania właściwości systemu. Podano kilka przykładów współczynnika synergizmu technologii.
EN
The principles of areology system of thermal spraying on done, the essence of areological system of thermal spraying was described and the functional and physic models of areological system was presented. The difference between properties of elements system and properties of the sum of system elements was discussed. On propose to introduce the synergism of coefficient to valuation of quality of areological system and to qualification of properties system. On done some examples of synergism of coefficient of technology.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań mikrostruktury oraz odporności na utlenianie powłokowych barier cieplnych wytworzonych metodą APS. Jako podłoże zastosowano stop Rene 80. Międzywarstwę stanowił wieloskładnikowy stop MeCrAlY. Zewnętrzną warstwę ceramiczną stanowiły proszki tlenku cyrkonu stabilizowane tlenkami itru, magnezu i wapnia. Proszki te mogą być stosowane zarówno w procesie natryskiwania metodą APS, jak i w warunkach obniżonego ciśnienia – LPPS. Badania przeprowadzono z zastosowaniem mikroskopii świetlnej i elektronowej mikroskopii skaningowej. Wykonane zostały także pomiary porowatości wytworzonej warstwy. Wykazano, że zastosowanie nowych proszków ceramicznych zapewnia możliwość wytworzenia powłokowych barier cieplnych, jednak ich maksymalna temperatura pracy, poza konwencjonalnym tlenkiem cyrkonu stabilizowanym tlenkiem itru, jest niższa i nie zapewnia ochrony przed utlenianiem powierzchni elementów silnika lotniczego.
EN
The article presents the results of microstructure and oxidation resistance of thermal barrier coatings produced by APS. Rene 80 alloy is used as substrate and MeCrAlY alloy as an interlayer. For outer ceramic layer are used zirconium oxide powders stabilized with yttrium, magnesium and calcium oxides. These powders may be used in both the APS spraying method as in conditions of low pressure – LPPS. The study was carried out with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effective porosity of layer were also measured. It shows that the use of new ceramic powders provides the ability to produce thermal barrier coatings, but their maximum operating temperature, except the conventional zirconium oxide stabilized with yttrium oxide, is lower and does not provide protection against oxidation of the surface of aircraft engine components.
EN
TIG welding is an important process, which is commonly used in the aircraft industry. A number of elements of air-plane bodies or shields of engines arę made using this technique. Numerical models of this process are needed to under-stand better phenomena involved in the TIG welding and to design the optimal process parameters. In the present paper numerical simulations were performed and the possibilities of modeling heat transfer in the investigated process were evaluated. Comparison of results of numerical simulations with the experimental data confirmed good predictive capabilities of the model, as far as realistic description of the phenomena involved in this process are considered. Correctness of the Goldak model, which describes density of the energy in the heat source, was confirmed as well.
PL
Spawanie TIG jest jednym z najważniejszych procesów używanych w przemyśle lotniczym. Wiele elementów zarówno dla kadłubów, awioniki jak i silników powstaje dzięki temu procesowi. Inżynierowie potrzebują coraz to nowocześniejszych modeli, które pozwolą na łatwe zrozumienie zjawisk zachodzących podczas procesu spawania. W artykule autorzy dokonali szeregu symulacji numerycznych mających na celu ocenienie możliwości modelowania rozkładu ciepła w procesie spawania metodą TIG. Wyniki symulacji porównano z pomiarami przeprowadzonymi na laboratoryjnym stanowisku spawalniczym. Porównanie wyników symulacji numerycznych i pomiarów wykazało dobrą zgodność potwierdzając możliwości modelu w zakresie realistycznego opisu procesu spawania metodą TIG. Potwierdzona została również prawidłowość działania modelu Goldaka opisującego rozkład energii źródła ciepła w procesie spawania.
EN
The paper presents results of research designed and constructed by the authors of external exhaust gas recirculation Integral Engine-Compressor Cooper Bessemer GMVH-8. This system was used primarily to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań zaprojektowanego i wykonanego przez autorów układu zewnętrznej recyrkulacji spalin motosprężarki Cooper Bessemer GMVH-8. Układ ten został zastosowany głównie w celu obniżenia poziomu emisji tlenków azotu.
PL
Celem badań była próba określenia, jak przestrzeń miejska modyfikuje warunki biotermiczne, w stosunku do warunków panujących na terenie słabo zurbanizowanym. Spośród wielu wskaźników stosowanych w badaniach biometeorologicznych wybrano temperaturę ekwiwalentną (Tek) odzwierciedlającą łączny wpływ temperatury i wilgotności powietrza oraz przybliżony wskaźnik stresu cieplnego (pHSI), który ilustruje natężenie uciążliwości warunków termiczno-wilgotnościowych. Warunki biotermiczne panujące w porównywanych miejscach oceniono na podstawie wielkości średnich, ekstremalnych oraz częstości występowania różnych odczuć cieplnych człowieka w poszczególnych miesiącach i sezonach w roku.
EN
The aim of the study was an attempt to determine how the urban area modifies the biothermal conditions in relation to conditions of the extra-urban area. On the many indices used in biometeorological study, two were selected: equivalent temperature (Tek) reflective the combined impact of air temperature and humidity and the approximated heat stress index (pHSI) which expresses the ratio of evaporation required for keeping heat equilibrium of an organism to maximal evaporation in actual environmental conditions. Biothermal conditions prevailing in the two locations were evaluated based on averages and extremes values of calculated indices and also on the frequency of occurance of various human thermal perceptions in months and seasons of the year.
PL
Pracę wykonano na podstawie wyników jednorodnego materiału pomiarowego pozyskanego za pomocą automatycznych stacji meteorologicznych zlokalizowanych w centrum miasta (ul. Ks. Kordeckiego 20) i w oddalonym o około 20 km Mochełku (Stacja Badawcza Wydziału Rolnictwa i Biotechnologii UTP). Materiał badawczy w postaci wyników pomiarów wybranych parametrów atmosferycznych (całkowite promieniowanie słoneczne, temperatura powietrza średnia, maksymalna i minimalna oraz wilgotność względna powietrza) zgromadzono w czteroletnim okresie obejmującym lata 2006-2009. W pracy zastosowano typowe dla badań klimatologicznych metody porównawcze. W wyniku przeprowadzonych obliczeń stwierdzono występowanie miejskiej wyspy ciepła w Bydgoszczy, które przejawiało się mniejszym średnio o 29,9% promieniowaniem słonecznym i o 9,6% wilgotnością względną powietrza oraz wyższą średnio o 1,2°C temperaturą powietrza. Wy-raźnej zmianie uległy także daty występowania termicznych pór roku oraz frekwencja dni z po-szczególnymi typami pogody notowane w mieście, w porównaniu do terenu zamiejskiego.
EN
The paper is based on results of homogeneous measurements collected by automatic weather stations located in the centre of the city (20 Kordeckiego street) and in just about 20 km Mochelek (Research Station of Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology UTP). The research material: total solar radiation, air temperature average and maximum and minimum relative humidity, was collected in a four-year period covering 2006-2009. In the calculations were used standard for testing climatic comparative methods. As a result of the calculations the presence of urban heat island In Bydgoszcz was confirmed, which was revealed by a decrease on average by 29,9% of solar radiation and by 9,6% of relative humidity and an increase on average of 1.2°C air temperature. Compared to the extra-urban area conditions, significantly altered the date of the occurrence of thermal seasons and attendance days with different weather types listed in the city.
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