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EN
So far in Poland, the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea has been reported from the Oder (Odra) and Vistula River. Its new population has been discovered in the Warta-Gopło Canal in Konin (central Poland), where water temperature can reach 34°C, as the canal is a part of a power plant lake cooling system. The spatial distribution of C. fluminea was found to be very uneven and that is probably why this species was not found during earlier research. The highest density of C. fluminea was 78 ind.·m-2 at the site where water flow was the fastest (2.49 m·s-1), providing sufficient oxygenation of the water. The results suggest that existing information about the distribution of C. fluminea may be far from complete because the clam can be present also in the habitats that were not regarded as suitable for the species according to earlier reports, and therefore have not been monitored for its presence.
EN
The paper presents the research on how the effectiveness of removing organic substances is affected by the use of polyurethane foam fillings characterized by a varied porosity and the temperature of the process of treating landfill leachate in a biological sequencing batch reactor. The information on the conversion of organic compounds during the operation of the reactor was obtained by measuring the absorbance for selected wavelengths to describe the process of humification. It was found that the technological conditions used in the experiment affected the effectiveness of reducing the COD, but did not affect the type or amount of the humic substances in the leachate treated. In all of the variants examined, the COD decreased the as the humification level increased, and yet this relation was not linear in character.
EN
The fact that the world keeps moving faster and faster has been discussed for decades. The fact that, in most cases, urban structures can no longer keep up with the dynamically developing society has been discussed only recently. The everyday activities, the nature of work and ways of spending our free time, have changed. With these transformations, not only service-related or functional needs of people are evolving, but also their spatial needs. It is estimated that by 2050, around 6 billion people will live in urban centers, and 60% of urban areas that will cover our planet at that time have not yet emerged. Cities are swelling (often in an uncontrolled way), and experience has already shown that the “sprawl” of urban structures into infinity brings bad results. In the 21st century, the tasks of architects, landscape architects, urban planners, and planners have changed. Today, it’s not just about creating new facilities. The real challenge is the existing urban tissue and the attempt to adapt it to the current needs and standards. The Landscape Revitalization Studio at the Poznań University of Arts was established in response to these phenomena and changes. The Studio functions based on the original didactic program developed by Sławoj Dreszer, PhD., hab. The particular design problems are undertaken to make students (future architects and landscape designers) aware of the direction in which today’s world and society are heading, and of the tasks that they are likely to meet in their future work.
PL
O tym, że świat coraz szybciej pędzi do przodu, dyskutuje się od dziesiątków lat. Natomiast o tym, że struktury urbanistyczne w większości przypadków przestały nadążać za dynamicznie rozwijającym się społeczeństwem, mówi się od niedawna. Zmieniają się podejmowane przez ludzi codzienne aktywności. Wraz z tymi transformacjami ewoluują ich potrzeby, nie tylko usługowe czy funkcjonalne, ale także przestrzenne. Szacuje się, że do roku 2050 ośrodki miejskie zamieszkiwać będzie około 6 mld ludzi, a 60% obszarów miejskich, które będą pokrywać w tym czasie naszą planetę, jeszcze nie powstało. Miasta puchną (często w sposób niekontrolowany), a doświadczenie już teraz pokazuje, że „rozlewanie się” struktur miejskich w nieskończoność przynosi opłakane skutki. W XXI wieku zmieniły się zadania architektów, architektów krajobrazu, urbanistów i planistów. Dziś nie chodzi jedynie o tworzenie nowych obiektów. Prawdziwe wyzwanie to istniejąca tkanka miejska i próba dostosowania jej do obecnych potrzeb i standardów. Pracownia Rewitalizacji Krajobrazu w poznańskim Uniwersytecie Artystycznym została powołana w odpowiedzi na te zjawiska i zmiany. Pracownia funkcjonuje na podstawie autorskiego programu dydaktycznego opracowanego przez dr. hab. Sławoja Dreszera. Podejmowane problemy projektowe mają uświadomić studentów (przyszłych architektów i projektantów krajobrazu), w jakim kierunku zmierza dzisiejszy świat i społeczeństwo oraz z jakimi zadaniami spotkają się w swojej przyszłej pracy zawodowej.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono aplikację inteligentnego przełącznika podnoszącego niezawodność i dostępność transmisji bezprzewodowej poprzez mechanizm przełączania między podłączonymi wieloma interfejsami radiowymi w funkcji parametrów określających jakość łącza transmisyjnego.
EN
In paper a software application of the smart switch is presented that allows improving reliability and availability of data transmission in wireless networks by switching among many radio interfaces according to the quality parameters measured for the communication links.
EN
Oxbow lakes are typical elements of meandering watercourses and are considered to be key components of floodplains of natural rivers. A permanent connection with the river promotes the use of these water bodies by ichthyofauna as spawning grounds, shelter for fry, feeding and wintering grounds. The aim of this study was to determine which rheophilic species inhabit oxbow lakes and how environmental conditions affect habitat selection and fish behavior. Analyses were conducted on six oxbow lakes of the Warta River in the Koło-Poznań section. Fish and water samples were collected for three years, in spring, summer and late autumn. Variation in environmental conditions in the analyzed water bodies results in a considerable diversity of the ichthyofauna, including rheophilic species, in individual seasons of the year. In the course of the study, nine rheophilic fish species were recorded, including four from the lithophilic reproductive guild having the highest environmental requirements. Relative abundance of rheophilic species in the dominance structure ranged from 0 to 100%, depending on the reservoir and seasons, with an average of 7% for all catches. For comparison, their relative abundance in the adjacent parts of the river was 12 and 23%.
EN
The Asiatic bivalve Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834), which is more and more widespread in all parts of Europe, in Poland has been mostly reported from lentic waters, especially fish ponds. In contrast to some other European countries, no data have been published on its presence in rivers of Poland. In 2015, monitoring was carried out in the lower Oder River and in the mouth of the Warta River, as a result of which S. woodiana was recorded there for the first time. This was possible due to prolonged drought, which led to extremely low water levels in most of the inland water bodies and watercourses, so that other research methods could be used. The presented results confirm that the species spreads easily by colonizing waters of various types, which in the future may lead to the formation of large populations.
EN
Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea 1834) is a new component of malacofauna and this condition enhances a new adaptation of predators preying on it. In 2010, during the autumn bird migration, an oystercatcher was observed feeding on this clam species alien to European fauna in the area of drained fish ponds (western Poland). The clams chosen by the oystercatcher were 64 to 98 mm long and 46 to 72 mm tall, whereby stabbing method was preferred to the hammering one. Theses sizes are greater than for other mussel species eaten by the oystercatcher. Mussels were typically collected in the depth of 7 cm, which reflects the maximum bill length in oystercatchers. Under some conditions, e.g. drained fish ponds, the population abundance of S. woodiana clam may significantly be affected by foraging birds, especially oystercatchers as suggested findings from our study.
EN
The study of fish ponds have confirmed the presence of nine new locations of Anodonta woodiana in Poland, with strong and vital populations. These are examples of Chinese pond mussels accidentally introduced along with fish imports. Comparison of known localities shows that more mussels are in eastern Poland, from which the migration path of A. woodiana progresses. Most often mussels settle in larger water reservoirs with elongated shapes. Older and longer mussels occur in deeper fish ponds. Moreover, the further south the location, the higher biomass can be obtained. The average age of mussels in a fish pond depends on its bed type and depth; however the latter has less influence. New locations of this species are also to be expected due to deliberate introduction; cases of resettlement of individual specimens of the Chinese pond mussel to new locations have been recorded.
EN
The discovery of a shell of the Chinese pond mussel in 1998 and further confirmation of this species indicate that a reservoir with natural thermal conditions is the oldest species location in Poland. Growth increments of an archival shell do not fall within the ranges obtained by this species in Konin lakes. They are, however, close to population ranges from Hungary. In contrast to other specimens found, the analyzed shell has a very high H/L ratio and is thicker. The observed features might result from the founder effect or they might point to a considerable plasticity of the species.
10
Content available System wsparcia decyzji w ochronie roślin uprawnych
PL
Systemy wsparcia decyzji jako narzędzia informatyczne są wykorzystywane coraz częściej przez różne sektory rolnictwa stanowiąc pomoc dla rolników, plantatorów, hodowców czy ogrodników, odciążając ich od nieraz żmudnego szukania i weryfikacji informacji dotyczących procedur stosowania zabiegów rolniczych, środków ochrony roślin czy pasz. W pracy omówiono przykład wdrożenia takiego systemu opartego na bazie danych służącego ochronie roślin przed różnego typu agrofagami. Do jego budowy wykorzystano technologie internetowe.
EN
Decision support systems as IT tools are being used more and more often in various sectors of agriculture, helping the farmers, planters, breeders and gardeners by relieving them from sometimes strenuous search and verification of the information on the procedures of applying agricultural treatment, using pesticides or fodders. The work discusses an example of implementing such system and database for protecting plants from various types of pests. The system was built with the use of Internet technologies.
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