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EN
Cast-in-place steel plates with headed steel studs constitute a common type of connection system in tilt-up members. These connection systems used in composite construction play an important role in vertical and lateral load transfer mechanisms and in the energy dissipation of seismic responses by allowing sufficient ductility and controlling cracks in the concrete elements. Due to the relatively thin concrete panel thickness, it is difficult to attain adequate ductility in connection system. This study examined design parameters, including the embedment depth-to-stud diameter ratio (hef/d), panel thickness, and supplementary reinforcement, in order to propose effective reinforcing methods to prevent premature failure such as pry-out failure. In addition, this study investigated the feasibility of current existing formulas, including those found in the American Concrete Institute 318M-14 provisions and in the Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute Handbook with respect to the design variables. This study also investigated the difference between monotonic and cyclic test results and compared the results obtained from the literature.
EN
In modern high-rise reinforced concrete buildings, high strength concrete (HSC) has been typically used for column members, while normal strength concrete (NSC) has been generally used for floor slabs. This study proposed a new analytic approach that can reasonably estimate the effective compressive strengths of corner and exterior column members intersected by lower strength concrete slabs. The proposed model was theoretically derived based on strain distributions and constraint conditions at an interface between column and slab members. In addition, the compressive strength test results of isolated, exterior, and corner columns intersected by lower strength concrete slabs reported in the existing literature were compared to the effective compressive strengths estimated by the proposed model. The proposed model provided good accuracy on the effective compressive strengths of the column members intersected by slabs cast with lower concrete compressive strengths. It was also shown that the proposed model successfully reflects the effects of the aspect ratio between the slab thickness and the column width on the effective compressive strengths of the test specimens and their failure modes that changed significantly according to the column–slab compressive strength ratio.
EN
A simple high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-integrated pulsed amperometric detection method was developed to determine the gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) content in mulberry. GABA was separated in anion-exchange column under isocratic condition of 20 mM sodium hydroxide solution and detected at integrated pulsed amperometric detection at pico-gram levels. The contents of GABA in the leaf, stem, and root bark of mulberry were calculated without any derivatization or sample purification process using this method. This method showed good linearity, precision, and accuracy for GABA analysis.
EN
A three Dimensional finite element model (FEM) incorporating the anisotropic properties and temperature profile of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement was developed to predict the structural responses of HMA pavement subject to heavy loads typically encountered in the field. In this study, ABAQUS was adopted to model the stress and strain relationships within the pavement structure. The results of the model were verified using data collected from the Korean Highway Corporation Test Road (KHCTR). The results demonstrated that both the base course and surface course layers follow the anisotropic behavior and the incorporation of the temperature profile throughout the pavement has a substantial effect on the pavement response predictions that impact pavement design. The results also showed that the anisotropy level of HMA and base material can be reduced to as low as 80% and 15% as a result of repeated loading, respectively.
EN
Solar radiation induces non-uniform temperature distribution in the bridge structure depending on the shape of the structure and shadows cast on it. Especially in the case of curved steel box girder bridges, nonuniform temperature distribution caused by solar radiation may lead to unusual load effects enough to damage the support or even topple the whole curved bridge structure if not designed properly. At present, it is very difficult to design bridges in relation to solar radiation because it is not known exactly how varying temperature distribution affects bridges; at least not specific enough for adoption in design. Standard regulations related to this matter are likewise not complete. In this study, the thermal behavior of curved steel box girder bridges is analyzed while taking the solar radiation effect into consideration. For the analysis, a method of predicting the 3-dimensional temperature distribution of curved bridges is used. It uses a theoretical solar radiation energy equation together with a commercial FEM program. The behavior of the curved steel box girder bridges is examined using the developed method, while taking into consideration the diverse range of bridge azimuth angles and radii. This study also provides reference data for the thermal design of curved steel box girder bridges under solar radiation, which can be used to develop design guidelines.
PL
Promieniowanie słoneczne powoduje niejednorodny rozkład temperatury w konstrukcji mostu i zależny od jego kształtu oraz padających cieni. Szczególnie w przypadku mostów zakrzywionych ze stalowych dźwigarów skrzynkowych niejednorodny rozkład temperatur wywołany promieniowaniem słonecznym może prowadzić do powstania wyjątkowych sił wystarczających do zniszczenia podpór lub nawet zniszczenia mostu, o ile jego konstrukcja nośna nie została odpowiednio zaprojektowana. Obecnie projektowanie mostów z uwzględnieniem promieniowania słonecznego jest bardzo trudne, ponieważ wpływ zmiennego rozkładu temperatury na konstrukcję mostu nie jest dokładnie znany, jak również nie jest określony sposób uwzględnienia tych wpływów w projektowaniu. Nie istnieją również żadne normy dotyczące tego zagadnienia. W pracy przedstawiono analizę zachowania mostu uwzględniającą działanie promieniowania słonecznego. Do analizy użyto metodę przewidywania trójwymiarowego rozkłady temperatury w mostach zakrzywionych w planie. W metodzie tej wykorzystane zostało teoretyczne równanie promieniowania słonecznego oraz program do analizy metodą elementów skończonych. Przeprowadzono badania zachowania mostu przy uwzględnieniu różnych zakresów kąta azymutu oraz promieni zakrzywienia mostu. Praca stanowi źródło - możliwych do wykorzystania w projektowaniu - informacji dotyczących zagadnień termicznych w mostach zakrzywionych o przęsłach ze stalowych dźwigarów skrzynkowych pod wpływem promieniowania słonecznego.
EN
General demographic and economical situation in Eastern Asian countries has been characterized. For several of those countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China) the present state of plastic wastes utilization and environmentally degradable plastics (EDP) production has been described.
PL
Scharakteryzowano ogólną sytuację demograficzną i ekonomiczną w krajach wschodnio-azjatyckich (tabela 1). W odniesieniu do kilku spośród tych krajów (Japonii, Korei Płd., Tajwanu, Singapuru i Chin) omówiono obecny stan zagospodarowywania odpadów tworzywowych oraz produkcji tworzyw sztucznych ulegających degradacji pod wpływem środowiska naturalnego (EPD, tabele 2-4).
7
Content available remote Fast range image registration using distance sampling
EN
This paper proposes a fast range image registration algorithm, in which control points are sampled on the basis of distance from the geometric origin of an object. The sampled point is assumed to be in the same region if the quantization error in the three-dimensional (3-D) space is less than a threshold. For range image registration, finding matching points anly in the same region reduces the computation time greatly. Experiments with various synthetic and real images show that the accuracy of registartion parameters is improved with a low computational load.
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