In this study, two techniques such as laser surface melting (LSM) and laser surface alloying (LSA) were performed to protect the surface layers of nodular cast iron as it is used to manufacture different machine parts like cams, beds, camshafts, crankshafts, cylinders and engine blocks. The main objective of this research work is to examine the effects of LSM and LSA processes on phases, microstructure, hardness, wear resistance and surface roughness. The outcomes of both LSM and LSA specimens show a homogeneous structure, effective bonding of alloy powders with the base metal and crack-free surfaces. The hardness was improved 4 times (LSM) and 2.62 times (LSA) when compared with the base material. The tribological test shows improved wear resistance of LSM (8.82 × 10−7 kN) and LSA (1.32 × 10−6 kN) samples compared to the base material (4.36 × 10−6 kN). The examined wear tracks indicate that mild abrasion, adhesion and delamination were the major wear mechanisms. The reason for the enhancement of wear resistance is the refinement of microstructure, the solid solution strengthening effect and good bonding between alloy powders and base material. The LSM technique is a potential method to improve the tribological properties of industrial materials.