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PL
W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę rud żelaza i koncentratów pod kątem oceny ich wpływu na proces spiekania oraz na właściwości fizykochemiczne spieku. Opisano metodykę prowadzenia laboratoryjnych prób spiekania na misie z wykorzystaniem istniejącej w Zespole Procesów Surowcowych Łukasiewicz - Instytutu Metalurgii Żelaza linii do półprzemysłowej symulacji procesu spiekania rud żelaza i odpadów jak i innych urządzeń pomocniczych. Zamieszczono również wyniki dotyczące wpływu udziału różnych składników pylastych (koncentratów), drobnoziarnistych rud żelaza (aglorud) i dodatku wapna palonego do mieszanki na podstawowe parametry procesu spiekania. Zaprezentowano również wyniki badań właściwości wyprodukowanego spieku z różnych mieszanek spiekalniczych.
EN
The article presents the characteristics of iron ores and concentrates in terms of assessing their impact on the sintering process and on the physicochemical properties of the sinter. The article describes the methodology for conducting laboratory sintering tests on a pan using the line for semi-industrial simulation of sintering of iron ore and waste as well as other auxiliary devices at the Primary Processes Unit of the Łukasiewicz - Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy. The results of the influence of various dusty components (concentrates), fine-grained iron ores (sinter ores) and addition of quicklime to the mixture on the basic parameters of the sintering process are also included. The results of tests on the properties of sinters made from various sintering mixtures are also presented.
EN
The conditions of use of the vehicle significantly affect the performance results. Traffic conditions in a specific city directly affect the consumption of energy, fuel and emissions of harmful compounds in exhaust fumes. Conduction of the measurements of a vehicle’s performance parameters in operating conditions is very troublesome and is often not possible to realize. An alternative is to use the simulation programs. Vehicle simulation programs offer options related to vehicle models or drive unit components and allow development of new models. Based on the results of simulation testing, it is possible to analyse the level of fuel and energy consumption as well as emissions of harmful compounds in exhaust gases and the operating effectiveness of the drive system in the speed profile. The paper presents the evaluation of the effectiveness of using hybrid electric drive system in passenger cars in medium-sized city traffic conditions using the Kielce example. The simulation tests were based on the speed profiles recorded during real-world test drives in various times of the day. The simulation results were used to conduct an analysis of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions recorded by conventional and hybrid vehicles.
PL
Warunki użytkowania pojazdu mają znaczący wpływ na parametry eksploatacyjne pojazdu. Warunki ruchu w określonym mieście bezpośrednio wpływają na zużycie energii, paliwa i poziom emisji szkodliwych związków zawartych w spalinach. Przeprowadzenie pomiarów parametrów eksploatacyjnych pojazdu w warunkach rzeczywistych jest kłopotliwe i często niemożliwe do zrealizowania. Alternatywą jest wykorzystanie symulacji komputerowych. Programy do symulacji pojazdów oferują, między innymi, modele pojazdów lub komponentów układu napędowego oraz pozwalają na opracowanie nowych modeli. Na podstawie wyników badań symulacyjnych możliwa jest analiza poziomu zużycia paliwa, energii, emisji szkodliwych związków zawartych w spalinach oraz efektywności pracy układu napędowego w profilu prędkości. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono ocenę efektywności zastosowania napędów hybrydowych w samochodach osobowych w warunkach ruchu miasta średniej wielkości na przykładzie Kielc. Do badań symulacyjnych wykorzystano profile prędkości, zarejestrowane podczas rzeczywistych przejazdów w różnych porach dnia. Na podstawie wyników symulacji przeprowadzono analizę zużycia paliwa oraz emisji zanieczyszczeń, zarejestrowanych dla pojazd z napędem konwencjonalnym oraz pojazdów z napędem hybrydowym.
EN
Recently, the reduction of fuels consumption is a global challenge, in particular for significant investments in the automotive sector, in order to optimize and control the parameters involved for the partial or total electrification of vehicles. Thereby, the energy management system remains the axis of progress for the development of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles. The fuzzy controller has been widely adopted for energy monitoring, where the determination of its parameters is still challenging. In this work, this problem is investigated through a secondary development of a fuzzy energy monitoring system based on the Advisor platform and particle swarm optimization. The latter is used to determine, for different driving conditions, the best parameters that increase the fuel economy and reduce the battery energy use. As a result, five tuned fuzzy energy monitoring system models with five sets of parameters are obtained. Evaluation results confirm the effectiveness of this strategy, they also show slight differences between them in terms of fuel economy, battery state of charge variations, and overall system efficiency. However, the fuzzy energy monitoring system tuned under multiple conditions is the only one that can guarantee the minimum of the state of charge variations, no matter the driving conditions.
EN
The article presents a model of operational fuel consumption by a passenger car from the B segment, powered by a spark ignition engine. The model was developed using artificial neural networks simulated in the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS) package. The data for the model was obtained from longterm operational tests, during which data from the engine control unit were recorded via the OBDII diagnostic interface. The model is based on neural networks with two hidden layers, the size of which was selected using an original iterative algorithm. During the structure selection process, a total of 576 different networks were tested. The analysis of the obtained test errors made it possible to select the optimal structure of the 6-19-17-1 model. The network input values were: vehicle speed and acceleration, road slope, throttle opening degree, selected gear number and engine speed. The networks were trained using the efficient RPROP method. A correctly trained network, based on the set parameters, was able to forecast the instantaneous fuel consumption. These forecasts showed a high correlation with the measured values. Average fuel consumption calculated on their basis was close to the real value, which was calculated on the basis of two consecutive fuelings of the vehicle.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono model eksploatacyjnego zużycia paliwa przez samochód osobowy z segmentu B, zasilany silnikiem o zapłonie iskrowym. Model opracowano przy wykorzystaniu sztucznych sieci neuronowych, których działanie symulowano w pakiecie Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS). Dane do modelu pozyskano z długotrwałych badań eksploatacyjnych, podczas których rejestrowano przez interfejs diagnostyczny OBDII dane pochodzące z jednostki sterującej silnikiem. Model oparto na sieciach neuronowych o dwu warstwach ukrytych, których wielkość dobrano przy pomocy autorskiego, iteracyjnego algorytmu. Podczas procesu doboru struktury przebadano łącznie 576 różnych sieci. Analiza uzyskanych błędów testowania pozwoliła na wybór optymalnej struktury modelu 6-19-17-1. Wielkościami wejściowymi sieci były: prędkość i przyspieszenie pojazdu, nachylenie drogi, stopień otwarcia przepustnicy, numer wybranego biegu oraz prędkość obrotowa silnika. Sieci uczono przy użyciu wydajnej metody RPROP. Poprawnie nauczona sieć na podstawie zadanych parametrów była w stanie prognozować chwilowe zużycie paliwa. Prognozy te wykazywały wysoką korelację ze zmierzonymi wartościami. Obliczone na ich podstawie średnie zużycie paliwa było zbliżone do rzeczywistej wartości, którą obliczono na podstawie dwu kolejnych tankowań pojazdu.
5
PL
W artykule przedstawiono mobilne stanowisko badawcze w postaci pojazdu samochodowego z zamontowaną instalacją zasilania paliwem LPG. W pojeździe zainstalowano aparaturę rejestrującą liczne parametry pracy układu zasilania jednostki napędowej paliwem benzynowym i LPG. Na tak zbudowanym stanowisku badawczym można będzie przeprowadzać badania w rzeczywistych warunkach eksploatacyjnych. W pracy przedstawiono szczegółowy opis zamontowanej instalacji LPG, a także opisano aparaturę pomiarowo-rejestrującą badane wskaźniki i parametry pracy jednostki napędowej. Omówiono możliwości badawcze wykonanego mobilnego stanowiska badawczego. Wykonano również badania rozruchowe w postaci pomiarów mocy na hamowni podwoziowej przy zasilaniu silnika paliwem benzynowym jak i LPG. Uzyskane wyniki świadczą o poprawności działania układów zasilania.
EN
This article is focused on the cause and effects of an incorrectly mounted cylinder sleeve of a car's internal combustion engine. Damage to the individual parts of the engine are shown in detail. The directions of the forces acting on the specific damaged parts are discussed.
EN
The value of tire pressure affects a number of important vehicle features. The article pays attention to assessing the impact of the change in the tire pressure on both the rolling resistance and fuel consumption. The measurements were performed with four different values of tire pressure. The impact of the change in the tire pressure on the rolling resistance was measured during the driving tests. In order to measure the rolling resistance during tests, the measurement methodology was devised and a device for measuring the rolling resistance was constructed. The measurement of the impact the tire pressure change on the fuel consumption was performed via vehicle dynamometer. The result showed a linear dependence between the tire pressure and rolling resistance. These results measured points to the importance of keeping the correct value of the tire pressure in relation to the fuel consumption.
EN
In recent years, the development of IT systems for fleet monitoring was observed. Tire pressure monitoring systems are constantly improved. Decreased values in tire pressure can cause deformation of tires. Monitoring of tire pressure is an important function in oversized transport trucks. Tire pressure and rolling resistant influence fuel consumption. The purpose of this paper was to determine the impact of tire pressure on fuel consumption in a fleet of trucks with tire pressure monitoring system installed and to determine the impact of other factors that may affect fuel consumption, such as the vehicle weight, brake usage and cruise control usage. The results of the research were developed using a multiple regression model describing the above dependence.
EN
The paper presents the experimental results from a complex study of the fuel consumption of a hybrid car Toyota Yaris. Original data for motion at different constant speeds are obtained. The economical and energy characteristics of the car are observed and analyzed. Three typical urban and three inter-city routes are investigated. A significant decrease in the fuel consumption of the hybrid car is witnessed when it runs in urban conditions at “Eco Mode”. The motion on inter-city route, including short town passages and highway parts, is also investigated. The obtained original data are higher than the fuel consumption given by the producer and, practically, equal to the ones of the conventional gasoline car. The study indicates that the effect of a hybrid system is significant in urban conditions and is more evident at “Eco Mode”.
PL
Jeśli maszyna spala zbyt dużo lub zbyt mał paliwa, musisz szybko znaleźć przyczyny i podjąć działania korygujące. Mówię o przyczynach w liczbie mnogiej, bo praiwe zawsze jest ich kilka.
10
Content available remote Enhancing the fuel economy of a plug-in series hybrid vehicle system
EN
In this paper, the design and simulation of a hybrid vehicle with a fully functional driving model is presented. Actual velocities and desired velocities are compared and matched to get the optimum values of a vehicle. Fuel economy is calculated to get miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe). The MPGe for a hybrid vehicle is compared with the MPGe for a conventional vehicle to get the bestMPGe in a hybrid car. A higher performance of output power of a vehicle is obtained.
PL
W artykule poruszono zagadnienie zużycia paliwa w kontekście wydajności maszyny, a także kwestie analizy czasu pracy według kryterium sprawności technicznej i lokalizacji maszyn. Szczegółowo omówiono również problematykę przeliczania motogodzin na godziny.
EN
The article discusses the issue of fuel consumption in the context of machine performance. The issues of work time analysis were discussed according to the criterion of technical efficiency and machine location. The problem of converting motohours to hours was also discussed in detail.
PL
Jednym z najwyższych kosztów generowanych przy wydobyciu kopalin jest zużycie paliwa związane z załadunkiem i transportem urobku. Optymalizując ten koszt, należy obserwować jednostkowe zużycie paliwa, które można ograniczyć poprzez zwiększenie wydajności układu.
EN
The mining industry generates high production costs and one of the highest ones is associated with the transport of mined material. As part of the optimisation of expenditures in this area, it is necessary to scrutinise where and with what methods it is possible to limit the use of vehicles and thus reduce fuel consumption.
EN
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have an increasing presence in passenger transport segment. They have been designed to minimize energy consumption and pollutant emission. However, the actual performance of HEVs depends on the dynamic conditions in which they are used, and vehicle speed is one of the key factors. A lot of excess emission and fuel consumption can be attributed to rapid changes of vehicle speed, i.e. accelerations and decelerations. On the other hand, dynamic driving favours energy recovery during braking. This study examines the relationship between HEVs speed, pollutant emission and fuel consumption. The considerations were based on the results of testing vehicles in WLTC and NEDC driving cycles, performed on a chassis dynamometer. The test objects were two light-duty passenger vehicles, one with series-parallel, gasoline-electric hybrid system and the other, used as a reference, with conventional spark-ignition engine. Both vehicles had similar technical parameters and combustion engines supplied with gasoline. The driving cycles were divided into several parts according to the speed range. For each part, pollutant emission and fuel consumption were determined and appropriate values of selected parameters of driving pattern were calculated. Combining the results of empirical research and calculated parameters allowed to obtain characteristics. Their analysis provided valuable insight into the impact of driving pattern on actual emission and fuel consumption of HEV.
EN
One of the ways to reduce exhaust emissions from vehicles is to replace worn-out shunting locomotives with road-rail tractors. The main purpose of this solution is to reduce the negative environmental impact of the vehicle and to reduce the fuel consumption compared to a shunting locomotive performing the same work. The tests on exhaust emissions of rail vehicles are carried out on an engine test bench, making it impossible to determine the environmental performance of these vehicles during real operation. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out measurements in real operating conditions in order to obtain reliable reference results. This enables the verification of vehicles ecological indicators in a wide range of operational work parameters. It is possible to obtain reliable results regarding the impact of the tested vehicle on the natural environment in this way and compare them with the applicable emission standards.
EN
Vehicles are equipped with more and more devices to improve the comfort of traveling. They are usually powered by electricity generated by the engine, which translates into an increase in its loads and, as a consequence, fuel consumption and emission. However, there is no information about the possible increase in the amount of other harmful components contained in the exhaust gases. Often this result is inadequate to that obtained during the operation of the vehicle, where the obtained fuel consumption is higher. As part of this article, tests were carried out in real hybrid vehicle traffic conditions on the same test route using an analyzer from the PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) ¬ SEMTECH DS Sensors Inc. The analysis of gaseous components of exhaust gases together with the exhaust mass flow probe and the GPS system made it possible to calculate the pollutant emission. On this basis, the actual mileage fuel consumption of the tested vehicle was calculated using the road emission of carbon-containing compounds (carbon balance method).
EN
Fuel consumption achieved in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) could be 50% lower than the fuel consumption in real driving conditions and in the case of emissions of regulated toxic compounds the differences could even be much greater. In order to bring the results achieved in official tests closer to real life figures, the European Commission introduced in 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), which replaced the NEDC. In this article the results of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for 3 cars fitted with engines of the same displacement but with direct and indirect gasoline injection, determined according to the NEDC and WLTC were presented. The results show that the effect of driving cycle on the fuel consumption is equivocal - for one car, fuel consumption was higher in the WLTC; for the other one in the NEDC; and for the third one, fuel consumption achieved in both driving cycles was practically the same. Emissions of regulated exhaust compounds, except for THC, obtained in the WLTC were higher than in the NEDC driving cycle.
EN
The article discusses the issue of the impact of wind force and direction on fuel consumption and the emission of harmful exhaust gases on the selected flight route. The focus was on percentage changes in fuel consumption and emissions of individual harmful exhaust gas compounds depending on the wind speed and the direction from which it interacts with the aircraft. The analysis was carried out for three different flight levels, in order to compare changes in fuel consumption and emissions also in terms of flight altitude, however the following article focuses only on one level - FL240.
EN
The article discusses the effect of inflation pressure and the ambient temperature on the value of the rolling resistance of truck tires which directly translates into fuel consumption. For this purpose, a series of measurements was made at two ambient temperatures (at 25°C and -15°C), using different pumping pressures.
PL
W artykule omówiono wpływ ciśnienia pompowania oraz temperatury otoczenia na wartość oporu toczenia opon ciężarowych, który bezpośrednio przekłada się na zużycie paliwa. W tym celu wykonano serię pomiarów w dwóch temperaturach otoczenia (25°C i 15°C), stosując różne ciśnienia pompowania.
PL
W artykule dokonano oceny wskaźników ekonomicznych wybranych typów lokomotyw użytkowanych na liniach kolejowych w Polsce. Pojazdy szynowe charakteryzują się niższą energochłonnością w porównaniu do większości stosowanych obecnie środków transportu, co przekłada się na większą wydajność systemu transportu w skali całego kraju. Udział transportu szynowego w transporcie w Polsce i jego rozwój jest ograniczony kilkoma aspektami związanym z kosztami zakupu i eksploatacji pojazdów, infrastruktury oraz dostępnością nowych technologii. W artykule przedstawiono m.in. wyniki pomiarów przeprowadzonych na kilkunastu egzemplarzach lokomotywy ST44 o różnym stopniu zużycia technicznego. Badania wykazały przede wszystkim wpływ stopnia tego zużycia na wielkość zużycia paliwa przez układ napędowy.
EN
The article evaluates economic indicators of selected types of locomotives used on railway lines in Poland. Rail vehicles are characterized by lower energy consumption compared to the majority of currently used means of transport, which translates into higher efficiency of the transport system in the whole country. The share of rail transport in Poland and its development is limited by several aspects related to the costs of purchase and operation of vehicles, infrastructure and the availability of new technologies. The article presents, among others the results of measurements carried out on several ST44 locomotives with varying degrees of technical wear. The research showed above all the impact of the degree of this consumption on the fuel consumption by the propulsion system.
EN
The recent development of internal combustion engines (ICE) goes towards the meeting of increasingly stringent requirements imposed to reduce toxic exhaust emissions and fuel consumption and thus to strive for carbon dioxide abatement and against depletion of global natural resources. The research on engines fueled by water-hydrocarbons emulsions has already a long tradition. So far, tests were based on emulsions obtained in chemical reactions. In this paper, similar analysis results have been presented, but the water-fuel emulsions used for the tests were obtained with making use of the cavitation effect. For this reason a unique cavitator was developed, which was then used to produce water-hydrocarbons emulsions of common, mineral and synthetic diesel fuel. Both of these fuels as well as their water emulsions with 20% water content by volume, were used for tests. The ESC (European Stationary Cycle) test conditions were determined and the engine was tested on engine dynamometer in accordance with the predetermined ESC test conditions. During the tests, under close scrutiny, engine emission and fuel consumption levels were measured. The tests it be more time repeat (with every liquid to engine fueling was 34 times) to achieve the statistical assessment of the results. By the use of emulsions was found to result in a significant reduction in the consumption of diesel fuels. This result is statistically significant.
PL
Rozwój silników spalinowych podażą w kierunku spełnienia coraz bardziej rygorystycznych wymogów narzucanych w celu zmniejszenia emisji toksycznych składników spalin i zużycia paliwa, a tym samym do redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla i zapobieżeniu wyczerpywania się globalnych zasobów naturalnych. Badania silników zasilanych emulsjami wodno-węglowodorowymi mają już długą tradycję. Dotychczas testy były oparte na emulsjach otrzymywanych poprzez dodawanie związków chemicznych. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań, w których emulsje uzyskano przy wykorzystaniu zjawiska kawitacji. Z tego powodu opracowano unikatowy kawitator, który był następnie wykorzystywany do produkcji emulsji wodno-węglowodorowych zwykłego, mineralnego oraz syntetycznego oleju napędowego. Oba te paliwa, a także ich emulsje wodne o 20% zawartości wody objętościowo, zostały użyte do testów ESC (Europejskiego Cyklu Stacjonarnego). Określono warunki badania wg ESC i przetestowano silnik na hamowni zgodnie z tymi warunkami. Podczas testów zmierzono poziom emisji i zużycia paliwa. Przy każdym rodzaju paliwa testy powtarzano 34 krotnie aby uzyskać statystyczną ocenę wyników. Stwierdzono, że zastosowanie emulsji powoduje znaczne zmniejszenie zużycia olejów napędowych. Wynik ten jest statystycznie istotny.
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