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EN
The Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is home to almost 5,000,000 people and is a major contributor to Saudi Arabia’s economic strength. The area has experienced population growth of about 3.5% per year and rapid urbanization over the past few decades. With this increase in population has come a significant escalation in automobile traffic, which, in turn, has contributed to poor air quality in the province. Two of the major cities in the area were listed on the World Health Organization’s 2016 top 15 cities with the worst air pollution. Local studies have shown that vehicle traffic is a significant contributor to poor air quality and thus, eventually, climate change. Public transportation could alleviate some of the pollution. Unfortunately, overall past perceptions of public transportation and its negative connotations within the Saudi Arabian cultural setting have discouraged previous attempts to develop public transit services. Currently, KSA is progressing with metro works in the capital city of Riyadh and is considering what services to offer in the Eastern Province. This research involved surveying over 800 Eastern Province residents to determine whether they would use public transportation if it was offered, and what type of service they would expect. The response was positive and provided initial indications that public transportation is needed and would be utilized.
PL
Bardzo interesujące dane może dostarczyć analiza jakości powietrza atmosferycznego, przeprowadzona przy okazji nietypowych wydarzeń, uroczystości czy masowych imprez. Do takich wniosków doszedł Regionalny Wydział Monitoringu Środowiska w Bydgoszczy, Głównego Inspektoratu Ochrony Środowiska.
EN
The article presents a comparison of original methods of air quality measurement with a professional device Air Smart-box v. 1.2. The methodology consisted of laser beam analysis from the device. To enable detailed photo analysis for the research, an Android mobile application was developed. The OpenCV library was used to process the images. In the article, the hypothesis was put forward that the method using a binary threshold with a threshold value of 50 allows to obtain results closest to those of the station. This hypothesis was confirmed by the results of the experiments.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia porównanie autorskich metod pomiaru jakości powietrza z profesjonalnym urządzeniem Air Smartbox v. 1.2. Metody polegają na analizie zdjęć wiązki lasera w zanieczyszczonym powietrzu. W celu przeprowa-dzenia badań została zaimplementowana aplikacja mobilna, dedykowana na system operacyjny Android, która umożliwia wykonanie zdjęć oraz ich późniejszą obróbkę i analizę. Do przetwarzania obrazów zastosowano bibliotekę OpenCV. W artykule postawiono hipotezę, że metoda wykorzystująca progowanie binarne z wartością progowania wynoszącą 50 pozwala uzyskać wyniki najbardziej zbliżone do wyników ze stacji. Hipoteza ta została potwierdzona uzyskanymi wynikami badań.
EN
The paper presents the problem of dust pollution in the atmosphere of a typical urban agglomeration. !e influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on airborne dust concentration is described. !e results of air pollution tests with PM2.5 and PM10 particulate matter at five measurement points in the Cracow agglomeration are presented. !e use of statistical methods has shown the relationship between airborne dust concentration and the season of the year. !e highest levels of PM2,5 and PM10 dusts are recorded during the autumn and winter months. During the heating season, the municipal and household sector is mainly responsible for dust emissions. Measures to reduce emissions of air pollution from industrial sources and transportation are proposed.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje problem zanieczyszczenia pyłowego atmosfery typowej aglomeracji miejskiej. Opisano wpływ czynników naturalnych i antropogenicznych na stężenie pyłów w powietrzu. Przedstawiono wyniki badań zapylenia powietrza cząstkami PM2,5 i PM10 w pięciu punktach pomiarowych aglomeracji krakowskiej. Przy zastosowaniu metod statystycznych wykazano zależność między stężeniem pyłu w powietrzu a porą roku. Największe stężenia pyłów PM2,5 i PM10 obserwuje się w miesiącach jesiennych i zimowych. W sezonie grzewczym za emisję pyłów odpowiedzialny jest głownie sektor komunalno-bytowy. Zaproponowano sposoby ograniczenia emisji zanieczyszczeń atmosfery ze źródeł przemysłowych i transportu.
EN
Poland is one of the heaviest users of district heating systems in Europe, and those district heating systems are mainly coal-fired. This study describes the correlation between emission of gaseous air pollutants and the combustion parameters of WR coal-fired water grate boilers (WR-25, WR-10, WR-8M). Air pollution emissions loads were measured during boiler work in conditions other than standard (start-up, extinction, load fluctuations). A negative impact of compounds such as HCl, HF, CO and NH3 in emission standards for various heat sources has been noted.
PL
Polska należy do największych użytkowników systemów ciepłowniczych w Europie, które wciąż w większości opalane są węglem kamiennym. W artykule opisano korelację pomiędzy emisją gazowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza i parametrami spalania węglowych wodnych kotłów rusztowych typu WR (WR-25, WR-10, WR-8M). Wielkości gazowych emisji zanieczyszczeń powietrza były mierzone podczas pracy kotłów w warunkach odbiegających od normalnych (rozruch, wygaszanie, zmiana obciążenia). Zaobserwowano negatywny wpływ związków, takich jak: HCl, HF, CO oraz NH3.
PL
November 2019 marked the 40th anniversary of the adoption in Geneva of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, which aims primarily to reduce the damage to human health and the environment caused by air pollution. Over the years, the Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify measures to control emissions of basic air pollutants. The efforts undertaken under the Convention have been instrumental in bolstering international cooperation to limit the pollution with sulphur and nitrogen oxides as well as to reduce emissions of other pollutants. The European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) has been developed complete with modelling and forecasting air pollution levels and pollutant fluxes. Robust information has been gathered in the EMEP databases. However, much remains to be done, and air pollution is still a challenge in the UN ECE region.
EN
W 2019 r. minęło 40 lat od momentu podpisania w Genewie Konwencji w sprawie transgranicznego zanieczyszczania powietrza na dalekie odległości, której podstawowym celem jest ochrona środowiska i człowieka przed skutkami zanieczyszczenia powietrza. W ciągu tych lat do tekstu konwencji przyjęto 8 protokołów dotyczących kontroli emisji podstawowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza. Dzięki działaniom prowadzonym w ramach konwencji udało się rozwinąć współpracę międzynarodową, która przyczyniła się do zmniejszenia zanieczyszczenia powietrza tlenkami siarki i  azotu, a także ograniczenia emisji innych zanieczyszczeń. Rozwinięto program badawczy EMEP, modelowanie i prognozowanie stanu powietrza i przepływów zanieczyszczeń, zgromadzono ogromne ilości informacji w bazach danych. Nadal jednak pozostaje dużo do zrobienia a zanieczyszczenie powietrza jest w poważnym problemem w regionie EKG ONZ.
9
Content available remote Assessment of meteorological effects and ozone variation in urban area
EN
The paper presents results of the measurements of the tropospheric ozone (O3) concentration and meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, speed and wind direction. The data were collected from January 2016 to December 2016 at station located in locality Centre (Banja Luka), Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants to plants and health and highly reactive secondary pollutant. The present study covers investigation of the relationship between the concentration of ozone and meteorological parameters as well as time variations of ozone concentration (by hours, months, seasons). This topic has not been studied up to now in this region, although the recent research data indicates that there is a correlation between them and previously obtained from the world’s relevant scientific centres, as already cited above. Statistical analysis confirms string of rolls, which shows directional connection between tropospheric ozone and meteorological parameters, specially temperature (r = 0.148), air pressure (r = –0.292) and relative humidity (r = –0.292). These parameters are the most important meteorological factors influencing the variation in ozone levels during the research. The correlation ozone concentrations with speed and direction of wind is not significant, like other parameters.
EN
Currently, air pollution and energy consumption are the main issues in the transportation area in large urban cities. In these cities, most people choose their transportation mode according to corresponding utility including traveller's and trip’s characteristics. Also, there is no effective solution in terms of population growth, urban space, and transportation demands, so it is essential to optimize systematically travel demands in the real network of roads in urban areas, especially in congested areas. Travel Demand Management (TDM) is one of the well-known ways to solve these problems. TDM defined as a strategy that aims to maximize the efficiency of the urban transport system by granting certain privileges for public transportation modes, Enforcement on the private car traffic prohibition in specific places or times, increase in the cost of using certain facilities like parking in congested areas. Network pricing is one of the most effective methods of managing transportation demands for reducing traffic and controlling air pollution especially in the crowded parts of downtown. A little paper may exist that optimize urban transportations in busy parts of cities with combined Markov decision making processes with reward and evolutionary-based algorithms and simultaneously considering customers’ and trip’s characteristics. Therefore, we present a new network traffic management for urban cities that optimizes a multi-objective function that related to the expected value of the Markov decision system’s reward using the Genetic Algorithm. The planned Shiraz city is taken as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of the proposed approach. At first, an analysis is also performed on the impact of the toll levels on the variation of the user and operator cost components, respectively. After choosing suitable values for the network parameters, simulation of the Markov decision process and GA is dynamically performed, then the optimal decision for the Markov decision process in terms of total reward is obtained. The results illustrate that the proposed cordon pricing has significant improvement in performance for all seasons including spring, autumn, and winter.
EN
The article presents a method for assessing emissions of harmful substances and noise from road and air transport, as well as a combined assessment of the emissions of these transport pollutants. The original analytical dependencies reflecting the emissions of harmful substances from road transport, developed as part of the EMITRANSYS project implemented at the Faculty of Transport of the Warsaw University of Technology, were taken into consideration, in which the unit values of the actual road emissions of harmful substances are a function of, among other things, route length or speed of the vehicles. However, the dependencies associated with noise emissions were taken from the applicable international guidelines for assessing environmental pollution by traffic noise. The article also describes a case study in which the impact of Warsaw Chopin Airport on noise along the Warsaw road network and the entire Warsaw agglomeration was assessed. Analyses and discussions were carried out in the scope of the change in transport noise due to air operations carried out in the analysed area. As agreed, the combined impact of road and aircraft noise in the area under study is far more unfavourable than street noise alone. Thus, it can be seen that the assessment of noise levels carried out separately for individual modes of transport (in accordance with applicable regulations) should be supplemented with the assessment of traffic noise from all modes of transport – especially in the case of simulation tests of ecologically friendly changes in the area of transport.
PL
Rośliny to biologiczni sprzymierzeńcy człowieka w walce o czyste powietrze. Ich obecność w mieście warto wykorzystać nie tylko do poprawy estetyki otoczenia, ale też w walce o nasze zdrowie.
13
EN
The aim of the work was to evaluate the possibility of monitoring the work of classical catalytic reactor by its ability to store oxygen. For this purpose, a special research reactor was developed to simulate the loss of its storage capacity of oxygen from 100% to 12.5% in increments of 12.5%. Also a test bench is described. It allows conducting experiments with research reactor, both in terms of his work on the standard, stoichiometric mixture and forced changing rich-poor mixture. In this article the impact of the reactor oxygen storage capacity loss on obtained conversion levels of CO, HC and NOX was described. Also the index of reactor oxygen storage capacity loss was defined and was referred to levels of toxic gases conversion in the catalytic reactor. On the basis of the results of research and its analysis the final conclusions were formulated.
PL
Celem pracy było dokonanie oceny możliwości monitorowania pracy klasycznego reaktora katalitycznego za pomocą oceny jego zdolności do magazynowania tlenu. W tym celu został przygotowany specjalny reaktor badawczy pozwalający symulować utratę jego pojemności magazynowania tlenu od 100% do 12,5% z krokiem co 12,5%. Przygotowano również stanowisko badawcze pozwalające na przeprowadzenie badań eksperymentalnych reaktora zarówno w warunkach jego pracy klasycznie na mieszance stechiometrycznej, jak i na mieszance skokowo zmiennej bogata–uboga. Określono wpływ utraty pojemności magazynowania reaktora na uzyskiwane w nim poziomy konwersji CO, HC oraz NOX, a następnie wyznaczono indeks utraty pojemności magazynowania tlenu, od którego uzależniono spadek konwersji związków toksycznych spalin w reaktorze. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań i analiz sformułowano wnioski końcowe.
PL
Artykuł o charakterze przeglądowym poświęcony wentylacji grawitacyjnej w budynkach mieszkalnych. Przedstawiono w nim wybrane problemy jakości powietrza w takich obiektach, zwracając szczególną uwagę na skutki złej jakości powietrza wewnętrznego określanej jako syndrom chorego budynku. Przywołane zostały zalecenia prawne w zakresie warunków, jakie powinna spełniać wentylacja budynków mieszkalnych, w tym istotne zagadnienie wielkości kanałów wentylacji grawitacyjnej. W publikacji omówiono budowę i działanie systemu wentylacji grawitacyjnej oraz skuteczność jej działania w odniesieniu do mikroklimatu pomieszczeń w budynkach. W końcowej części opracowania przedstawiona została ocena skuteczności działania wentylacji grawitacyjnej na przykładzie wybranego wolnostojącego budynku mieszkalnego. Artykuł opublikowany w nr 8/2008 „TCHiK”.
EN
The paper deals with problems related to the natural ventilation. The question of air quality and sick building syndrome are discussed. Regulations on requirements for ventilation of residential buildings are pointed, including the proper dimensions of air ducts. Design and functioning of natural ventilation systems and their performance are described. Then the performance of natural ventilation in chosen residential building is analysed. The paper was published in „TCHiK” No 8/2008.
EN
Currently, a very big problem of cities in Europe and the world is air pollution with combustion products of car fuels, generation of heat and electricity. These impurities affect the microclimate of cities significantly. Pollution not only affects the area outside buildings, but getting into their interior through ventilation systems, which has an adverse effect on the indoor environment of buildings. High concentrations of CO 2, cause a weakening of concentration in working people, which affects the deterioration of safety and work efficiency. For assessing air quality improvement on “green roofs”, a field study of CO 2 content has been carried out on the “green roof” of a four-storey building, on a completely identical non-greened building, and on a highway with high-density traffic near them in Kiev. It was found that greening the roof significantly reduces the CO 2 content from 501 ppm on the road and 452 ppm on the roof without protection to 410-415 ppm. It improves the conditions in which people work and rest.
EN
The objective of the paper is to present the problem of low-stack emission in the economic and financial context. The paper presents the results of preliminary research based on literature review and environmental reports. After completing the selection of publications and data extraction, which could help to describe the issue raised, their analysis, comparison and generalization was conducted. The aspects presented may constitute a starting point in building a model of pricing the economic results of low-stack emission. In the first place the phenomenon of smog was subject to analysis, as one of the most significant consequences of low-stack emission, influencing health of human beings, environment and tangible assets. Then an attempt was made to express the previously identified results of low-stack emission in the economic and financial categories, taking into consideration the costs incurred for the purposes of completing the undertakings aimed at decreasing low-stack emission, costs avoided due to the decrease of the number of illnesses caused by low-stack emission, costs avoided due to the restriction of the negative influence of low-stack emission on the environment and on tangible assets as well as economic benefits achieved thanks to the reduction of low-stack emission.
EN
Tarnów is a city where air pollution is a major problem during the wintertime. An acceptable level of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are exceeded very often. The main reason of this situation is individual housing and their heat system based on ineffective old units based on hard coal and sometimes even people use waste as a fuel. The city has two air quality monitoring stations and a private network for measurements of particulate matter. However, there is still a lack of information on air quality in some areas of the city. For obtaining full information on the air quality in Tarnów, readings from the monitoring station and field measurements were carried out. The obtained information allowed to determine which areas of the city are most exposed to the occurrence of smog in the heating season. So far, air quality measurements in Tarnów have not been conducted at the same time for so many collections.The most polluted air occurs in Krzyż District but air quality should be improved in all city. The best air quality has been observed for locations where heat is available from municipal heating plant e.g. Słoneczna Str. Presented research work shows that air quality in Tarnów City is very unhealthy because of particulate matter pollution. In the winter time the main problem is too high concentration of PM2.5, but also PM10 concentration. Those parameters are very frequently exceeded. The worst air quality occurs in the evenings (8 p.m.), but in the mornings (8 a. m.) air quality is highly polluted too. When air quality in Tarnów City is bad situation concerns all localisations. The similar situation is observed when air quality is good or acceptable. The main conclusion is that for locations where heat is available from heat plant is not generated individually by domestic sources, the situation is the most comfortable. Our investigation covered short period, but it is preliminary study and this important issue will be continued in the future.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów stężenia pyłu zawieszonego PM10 i PM2,5 w powietrzu wewnętrznym w domu jednorodzinnym. Dokonano analizy tych wyników oraz porównania z wymaganiami norm, a także rozważono przyczyny podwyższonego stężenia pyłów i metody polepszenia jakości powietrza.
EN
This article presents results of measurements of the suspended dust PM10 and PM2,5 concentration in indoor air in a single-family house. Then, an analysis and comparison with the standards were made, and the reasons for the increased dust concentration were considered.
EN
Today’s world is facing the necessity of reducing air pollution. One of the alternatives is to limit pollution related to road transport by using CNG fuel. The European Union is imposing increasingly strict requirements regarding the cleanness of car fumes, and the Polish government is endeavouring to take actions aimed at reducing the pollution related to car use by planning the development of transport electromobility. In this article, the authors want to draw attention to methane as an alternative to traditional fuels. The article presents the results of a survey conducted among drivers, which regarded their readiness to use CNG-powered cars. The results indicate that while respondents appreciate the ecological value of this fuel, they are also worried about safety, which is contradicted by the analysis of CNG advantages and disadvantages.
20
Content available remote Ocena zanieczyszczenia powietrza w Małopolsce metodą spektroskopii Ramana
PL
Spektroskopię Ramana zastosowano do analizy zanieczyszczeń powietrza w kilku lokalizacjach na terenie woj. małopolskiego. Struktura krystaliczna produktów spalania silnie zależy od procesu spalania (temperatura spalania, dostęp powietrza). Spektroskopia Ramana pozwoliła na rozróżnienie poszczególnych struktur występujących w mierzonych próbkach. Pomiary wykonane dla próbek referencyjnych w postaci sadzy z układu wydechowego silnika spalinowego oraz sadzy z pieca węglowego pozwoliły scharakteryzować główne źródło smogu na terenie Krakowa, Trzebini, Tarnowa oraz Bochni.
EN
Four dust samples (particulate matter 2.5) were collected from air filters situated in the cities of an agglomeration in a province in Poland and 4 dust samples from various emission sources (coal furnace, car engine, urban agglomeration air and charcoal bag). The content of various crystalline carbon black structure was detd. by Raman spectroscopy and hence the main sources of particulate emission present in urban agglomerations were estd.
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