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EN
Indicators, different in terms of nature and grading scales, are used to recognise hazardous and harmful factors that affect human health. However, no single methodology is available for their assessment, and the variety of qualimetric assessment methods requires in-depth research, in part on optimality and efficiency. Therefore, this work aimed to conduct several scientific studies to obtain the results of the assessment in unified units of measurement, which would provide a generalised indicator of harmful factors at the workplace. The article proposes to use dependencies to assess indicators of harmful factors, considering the maximum, minimum, and optimal values as well as the shape parameter, the change of which produces various assessments in a dimensionless scale. A hierarchy analysis method was used to obtain reliable values with a small number of experts and determine the form parameter. These efforts resulted in the value of the overall index for harmful factors, which serves as grounds for decisions regarding further improvements in working conditions. The developed methodology was used to assess the safety of working conditions at a machine-building enterprise, and the results are presented in the article.
PL
Artykuł porusza kwestię wpływu sfery politycznej na międzynarodową wymianę gospodarczą i integrację logistyczną Eurazji. Posługując się konkretnymi przykładami wydarzeń dotyczących Rosji po 2013 roku, wskazuje na bezpośrednią zależność polityki i warunków, w jakich odbywa się handel zagraniczny i związane z nim przepływy w ramach transeurazjatyckich łańcuchów logistycznych. Omawia skutki wydarzeń politycznych dla zakresu i trybu międzynarodowych powiązań gospodarczych.
EN
The article presents the issue of the impact of the political sphere on the international economic exchange and logistics integration of Eurasia. Using examples of specific facts that occurred in and around Russia after 2013, indicates the direct dependence of the policy and conditions in which the foreign trade takes place and how the international flows are handled in the Trans-Eurasian logistic chains. It describes the effects of political events on the scope and mode of international economic connections.
3
Content available Contemporary overview of soil creep phenomenon
EN
Soil creep deformation refers to phenomena which take place in many areas and research in this field of science is rich and constantly developing. The article presents an analysis of the literature on soil creep phenomena. In light of the complexity of the issues involved and the wide variety of perspectives taken, this attempt at systematization seeks to provide a reliable review of current theories and practical approaches concerning creep deformation. The paper deals with subjects such as definition of creep, creep genesis, basic description of soil creep dynamics deformation, estimation of creep capabilities, various fields of creep occurrence, and an introduction to creep modeling. Furthermore, based on this analysis, a new direction for research is proposed.
EN
An analysis of the dynamics of groundwater levels in the Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDEs), which cover a vast part of the middle Vistula River valley in central Poland was carried out. The study area, typical of large river valleys, was investigated by detailed monitoring of groundwater levels. Based on statistical analysis and the geostatistical modeling of monitoring data for 1999–2013, the range and dynamics of groundwater level fluctuations were determined for the entire interval and for the vegetation periods. The values of retention and infiltration recharge in various periods were compared with average values, indicating intervals of potential groundwater deficiency in GDEs. The amplitude of groundwater fluctuations, retention and infiltration were determined for vegetation periods characterized by the highest water intake by plants and the highest evapotranspiration. Particular attention has been drawn to the analysis of low groundwater levels in the vegetation periods, with water deficiencies potentially threatening the correct functioning of plant communities in GDEs. Moreover, the study has allowed us to indicate areas with insufficient groundwater levels during vegetation periods that may be hazardous to plant communities. The results may be a basis for the elaboration of correct management plans, protection measures and projects, or GDE renaturalization.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano teoretyczne oraz empiryczne podejścia do analizy wpływu rozwoju infrastruktury transportu na wzrost gospodarczy. W pierwszej części artykułu przedstawiono wybrany dorobek teoretyczny z zakresu poruszanej problematyki, w drugiej powołano się na empiryczne modele, zaadaptowane do zbadania zależności między rozwojem infrastruktury a wzrostem PKB oraz dokonano próby analizy tej zależności na przykładzie 16 województw Polski, uwzględniając lata 2008-2011.
EN
The paper presents a theoretical and empirical approach on the impact of the development of transport infrastructure on economic growth. In the first part of the article presents the main views transport of economists on that matter. In the second part of this paper empirical models were adapted to examine this relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. Analysis on the example of the 16 provinces of Poland (taking into account the years 2008-2011) was conducted.
EN
Water vapor plays an important role in the global climate system. A clear relationship between water vapor and solar activity can explain some physical mechanisms of how solar activity influences terrestrial weather/climate changes. To gain insight of this possible relationship, the atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) as the terrestrial climate response was observed by ground-based GPS receivers over the Antarctic stations. The PWV changes analyzed for the period from 2003 to 2008 coincided with the declining phase of solar cycle 23 exhibited following the solar variability trend. Their relationship showed moderate to strong correlation with 0.45 < R2 < 0.93 (p < 0.01), on a monthly basis. This possible relationship suggests that when the solar-coupled geomagnetic activity is stronger, the Earth’s surface will be warmer, as indicated by electrical connection between ionosphere and troposphere.
PL
Na podstawie wyników badań, przeprowadzonych w 2012 r. przez Państwową Wyższą Szkołę Zawodową w Suwałkach w 63 gospodarstwach, w województwach podlaskim i warmińsko-mazurskim, określono zależności między przeciętnym wiekiem ciągników użytkowanych w gospodarstwach rolnych a powierzchnią tych gospodarstw i mocą zainstalowanych silników. Badania przeprowadzono metodą wywiadu kierowanego. Wyniki przedstawiono na wykresach, na których zaznaczono linie trendu, wyznaczone z zastosowaniem funkcji najlepiej odwzorowujących badane zależności. Badane gospodarstwa posiadały łącznie 166 ciągników sześćdziesięciu typów, o mocy od 18 do 122 kW. Na jedno gospodarstwo przypadało przeciętnie 2,6 ciągnika. Wiek ciągników w badanych gospodarstwach mieścił się w przedziale od 1 do 41 lat (średnia blisko 16 lat). Stwierdzono, że przeciętny wiek ciągników zmniejsza się w miarę zwiększania powierzchni gospodarstw rolnych oraz mocy zainstalowanej w silnikach.
EN
Based on the results of research conducted in 2012 by the Higher Vocational School in Suwalki in the region of Podlasie and Warmia and Mazury, there have been defined the relationship between the average age of tractors used on farms and the acreage of farms and power of the installed tractor engines. The study was conducted by a directed interview. The results are shown in the graphs in which there are marked trend lines designated using functions which illustrate the best the studied dependences. The tested farms have been equipped with a total of 166 tractors of sixty types, with a capacity from 18 to 122 kW. Per one farm there have been 2.6 tractors, on average. In the studied farms the age of tractors ranged from 1 to 41 years (the average amount to about 16 years). It has been found that the average age of tractors decreased with increasing acreage of farms and capacity of installed engines.
EN
Leaf traits scaling relationships were compared in different months (May, June, July and August) in a temperate shrub species, Vitex negundo Linn. var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. Leaf traits variation and the impact of environment were also studied. Our results showed that specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen content (Nmass), leaf phosphorus content (Pmass) and leaf chlorophyll content (Chlmass) were positively correlated, and all of the pairwise relationships showed a common standardized major axis (SMA) slope in different months. The variation of SLA, chlorophyll a content (Chlmass a), chlorophyll b content (Chlmass b), Chlmass a/b and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) were mainly habitat-dependent, while the variation of Pmass and Nmass/Pmass were mainly month-dependent. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to further explore the relationships between leaf traits and environmental factors. We found that plants under shade (the relative photosynthetic photon flux density was about 10%) developed light-capturing behavior at leaf level (higher SLA) and cellular level (higher Chlmass/Nmass and lower Chlmass a/b). The increased Nmass/Pmass with month was mainly resulted from the large absorption of soil nitrogen and the decrease of soil pH. In a word, our study indicates that species may not have fundamentally different carbon capture strategies in different months. Variation of different leaf traits are related to different environmental factors in the field.
EN
The structure of links between realized volatility and trading volume can be reflected by regime switching copulas. The estimation by means of copula based regime switching models delivered results concerning the interdependencies between realized return volatility and trading volume of selected companies listed in ATX. A copula in the first regime was chosen as an asymmetric copula with positive lower and upper tail dependencies. Conversely Gaussian copula in the second regime is a symmetric copula and variables linked with it are tail independent. For all analyzed stocks the probability of being at the first regime appeared to be vitally greater than being at the second regime. This result suggest that there is considerable dependence between realized volatility and daily volume in extreme values. The results suggest that interdependencies between realized volatility and trading volume do not probably depend on the size but rather on the branch of a company.
PL
Struktura zależności pomiędzy zmiennością zrealizowaną a wielkością obrotów może być oddana za pomocą kopuł przełącznikowych. Estymacja za pomocą kopuł przełącznikowych dostarczyła wyniki dotyczące zależności pomiędzy zmiennością zrealizowaną a wielkością obrotów wybranych spółek notowanych w indeksie ATX na Giełdzie Wiedeńskiej. W pierwszym reżimie została wybrana asymetryczna kopuła z dodatnimi zależnościami w ogonach. Natomiast w drugim reżimie została wybrana kopuła Gaussa, która jest symetryczna oraz łączy zmienne niezależne w ogonach. W przypadku wszystkich badanych spółek prawdopodobieństwo przebywania w pierwszym reżimie okazało się znacznie większe. Taki wynik sugeruje, iż na rynku istnieje zależność dla ekstremalnych wartości między zmiennością zrealizowaną a wielkością obrotów. Uzyskane wyniki sugerują, że na silę zależności nie ma prawdopodobnie wpływu wielkość spółki, a istotnym czynnikiem jest tu przypuszczalnie branża, do której spółka przynależy.
EN
Grain size dependence of creep is a complex relation. It can be increasing, decreasing or constant function accordingly to current conditions and material. It is a consequence of complex nature of microscopic mechanisms affecting creep. Some of them are analyzed in current paper by means of multiscale model, using simulation of damage development done by cellular automata technique. It was shown that enlarged sizes of grains, which promote development of intergranular microcracks, are compensated by reduced density of voids forming vacancies. Obtained in simulations grain size dependency follows experimentally observed dependency for small grains in dislocation creep range.
12
Content available remote Obliczenie potęgi k znormalizowanej afinicznej relacji
PL
W artykule rozważane są idealnie zagnieżdżone pętle afiniczne, w których dolne oraz górne granice pętli, a także odwołania do tablic oraz instrukcji warunkowych są określane przy pomocy funkcji afinicznych, których argumentami są indeksy otaczających pętli oraz opcjonalnie parametry stukturalne.
EN
An approach to calculate the power k of an affine normalized relation is presented. A way to normalize an arbitrary affine relation is discussed. The approach is illustrated by an example. It is clarified how to calculate the positive transitive closure and transitive closure of a relation on the basis of the power k of the relation. Results of experiments are discussed. It is demonstrated how the calculated power k of a relation can be used for extracting both coarse- and fine-grained parallelism available in program loops. Feature, research is outlined.
EN
The Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is applied to identification of relationship between the values of water-cement ratio (W/C) and the parameters of fracture mechanics according to Mode II of dense concrete (K IIc, J IIc). Regular division of input space and "bell" membership function were adopted in the system. The results were compared with the polynomial approximation.
PL
Adaptacyjny neuronowo-rozmyty system wnioskowania (ANFIS) został zastosowany do identyfikacji zależności pomiędzy wartościami stosunku wodno-cementowego (W/C) a parametrami mechaniki pękania według II modelu betonów ciężkich (KIIc, JIIc). W systemie wykorzystano podział regularny przestrzeni wejściowej i dzwonowe funkcje przynależności. Wyniki zostały porównane z aproksymacją wielomianową.
EN
The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to introduce, for any given partition of [R^2], the decomposition of Spearman's rho into three terms: bet~cveen, within and remainder. This decomposition, presented in Section 4, is strictly connected with that of the concentration index ar as introduced in Kowalczyk (1998), and with the decomposition of Kendall's tau as introduced in Kowalczyk and Niewiadomska-Bugaj (2000). Those earlier results are reminded in Sections 2 and 3. The second aim of the paper is to show and exemplify how one can use the decompositions of p* (Spearman's rho) and r (Kendall's tau) to analyse, decompose and compare m x m contingency tables with the same categories for the row variable and the column varable. The examples given in Section 5 concern social mobility tables with data from Britain and Poland. An important observation from the analysis of these data is that p* and r lead there to practically equivalent decompositions.
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