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PL
Artykuł porusza kwestię wpływu sfery politycznej na międzynarodową wymianę gospodarczą i integrację logistyczną Eurazji. Posługując się konkretnymi przykładami wydarzeń dotyczących Rosji po 2013 roku, wskazuje na bezpośrednią zależność polityki i warunków, w jakich odbywa się handel zagraniczny i związane z nim przepływy w ramach transeurazjatyckich łańcuchów logistycznych. Omawia skutki wydarzeń politycznych dla zakresu i trybu międzynarodowych powiązań gospodarczych.
EN
The article presents the issue of the impact of the political sphere on the international economic exchange and logistics integration of Eurasia. Using examples of specific facts that occurred in and around Russia after 2013, indicates the direct dependence of the policy and conditions in which the foreign trade takes place and how the international flows are handled in the Trans-Eurasian logistic chains. It describes the effects of political events on the scope and mode of international economic connections.
EN
Information and communication technologies enable the emergence of a new phenomenon called the “sharing economy”. An increasing number of articles in the media as well as debates about the positive and negative aspects of the sharing economy show a growing interest in the subject. The paper aims to review the different approaches to the definition of the sharing economy and to present the authors’ views on the concept. The reviewed literature reveals the main drivers for participating in the sharing economy. A survey was conducted to learn more about the motives of Lithuanian people participating in this concept. The survey reveals the following leading factors of using the sharing economy platforms: an easy way to make extra money; supporting individuals and/or small/independent companies; meeting new people and having an interesting experience/doing something most people haven’t tried yet. The survey also reveals that most of the respondents prefer to own things rather than share them. Despite the widespread popularity of the sharing economy platforms in the world, this phenomenon is in its infancy in Lithuania.
EN
Today, as a result of significant reductions in the armed forces in the world, it is difficult to maintain the scale of production at a high level and economically rational. In addition, self-mastery all the necessary modern battlefield technology is a huge challenge for even the biggest economic powers. That is why it is so important today for the security of states international economic cooperation. Today has been a growing interest in international economic cooperation in the field of defense technology. Economic and defense cooperation in the field of advanced technology is especially important for small businesses. Small businesses are more flexible in taking risks, but do not have the capabilities. Interesting research on the factors influencing the development of economic and defense cooperation of small businnesses conducted British economists P. Bishop. Empiricall studies on a sample of 355 British companies have confirmed a significant positive relationship between firm size measured by the level of employment and the likekihood of international cooperation. The study also showed that innovation and a significant share of defense in total company revenue can facilitate establishing international economic cooperation.
PL
Globalizacja współpracy gospodarczej przedsiębiorstw (na przyklad w procesach zaopatrzenia, produkcji, dystrybucji), postępów technologiczny i innowacyjne sposoby działalności gospodarczej, a także wzmożona konkurencja i coraz krótszy cykl życia produktów na rynku - wywołały presję na zmiany wymiarów działania łańcuchów dostaw - krótszy czas realizacji zamówienia, globalny zasięg działania, większą elastyczność i niezawodność działań. Jednym z podstawowych narzędzi wspomagania procesów biznesowych strata się elektroniczna wymiana danych poprzez siec Internet, wywołując epokową zmianę wartości dla klienta - dostęp do informacji niezależny od przepływu produktów i lokalizacji partnerów łańcucha dostaw.
EN
Globalization of economic companies cooperation (e. g. in delivery, production and distribution processes), technological growth and innovative manners of economic activity, as well as stronger competition and shorter products life cycles on markets have caused pressure on changes of dimensions of supply chains acts - shorter time of order realization, global scope of activity, bigger elasticity and durability. One of fundamental tool of supporting business processes became electronic data interchange through the Internet. It has caused epoch-making change for clients values - independent access to information about products" flow and localization of supply chain partners.
EN
The presented paper discusses problems of small businesses economic co-operation defined as the establishment of lasting relationships and links between firms which do not represent typical market transactions. Particular attention was paid to specific interactions resulting from the occurrence of certain features distinguishing small firms from other market players. On the basis of available literature the following characteristics, differentiating interaction, were selected: the combination of an entrepreneur with the company and the owner/manager with the family. The first two characteristics determine the way of conducting business activities owing to personal characteristics of owner/manager who creates the specific organizational culture or has certain reasons for taking decisions about the company development. Attention was also paid to an important aspect, appreciated by entrepreneurs, namely financial and economic independence which affects the choice of economic cooperation forms. The knowledge of local market at which the company operates also constitutes an important attribute, as well as the network of personal contacts, which depending on an entrepreneur's experience may facilitate the establishment of cooperative relationships. The presented characteristics are revealed in the context of small businesses interaction analysis with other market operators distinguished on the basis of size. Empirical research shows that it is possible to extract characteristics of small-businesses interactions with other young and small to medium-sized and large companies. These first relationships are characterized by easy access to decision-makers, lack of communication barriers and cross-matching offer which results in both parties satisfaction. Negative aspects refer mainly to poor offer parameters which bring about minor financial benefit. Good commercial conditions and access to knowledge about new technologies, products and the absence or limited access to decision-makers and poor communication constitute the most important features of interaction between small enterprises and large as well as medium sized ones. The research illustrates that small businesses more easily interact with other small businesses, but if medium and large enterprises improve communication and accessibility of policymakers, then small businesses would prefer to interact with such entities at the market.
6
Content available remote Wybrane elementy polsko-litewskiej współpracy gospodarczej
PL
Artykuł składa się z trzech części. W pierwszej przedstawiony został stan polsko-litewskich stosunków gospodarczych. Jego obecny etap jest nierozerwalnie związany z przełomem jaki dokonał się w Europie po 1989 roku. Analizie poddany został traktat o przyjaznych stosunkach i dobrosąsiedzkiej współpracy. Ma on zasadnicze znaczenie dla współpracy obu państw w sferze gospodarczej i handlowej. Część druga dotyczy gospodarki Litwy w procesie transormacji. Wskazuje na dokonujące się tam zmiany w ustawodawstwie litewskim, które determinują rozwój gospodarczy. Cele i struktura Polsko-Litewskiej Izby Gospodarczej stanowi część trzecią. Jej istotą jest wykazanie wpływu działalności Izby na rozwój polsko-litewskich stosunków gospodarczych.
EN
The article consist of three parts. The first part presents state of polish-lithuanian economic relationships. Its present stage is inseparably tied with breakthrough that took place in Europe in 1989. The treaty about friendly relationships and good-neighbourly cooperation is subjected to an analysis. It has vital role in cooperation of both countries in the economic and trade sphere. The second part concerns Lithuanian legislation taking place there which determine economic growth. The purpose and structure of The Polish-Lithuanian Chamber of Commerce makes the third part. Its purpose is to point out the influence of Chamber activity on development of polish-lithuanian economic relation.
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