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EN
Purpose: The purpose of the research was twofold: (1) to describe the normal asymmetry in lower limb loading during a normal stance and during a stance with visual and vestibular disturbance relating to the lower limb dominance, (2) to assess relations of loading of both lower limbs with body weight and height (BMI) and leg functional dominance. Methods: The subjects of this study were 95 students. Settings of the two Kistler platforms were used to register the time series of the vertical component of the ground reaction force while the subject was standing (45 seconds) in a normal position and next with eyes covered with a band and head tilted back position with one leg placed on one platform and the other on the second platform. The symmetry index (SI) was used to describe the asymmetry of the left or right loading. Results: The greater loading of the left or right leg during standing was independent of the functional leg dominance. The distribution of left and right lower limb loading in both trials may suggest that a low asymmetry, less than 5%, is represented by about 30% of subjects in general. No significant correlation was found between the SI and BMI of subjects who had a normal body weight, but in the group of overweight subjects the correlation was very high (r = 0.9). Conclusion: The results show that in describing norms of asymmetry in posture control in healthy humans it is very important to compare the results to posture asymmetry in various injuries or diseases. The most important result is that the higher asymmetry of lower limb loading is associated with overweight, which implies greater risk to health of those people.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to derive reference values for a four-level scale intended to evaluate variation in free gait asymmetry measurements in healthy subjects. Methods: This evaluation is based on kinetic values for the left and right lower limbs during gait, registered with advanced measurement systems and assessed using the symmetry index (SI) developed by Robinson. Results: For the majority of parameters, the SI does not follow normal distribution. As such, quartile values were used to create intervals for a four-step scale of assessing symmetry of free gait in healthy subjects for each studied gait parameter. The SI rating intervals were from 0% (very good symmetry) to 21.2% (very poor symmetry) for kinetic parameters. The poorest symmetry was observed for horizontal force F3. Conclusions: The four-step scale of assessing symmetry in free gait in healthy subjects can be used in diagnosing gait disorders, devising surgical treatment strategies, and monitoring the rehabilitation process. Reference values for intervals of symmetry indicators in healthy subjects can be used as criteria for comparing individuals with/without disabilities.
EN
Paper presents experimental results of upper limb kinematics during cup drinking. 18 healthy men were examined in the frame of provided examinations. The aim of work was to determine differences in kinematics between right and left upper limb on the basis of symmetry index in following joints of upper limb: shoulder, elbow and wrist. Research were carried out using kinematic system MVN Biomech Xsens. They allowed to determine ranges of motion, and then indicators of symmetry in the joints of the upper limb. The results of analyzes indicate a lack of symmetry of the movements for the right and left upper limb among the examined healthy individuals.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych dotyczących kinematyki kończyn górnych podczas czynności picia z kubka. Celem pracy było określenie różnic w kinematyce wykonywanych ruchów pomiędzy kończyną prawą i lewą na podstawie wskaźnika symetrii w stawach kończyny górnej: ramiennym, łokciowym i nadgarstkowym. W badaniach wzięło udział 18 zdrowych mężczyzn. Badania wielkości kinematycznych przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem systemu MVN Biomech firmy Xsens. Pozwoliły one na wyznaczenie zakresów ruchu, a następnie wskaźników symetrii w stawach kończyny górnej. Wyniki przeprowadzonych analiz wskazują na brak symetrii wykonywanych ruchów dla prawej i lewej kończyny górnej wśród badanych zdrowych osób.
PL
Paluch koślawy jest chorobą często występującą u kobiet. Wykonano RTG obu stóp w projekcji AP, bocznej i na palcach oraz MRI. Opracowano, trójwymiarowy model strukturalny szkieletu stopy. Przeanalizowano błędy wyznaczenia położeń poszczególnych znaczników. Zbadano równowagęu zdrowych osób metodą stabilograficzną. Pomiarów charakterystyk chodu dokonano na ścieżce podoskopowej. Względem młodszych kobiet przeprowadzono normowanie wyników starszych kobiet. Parametry charakteryzujące badane kobiety nie mają rozkładu normalnego. Profil chodu kobiet starszych opisano 19 parametrami. Różnice w chodzie obu badanych grup kobiet przejawiają się głównie w parametrach geometrycznych. Normy symetrii kobiet podano dla 1 kwartyla, mediany i 3 kwartyla.
EN
Hallux valgus is one of the most frequent forefoot disease in women. There was taken RTG of both feet in the AP, lateral and tip toe projection as well as MRI. A three-dimensional structural foot skeleton model was developed. There was analysed the uncertainty of landmark positioning together with the influence on foot geometric features. Balance mechanism was examined in healthy subjects using the HUR stabilographic platform. Gait characteristics were made on the pressure distribution plate produced by ZEBRIS. There were separated two groups of younger women and a group of older women. Normalization of older women was carried out in relation to the younger group. The parameters characterizing the investigated women did not have a normal distribution. The gait profile of older women is based on 19 parameters. Differences in gait performance of both groups of women are mainly manifested in the geometric parameters. The norms of the symmetry index for the women are given as 1 quartile, median and 3 quartile.
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