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EN
The application of hardfacing is one of the ways to restore the functional properties of worn elements. The possibility of using filler materials rich in chrome allows for better wear resistance than base materials used so far. The paper presents the results of research on the use of 3 different grades of covered electrodes for the regeneration of worn track staves. The content of the carbon in the covered electrodes was from 0,5% to 7% and the chromium from 5% to 33%. The microscopic and hardness tests revealed large differences in the structure and properties of the welds. The differences in the hardness of the welds between the materials used were up to 150 HV units. The difference in wear resistance, in the ASTM G65 test, between the best and worst materials was almost 12 times big.
EN
The article presents the results of research conducted in order to develop the technology of regenerative surfacing of forging dies. The selected example shows how the use of a measuring arm with a laser scanner can be used to support the regeneration process. The tests were conducted in industrial conditions of a forging die. The analysis of the regeneration process was carried out at each of 4 stages: after wear in the forging process, after initial machining, after regenerative surfacing and after final machining. It has been shown that scanning can be used to develop programs for mechanical pre-treatment, to measure the volume of padding welds, to determine the amount of finishing allowance, to verify the effectiveness of the surfacing process and to control the quality of the die before the forging process. The obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the regeneration carried out. In terms of performance, it has been shown that too much padding weld's material is a machining allowance. For this reason, the treatment is time and energy consuming and about 68% of the padding weld's material is waste or chips. The analysis showed the possibility of saving up to 45% of the weld metal material by using reasonable allowances of smaller thickness. These results indicate the need to modify the regeneration technology and the legitimacy of using robotic surfacing, which can provide greater precision and repeatability in the laying of padding weld’s beads. The next stage of research will be robotization of the analyzed forging die regeneration process using WAAM technology.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje efekty badań prowadzonych w celu rozwoju technologii napawania regeneracyjnego matryc kuźniczych. Na wybranym przykładzie pokazano w jaki sposób zastosowanie ramienia pomiarowego ze skanerem laserowym może służyć do wspomagania procesu regeneracji. Badania prowadzono w przemysłowych warunkach kuźni matrycowej. Analizę procesu regeneracji prowadzono na każdym z 4 etapów: po zużyciu w procesie kucia, po wstępnej obróbce mechanicznej, po napawaniu regeneracyjnym oraz po wykańczającej obróbce mechanicznej. Wykazano, że skanowanie może być wykorzystywane do opracowania programów wstępnej obróbki mechanicznej, do pomiaru objętości napoin, do określenia wielkości naddatku na obróbkę wykańczającą oraz do weryfikacji skuteczności procesu napawania i kontroli jakości matrycy przed procesem kucia. Uzyskane wyniki potwierdziły skuteczność przeprowadzonej regeneracji. W aspekcie wydajności wykazano, że zbyt wiele materiału napoiny stanowi naddatek pod obróbkę mechaniczną. Z tego powodu obróbka jest czaso- i energochłonna a ok. 68% materiału napoiny stanowi odpad czyli wióry. Przeprowadzona analiza wykazała możliwość zaoszczędzenia do 45% materiału stopiwa przy zastosowaniu rozsądnych naddatków o mniejszej grubości. Wyniki te wskazują na konieczność modyfikacji technologii regeneracji oraz zasadność stosowania napawania zrobotyzowanego, które może zapewnić większą precyzję i powtarzalność przy układaniu ściegów napoiny. Kolejnym etapem badań będzie robotyzacja analizowanego procesu regeneracji matrycy kuźniczej przy wykorzystaniu technologii WAAM.
EN
One of the methods of joining rails is welding with termite, which guarantees a secure and stable connection of two sections of the rail without the need to use additional connecting elements and supporting the welded place. After joining (making a weld), appropriate mechanical processing of the joint is required in order to obtain the given rail head profile. The quality and diligence of the connection made has a major impact on safety, noise emission during the journey (wheel rolling) and the comfort of travelers. This article describes selected methods of making railway rail joints and presents the results of measurements with a portable laser measuring device Calipri C40 of the rail head within the welded rail joint made by thermite welding. An attempt to use this device for measurements of welded rail joints is shown, advantages and disadvantages as well as conclusions from the performed measurements are described.
EN
The article is devoted to the assessment of the geometrical structure of the surface as well as the mechanical and tribological properties of the surface layers obtained in the process of ion implantation. The titanium alloy Ti6Al4V used in biotribological systems was implanted with nitrogen and argon ions. Investigations of the geometrical structure of the surface before and after the tribological tests were carried out using confocal microscopy. The hardness of the tested materials was determined by the instrumental indentation method using a Vickers indenter. A nanotribometer was used for tribological tests. The tests were carried out in a reciprocating motion under conditions of technically dry friction and friction with the lubrication of Ringer's solution. SEM scanning microscopy was used to determine the width of the wear pattern and the wear mechanism. The conducted research showed that the hardness of the tested materials increased as a result of ion implantation. The tribological tests showed that the use of ion implantation improves the tribological properties, and the dominant wear mechanism was abrasive wear.
PL
Artykuł poświęcony jest ocenie struktury geometrycznej powierzchni oraz właściwości mechanicznych i tribologicznych warstw wierzchnich uzyskiwanych w procesie implantacji jonowej. Stop tytanu Ti6Al4V stosowany systemach biotribologicznych implantowano jonami azotu i argonu. Badania struktury geometrycznej powierzchni przed i po testach tribologicznych przeprowadzano przy użyciu mikroskopii konfokalnej. Twardość badanych materiałów wyznaczano metodą instrumentalnej indentacji przy zastosowaniu wgłębnika Vickersa. Do testów tribologicznych wykorzystano nanotribometr. Badania realizowano w ruchu posuwisto-zwrotnym w warunkach tarcia technicznie suchego oraz tarcia ze smarowaniem roztworem Ringera. Mikroskopię skaningową SEM wykorzystano do określenia szerokości śladu wytarcia oraz mechanizmu zużywania. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że w wyniku implantacji jonowej nastąpił wzrost twardości badanych materiałów. Testy tribologiczne wskazały, że zastosowanie implantacji jonowej wpływa na poprawę właściwości tribologicznych, a dominującym mechanizmem zużywania było zużycie ścierne.
EN
The paper presents laboratory tests results of wear in the abrasive mass of cultivator coulters subjected to coated electrode pad welding. In the first stage of the test, one type of electrode was used and a padding weld was applied to the coulter surface in three different shape variants (perpendicular, parallel to the abrasive mass stream and V-shaped). The lowest abrasive wear was obtained for samples with a padding weld deposited perpendicularly to the abrasive mass stream. Therefore, in the second stage of the research, this padding weld shape was selected and made using three different electrodes. Tests of abrasive wear both in the first and the second stage of the experiment were carried out at a distance of 100 km by the "rotating bowl unit" method. Both the direction of the application of the padding weld (shape) and the chemical composition of the electrode used in the pad welding process significantly increased the resistance to abrasive wear compared to coulters whose surface has not been welded.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano laboratoryjne wyniki badań zużycia w masie ściernej redlic kultywatora poddanych napawaniu elektrodą otuloną. W pierwszym etapie badań, używając jednego rodzaju elektrody, na powierzchnię redlic nałożono napoinę w trzech różnych wariantach kształtu (prostopadle lub równolegle do naporu strumienia masy ściernej oraz w kształcie litery „V”). Najmniejsze zużycie ścierne uzyskano dla próbek z napoiną nałożoną w kierunku prostopadłym do naporu strumienia masy ściernej. Dlatego w drugim etapie badań wybrano ten kształt napoiny i wykonano ją za pomocą trzech różnych elektrod. Badania zużycia ściernego zarówno w pierwszym, jak i drugim etapie prowadzono na dystansie 100 km metodą „wirującej misy”. Kierunek (kształt) nałożenia napoiny i skład chemiczny elektrody wykorzystywanej w procesie napawania istotnie zwiększyły odporność na zużycie ścierne w stosunku do redlic, których powierzchnia nie została obrobiona nawet o 400%.
EN
The tribological performance of 5xxx series aluminum alloys with ternary zirconium is evaluated at ambient conditions under dry, wet and saline environment. The experiment has been done using a Pin-on-Disk apparatus under an applied load of 20N. The sliding distances varies ranging from 116m-2772m at a sliding velocity of 0.385 ms-1. The results show that presence of Mg and Zr into this alloy helps to increase their strength and wear resistance under dry sliding condition. But they significantly suffer under wet and corrosive environment due to formation of β-phase Al3Mg2, to slip bands and grain boundaries which may lead to and stress-corrosion cracking. The variation of friction coefficient is observed in wet and corrosive environment due to the formation of oxidation film, lubrication, and corrosion action in solution. The SEM analysis shows that brittle Al3Mg2phase initiate the fracture surface for Al-Mg alloy and Zr addition accelerate the brittleness of the alloy owing the fine precipitates of Al3Zr.
EN
Purpose: A new composite material was prepared and Different properties such as hardness and tribological behaviour of the fabricated metal matrix composite (MMC) was investigated and compared with the base AZ61A magnesium alloy. Design/methodology/approach: For the current research work, state-of-the-art technology, Friction stir processing (FSP) was performed to develop magnesium based AZ61A/TiC composite at optimized set of machine parameters. Findings: Increasing tool rotational speed ultimately leads in enhanced hardness, which further gives superior tribological properties as compared to base AZ61A alloy. Wear observations suggests a combination of abrasive and adhesive wear mechanism. Research limitations/implications: More microstructural and mechanical properties can be examined. Practical implications: The idea behind selecting AZ61A is mainly due to its increasing use in bicycle pedals and military equipment’s where at certain places it needs to encounter friction. In this current work, microhardness study and wear behaviour of AZ61A/TiC composite processed via FSP were examined. Originality/value: Paper is completely new and no work has been done till date considering this material and preparing composite with nanoparticles TiC.
EN
The article presents the research on the impact of slide burnishing process carried out with use of various ceramics on friction and wear of steel elements. In addition, surfaces after grinding, lapping and polishing processes were tested. The tribological couple was made of steel discs, toughened to a hardness of 40 ± 2 HRC, and balls made of 100Cr6 steel with a hardness of 62 HRC. The tests were carried out at three sliding speeds: 0.16 m/s, 0.32 m / s and 0.48 m/s. The research proved the possibility of improving selected tribological properties of friction pairs thanks to the use of slide burnishing process and also allowed to establish a number of relationships between the parameters characterizing the surface topography and the tribological parameters.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu procesu nagniatania ślizgowego realizowanego z wykorzystaniem różnych ceramik na wielkość zużycia oraz siłę tarcia elementów stalowych. Dodatkowo badaniom poddano powierzchnie po procesach szlifowania, docierania oraz polerowania. Skojarzenie materiałowe stanowiły tarcze stalowe ulepszone cieplnie do twardości 40±2 HRC oraz kulki ze stali100Cr6 o twardości 62 HRC. Badania zrealizowano przy trzech prędkościach poślizgu: 0,16 m/s, 0,32 m/s oraz 0,48 m/s. Badania udowodniły możliwość poprawy wybranych właściwości tribologicznych par trących dzięki zastosowaniu procesu nagniatania ślizgowego a także pozwoliły na ustalenie szeregu zależności pomiędzy parametrami charakteryzującymi strukturę geometryczną powierzchni oraz parametrami tribologicznymi.
EN
Owing to the excellent properties, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) show great reinforcing ability to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of Al nanocomposites for many automotive applications. In this work, the GNPs dispersion and reinforcing effect in Al nanocomposite was tested. Solvent dispersion via tip sonication and facile low energy ball milling (tumbling milling) using two milling speeds 200 and 300 rpm were employed to develop GNPs/Al powders. Sintering response of the GNPs/Al sintered samples wasgauged at two temperatures (550°C and 620°C). The effects of GNPs content, milling rotation speed and sintering temperature on the density, hardness and wear properties of the nanocomposite were examined. The results indicate that relative density % decreases with increasing GNPs content due to possible reagglomeration. The highest hardness of 35.6% and wear rate of 76.68% is achieved in 0.3 wt.% GNPs/Al nanocomposite processed at 300 rpm and 620°C as compared to pure Al due to uniform dispersion, higher diffusion rate at a higher temperature and effective lubrication effect.
EN
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was employed to develop Cupro-Nickel/Zirconium Carbide (Cu-Ni/ZrC) surface composites. Five different groove widths ranging from 0 to 1.4 mm were made in CuNi alloy plate to incorporate different ZrC volume fraction (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 %) to study its influence on the structure and properties of Cu-Ni/ZrC composite. Processing was performed at a Tool Rotational Speed (TRS) of 1300 rpm, Tool Traverse Speed (TTS) of 40 mm/min with a constant axial load of 6 KN. The study is performed to analyse the influence of ZrC particles and the volume fraction of ZrC particles on the microstructural evolution, microhardness, mechanical properties, and tribological characteristics of the Cu-Ni/ZrC composite. The fracture and worn-out surfaces are analysed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to identify the fracture and wear mechanisms. The results demonstrated a simultaneous increase in microhardness and tensile strength of the developed composite because of grain refinement, uniform dispersion, and excellent bonding of ZrC with the matrix. Besides, the wear resistance increases with increase in volume fraction of ZrC particles in the composite. The surface morphology analysis revealed that the wear mechanism transits from severe wear regime to mild wear regime with increase in volume fraction of ZrC particles.
EN
Microstructure and wear property of AlSi10Mg alloy manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) were investigated. Also, the effect of post heat treatment on the mechanical and wear properties was examined. Two kinds of heat treatments (direct aging (DA) and T6) were separately conducted to SLM AlSi10Mg alloy. As-built alloy had a cellular structure formed inside the moltenpool. Eutectic Si was also observed at the cellular boundary in as-built alloy. After DA heat treatment, the cellular structure still remained, and a large amount of nano-size Si particles were newly formed inside the cell structure. Both molten pool and cellular structure disappeared, and the size of Si increased in T6 alloy. The values of Vickers hardness measured as 139.4 HV (DA alloy), 128.0 HV (As-built alloy) and 85.1 HV (T6 alloy), respectively. However, concerning to wear property, T6 alloy showed better wear resistance than other alloys. The correlation between microstructure and wear mechanism of SLM AlSi10Mg alloy was also discussed.
EN
The research article address, the mechanical properties such as fatigue, impact strength and tribological properties of Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has been investigated. The samples of ADI iron were austenitized at 927°C for 2 hrs and later it was under austempering process for 2 hrs at a temperature range of 240°C to 400°C. Experiments under axial loading has been carried out on three different compositions (without Ni(X), 0.22wt.%Ni(X1), 0.34wt.%Ni(X2). Fabricated test bars were converted in to as per ASTM standard samples for different tests. In order to study the influence of chunky nickel morphology studies on fatigue life and impact strength were carried out on a second set of specimens without any microstructural defect. Metallurgical analyses were performed on all the samples of heat treated samples (AF - Ausferrite, MB - Mixed bainite, M - Martensite, RA - Retained Austenite and N - Nodule) were found and compared. It was found that a mean content of 22% of chunky nickel in the microstructure (with respect to total Ni content) influence considerably the fatigue and impact strength properties of the cast iron. Moreover tribological properties of the specimens were also studied under dry sliding conditions at various sliding speed and load. The wear resistance and coefficient of friction were found to increase with increase in load and sliding speed.
EN
This article discusses the results of studies using the developed artificial neural networks in the analysis of the occurrence of the four main mechanisms destroying the selected forging tools subjected to five different surface treatment variants (nitrided layer, pad welded layer and three hybrid layers, i.e. AlCrTiSiN, Cr/CrN and Cr/AlCrTiN). Knowledge of the forging tool durability, needed in the process of artificial neural network training, was included in the set of training data (about 800 records) derived from long-term comprehensive research carried out under industrial conditions. Based on this set, neural networks with different architectures were developed and the results concerning the intensity of the occurrence of thermal-mechanical fatigue, abrasive wear, mechanical fatigue and plastic deformation were generated for each type of the applied treatment relative to the number of forgings, pressure, friction path and temperature.
EN
Copper have always been an important material and incorporation of elements into copper for property enhancement. Bronze is a relevant cuprous alloy which is important for many industrial and automotive applications like bearings and machineries. The present research is directed towards the fabrication and tribological analysis of regular bronze (Cu-6Sn) and metal matrix composites reinforced with varying particle sized SiC ceramic reinforcement (30, 35 and 40 μm). The developed specimens were subjected to wear analysis according to ASTM standards, to identify the tribological properties utilizing a pin on disk tribometer. It was noted that the wear rates of developed MMC’s phenomenally decremented with an increase in size of SiC particle reinforcement. Also, the test parameters were influential in altering the wear rates to notable margins. The standard scanning electron microscopy techniques aided in identifying the influence of adhesive wear on the specimen surface.
EN
In this study, two techniques such as laser surface melting (LSM) and laser surface alloying (LSA) were performed to protect the surface layers of nodular cast iron as it is used to manufacture different machine parts like cams, beds, camshafts, crankshafts, cylinders and engine blocks. The main objective of this research work is to examine the effects of LSM and LSA processes on phases, microstructure, hardness, wear resistance and surface roughness. The outcomes of both LSM and LSA specimens show a homogeneous structure, effective bonding of alloy powders with the base metal and crack-free surfaces. The hardness was improved 4 times (LSM) and 2.62 times (LSA) when compared with the base material. The tribological test shows improved wear resistance of LSM (8.82 × 10−7 kN) and LSA (1.32 × 10−6 kN) samples compared to the base material (4.36 × 10−6 kN). The examined wear tracks indicate that mild abrasion, adhesion and delamination were the major wear mechanisms. The reason for the enhancement of wear resistance is the refinement of microstructure, the solid solution strengthening effect and good bonding between alloy powders and base material. The LSM technique is a potential method to improve the tribological properties of industrial materials.
EN
In this work, the yttria stabilised zirconia ZrO2 + 8 wt% Y2 O3 (YSZ) coatings were studied. The coatings were manufactured by using a relatively new method based on liquid feedstock, called suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The main aim of the study was to investigate the influence of one of the fundamental process parameters, stand-off distance, on the YSZ coating mechanical properties, namely adhesion, cohesion, hardness, and dry sliding wear resistance. Moreover, the coating surface morphology and microstructure were investigated. Despite the fact that in the SPS method, the heat flux into the substrate is much higher than in conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), for the stand-off distances as short as 40 mm, the structure has not been damaged by thermal stresses. The results revealed that shorter spray distance leads to obtaining the coatings characterised by higher cohesion and adhesion to the substrate as well as higher hardness and resistance to sliding wear. The wear mechanism of both YSZ coatings relies on the adhesive mode, which is intensified by severe coating material delamination.
EN
The biomaterials, which are the subject of this work, are the dental restorative materials classified as light cured polymer matrix ceramic composites or resin based composites. The dental composite materials are needed for the repairment of human teeth. Fillings and other dental applications are exposed to the biomechanical loading in the chewing process. The wear resistance and hardness are important functional properties. Currently, nanofiller composites play an important role among dental composites. The objective of this paper was to study and analyze the friction, mechanical and wear properties of the surface of polymer matrix ceramic filed nanocomposites. Three material groups were used, one commercial composite Filek Z550 (3M ESPE, USA) and two experimental composites Ex-nano(G) and Ex-flow(G). The microindentation tests were conducted on the Micro Combi Tester device (Anton Paar GmbH, Germany). Rotating sliding ball-on-disc friction tests were performed against an alumina ball on 5 N load at 1 Hz in the bath of artificial saliva at 37°C. The linear wear and friction coefficients were evaluated. In the light of the obtained results of contact and friction strength tests, it was found that the performance depends on the production technology of the polymer-ceramic composites. The test results indicate that the share of filler nanoparticles the in experimental composites is advantageous due to the tribological wear.
EN
The paper presents the results of investigations on the tribological properties of cutting tools after ion implantation. The research focused on the inserts made out of nitride ceramics IS9 (Si3N4 with additives) and combined ceramics IN22 (Al2O3 + TiCN) available on the market. The inserts rake surfaces were covered with yttrium and rhenium coatings by means of ion implantation with different dozes. Both unimplanted and coated surfaces underwent tribological tests of the block-on ring type. The experiments demonstrated that, in general, ion implantation with rhenium (Re+) and yttrium (Y+) provided a decrease in surface friction forces. In the case of IN22 ceramics, both rhenium and yttrium ions improved wear resistance of cutting inserts. On the other hand, Re+ implantation provided the best wear resistance of the IS9 ceramics.
PL
Artykuł opisuje wyniki badań właściwości tribologicznych narzędzi skrawających po implantacji jonów. Badania dotyczyły narzędzi wykonanych z ceramiki azotkowej IS9 (Si3N4 + dodatki) i ceramiki mieszanej IN22 (Al2O3 + TiCN), dostępnych na rynku. Na powierzchnie natarcia naniesiono powłoki itru i renu metodą implantacji jonów o różnych dawkach. Pokryte i niepokryte powierzchnie zostały poddane testom tribologicznym w parach typu rolka–klocek. Badania wykazały, że generalnie implantacja jonów renu (Re+) i itru (Y+) zmniejsza siły tarcia na powierzchni. W przypadku ceramiki IN22 iony zarówno renu, jak i itru zwiększyły odporność płytek skrawających na zużycie. Z drugiej strony, najlepszą odporność na zużycie ceramiki IS9 zapewniły jony renu.
EN
Modern dental prosthetics uses CAD/CAM in the Computer Aided Design (CAD) of substructures and its Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) process. The substructure is subject to appropriate veneering, which determines the functional cooperation. The aim of this study is to investigate the friction coefficient and wear resistance of the veneering layers of the substructures of prosthetic structures. The test materials are dedicated veneering layers on substructures made of factory-made CoCr, TiCP, and Ti6Al4V metal fittings as well as the glass-ceramic material LiSi2 and the ceramic ZrO2. The study was conducted on a Roxana Machine Works tribological machine in the ball-and-3discs system in an artificial saliva environment using a Hitachi S3400 scanning microscope. As a reference biomaterial, enamel-dentin discs were used. The tribological processes that take place under chewing conditions in the presence of saliva depend on the properties and technological parameters of the surface layer of the biomaterial wearing out and on the enamel of opposing teeth in contact, which also wears out. They should reproduce the physiological nature of adjustment wear in the stomatognathic system (SS). The determined values of the friction coefficient and wear resistance allowed differences to be indicated in the course of tribological processes, and microscopic analyses confirmed them.
PL
Współczesna protetyka stomatologiczna wykorzystuje system CAD/CAM do cyfrowego projektowania podbudowy konstrukcji (CAD) oraz do jej wytwarzania w sterowanym numerycznie procesie (CAM). Podbudowa nośna poddawana jest odpowiedniemu licowaniu, które decyduje o funkcjonalnej współpracy. Celem pracy jest badanie współczynnika tarcia i odporności na zużycie warstw licujących podbudowy konstrukcji protetycznych. Materiałem badań są dedykowane warstwy licujące na podbudowach wykonanych w technologii frezowania z fabrycznych kształtek z metali – CoCr, TiCP i Ti6Al4V oraz z materiałów szklano-ceramicznych LiSi2 i ceramicznych ZrO2. Badania wykonano na maszynie tribologicznej Roxana Machine Works w układzie kula-3krążki w środowisku sztucznej śliny oraz na mikroskopie skaningowym Hitachi S3400. Jako biomateriał referencyjny wykorzystano krążki szkliwno-zębinowe. Procesy tribologiczne, które zachodzą w warunkach żucia w obecności śliny uzależnione są od właściwości i parametrów technologicznych warstwy wierzchniej zużywającego się biomateriału oraz od szkliwa zębów przeciwstawnych wchodzących w kontakt, które również się zużywają. Powinny odtwarzać fizjologiczny charakter zużycia dostosowawczego w układzie stomatognatycznym (US). Wyznaczone wartości współczynnika tarcia i odporności na zużycie pozwoliły na wskazanie różnic w przebiegu procesów tribologicznych, a analizy mikroskopowe to potwierdziły.
EN
The paper presents the results of examinations of tribological and corrosion properties of the layers produced on a C45 medium-carbon steel surface in the gas nitriding process combined with subsequent treatment – oxidation and impregnation of corrosion inhibitor. Investigations of the microstructure of these layers and their phase composition were carried out. Hardness of the layers was measured by Vickers method. Tribological properties (linear wear) of the layers were performed by means of the three-cylinder-cone method. Resistance to corrosion was determined by electrochemical methods. The investigations showed that the linear wear of the C45 steel samples with the layers produced in the combined processes of nitriding with subsequent oxidation and impregnation was smaller than that of steel samples without layers. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of these layers in aggressive solutions containing chloride ions was very good.
PL
W pracy omówiono wyniki badań właściwości tribologicznych i korozyjnych warstw wytwarzanych na powierzchni stali średniowęglowej C45 w procesie azotowania gazowego połączonym z następną obróbką – utlenianiem i impregnacją inhibitorem korozji. Przeprowadzono badania mikrostruktury tych warstw, jak również ich składu fazowego. Twardość warstw była mierzona metodą Vickersa. Właściwości tribologiczne (zużycie liniowe) warstw oceniano metodą trzy wałeczki–stożek. Badania odporności na korozję przeprowadzono metodami elektrochemicznymi. Badania wykazały, że zużycie liniowe próbek ze stali C45 z warstwami wytworzonymi w połączonych procesach azotowania z następnym utlenianiem i impregnacją, było mniejsze niż próbek ze stali bez warstw. Ponadto odporność korozyjna tych warstw w agresywnych roztworach zawierających jony chlorkowe była bardzo dobra.
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