Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 762

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 39 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  water quality
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 39 next fast forward last
EN
The article describes modern anthropogenic load on the surface water of the Southern Bug River Basin in a changing climate. The main water users-pollutants of the Southern Bug River Basin in Vinnytska and Mykolaivska regions were identified. The water quality of the surface water of the Southern Bug River in time and space (along the river stream) was analyzed. The water quality of the Southern Bug River was assessed by complex indices for different water users. In order to assess water quality, it is recommended to use complex indices that take into account the effect of the total action of pollutants. The self-purification potential and capability of restoration in space (along the river stream) of the aquatic ecosystem of the Southern Bug River was established for 2019. The results of the study allow us to state that the use of surface water of the Southern Bug River Basin for drinking, fishery, cultural and recreational needs is related to certain environmental risks. It is recommended to carry out the environmental protection measures aimed at adjusting the priorities of economic activity, reduction of wastewater discharge and increase in the water content of the river by regulating the operation of energy complexes.
EN
Estuaries are coastal areas that have a fairly high fertility rate. This region can be said to be fertile because it is influenced by such physical factors as temperature, turbidity, light, and current as well as such chemical factors as salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and nutrient content. The estuary of the Banjar Kemuning River is a coastal area with a lot of human activities, and it is close to the mainland, causing the change in the nutrient content in the waters. The nutrient content in the waters is closely related to the phytoplankton abundance, as the higher the nutrient content in the waters, the greater the phytoplankton abundance and the chlorophyll-a content. The level of chlorophyll-a content in the waters can indirectly be used as an indicator of the phytoplankton abundance, which can determine the level of fertility of these waters. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phytoplankton abundance and the chlorophyll-a content in the estuary of the Banjar Kemuning River. This study is observational research with data analysis using linear regression, simple correlation (Pearson), and ANOVA. In addition, the data collection was carried out by purposive random sampling at predetermined points of stations. The results of this study indicated that the phytoplankton abundance and the chlorophyll-a content at the estuary of Banjar Kemuning River during different months were significantly different (P < 0.05). The average phytoplankton abundance during the study was 19,256 cells/L, 19,044 cells/L, and 22,613 cells/L, while the average chlorophyll-a content during the study was 0.958 µg/L, 0.998 µg/L, and 1.167 µg/L. The conclusion was drawn that there is a difference between the phytoplankton abundance and the chlorophyll-a content each month and classified into high correlation.
PL
Żelazo i mangan to wskaźniki bodaj najbardziej kojarzone z jakością wód podziemnych. Właściwie, mówiąc o ujęciach głębinowych, w pierwszej kolejności zwraca się uwagę na zawartość tych dwóch pierwiastków. Żelazo występuje w wodzie w postaci rozpuszczonej Fe+2. W takiej formie nie jest w ogóle zauważalne – woda zawierająca żelazo dwuwartościowe jest przejrzysta, nie wykazuje oznak zawartości tego składnika. Jednakże bardzo łatwo przekształcić żelazo(II) w widoczne, w postaci kłaczków (mętności) żelazo(III) – poprzez napowietrzanie.
PL
Komisja ds. Środowiska, Zdrowia i Bezpieczeństwa Żywności Parlamentu Europejskiego zatwierdziła w dniu 30 listopada 2020 r. porozumienie dotyczące dyrektywy w sprawie wody pitnej (DWD – Drinking Water Directive – dyrektywa w sprawie jakości wody przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi) oraz przyjęła rezolucję, w której domaga się prawidłowego wdrożenia prawodawstwa UE dotyczącego wody. Na posiedzeniu plenarnym parlamentu w dniach 14-17 grudnia 2020 r. odbędzie się głosowanie nad przyjęciem obu dokumentów.
PL
Prace nad nową dyrektywą w sprawie jakości wody do spożycia przez ludzi (DWD), pomimo przerw związanych z wyborami nowego Parlamentu Europejskiego (PE) i zmianami prezydencji Rady Europejskiej (RE), prowadzone są obecnie bardzo intensywnie i w zasadzie dobiegły końca. Prezydencja rumuńska i fińska bardzo się im przysłużyły, wprowadzając nowe treści i organizując spotkania poza oficjalnymi harmonogramami. Na ostatnim posiedzeniu w ramach TRILOGU, 18 grudnia 2018 r., udało się ustalić ostateczną treść dyrektywy, a na spotkaniu 23 stycznia 2020 r. – sprawy techniczne. Po spotkaniu COREPER (Committee of Permanent Representatives – Komitet Stałych Przedstawicieli) 5 lutego dyrektywa zostanie przekazana do PE i RE celem formalnego zatwierdzenia, a po ukazaniu się jej treści w dzienniku Urzędowym Unii Europejskiej, Kraje członkowskie (KCz) będą miały 2 lata na jej transpozycję.
PL
Nowa dyrektywa w sprawie jakości wody do spożycia (dokument 2017/0332 (COD)) w wersji ostatecznie zatwierdzonej poświęca dużo miejsca prawu do wody w aspekcie jej dostępności dla wszystkich ludzi przebywających na określonym terenie. W Polsce zaopatrzenie w wodę jest zadaniem własnym gminy. Krajowe zapisy ustawowe są obecnie bardzo ogólne i nie określają, jak gmina winna powyższe zadanie trealizować. Ustawa o samorządzie gminnym [1] w art. 7.1 stwierdza, że zaspokajanie zbiorowych potrzeb wspólnoty należy do zadań własnych gminy. W szczególności zadania własne obejmują sprawy: (…) 3) wodociągów i zaopatrzenia w wodę.
PL
W dniu 28 maja 2018 r. Komisja Europejska przyjęła wniosek dotyczący rozporządzenia Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady w sprawie minimalnych wymogów dotyczących ponownego wykorzystania wody1. Jest to element działań instytucji unijnych na rzecz rozwiązywania problemów niedoboru wody w UE, prowadzenia gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym i dostosowywania się do zmiany klimatu. W celu ochrony zdrowia ludzi i zwierząt oraz środowiska ustanowiono minimalne wymogi dla jakości odzyskanej wody oraz monitorowania zgodności, stąd obowiązek prowadzenia oceny i zarządzania ryzykiem. Wymagania są wynikiem dyskusji prowadzonych na szczeblu ekspertów z państw członkowskich przez 3 lata i zostały oparte na sprawozdaniu Wspólnego Centrum Badawczego, doświadczeniach krajów, które już odzyskują wodę ze ścieków i wykorzystują na cele rolnicze (głównie kraje południowej Europy).
PL
Przez dziesięciolecia polityka surowcowa kraju była stawiana na pierwszym miejscu, daleko przed bezpieczeństwem zaopatrzenia ludności w wodę przeznaczoną do spożycia. Przedsiębiorstwa wodociągowe chcąc sprostać temu zadaniu musiały nauczyć się współpracować z zakładami górniczymi. W takich warunkach 85 lat temu swoją działalność rozpoczęły Wodociągi Chrzanowskie – w czasach gdy górnictwo miało kluczowe znaczenie dla gospodarki kraju, a wpływ eksploatacji górniczej na środowisko gruntowo-wodne był marginalizowany.
PL
Dostępność i jakość wody do picia stają się coraz poważniejszym wyzwaniem dla ludzkości. Rozwój cywilizacyjny i zmiany klimatu zaostrzają problemy i stawiają nowe wyzwania w obszarze oczyszczania wody i ścieków. Niekorzystne zmiany wymuszają poszukiwanie coraz lepszych metod i technologii. Artykuł prezentuje rozwiązania wybranych problemów cywilizacyjnych w oczyszczaniu wody i ścieków jakie oferuje nowoczesna bioinżynieria środowiska. Znaczenie bioinżynierii, jako dziedziny nauki i zasobu praktycznych rozwiązań dla środowiska, przemysłu i systemów komunalnych, będzie coraz większe. W odpowiedzi na rosnące zapotrzebowanie na specjalistów z tej dziedziny Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska Politechniki Wrocławskiej uruchomił studia magisterskie w dziedzinie Bioinżynierii Środowiska.
10
PL
Omówiono wybrane zagadnienia związane z produkcją mineralnych nawozów fosforowych oraz przedstawiono wyniki monitoringu gleb prowadzonego w latach 2008-2016 przez Okręgowe Stacje Chemiczno-Rolnicze w odniesieniu do zawartości fosforu przyswajalnego. Stwierdzono, że niemal 60% gleb w kraju charakteryzuje się wysoką i bardzo wysoką zasobnością w fosfor przyswajalny, co czyni je podatnymi na straty tego biogenu do środowiska wodnego. Jednocześnie 25% stanowią gleby o bardzo niskiej i niskiej zawartości fosforu przyswajalnego, na których konieczne jest racjonalne nawożenie tym makroskładnikiem. W Polsce notuje się duże zróżnicowanie regionalne w zużyciu nawozów fosforowych. Z uwagi na zmniejszające się światowe zasoby fosforytów należy skoncentrować się na poszukiwaniu alternatywnych źródeł tego pierwiastka, również poprzez jego odzysk z odpadów.
EN
A review, with 28 refs., of the prodn. and consumption of P fertilizers in Poland as well as of the time and spacediversified content of P in soils.
EN
The paper provides an analysis of current Polish regulations on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water. The issue was also described in relation to international law. Inconsistency in regulations in terms of definitions of the sum of PAH is highlighted. The influence of PAH concentrations on the classification of water chemical status and the assessment of drinking water quality was analyzed based on the results of concentrations of six PAHs: benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. The PAH concentrations were determined in 36 water samples, including 28 samples of spring water and eight samples of snowmelt. The results obtained for most of the samples revealed elevated concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene. The authors underline the fact that a separate assessment of benzo(a)pyrene, the sum of six PAHs, and the sum of four PAHs unveil inconsistency in water quality evaluation. The results also suggest that only benzo(a)pyrene should be considered in the classifications mentioned, since its determination gives the actual view on the water quality in terms of PAH concentrations. The assessments for the sum of six PAHs and four PAHs in accordance with existing regulations indicate higher quality classes, meaning a better water quality in comparison with the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene itself.
PL
Zagrożenia związane z nowymi substancjami i materiałami, które dotychczas nie były z różnych przyczyn regularnie monitorowane w wodach przeznaczonych do spożycia przez ludzi, są związane przede wszystkim z rozwojem technologicznym i wprowadzaniem do środowiska nowych, nieznanych dotychczas substancji oraz skalą tego zjawiska.
EN
Improving water productivity (WP) through deficit irrigation is crucial in water-scarce areas. To practice deficit irrigation, the optimum level of water deficit that maximizes WP must be investigated. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to examine WP of the three treatments at available soil water depletion percentage (Pi) of 25% (reference), 45% and 65% using a drip irrigation system. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The water deficit was allowed throughout the growth stages after transplanting except for the first 15 days of equal amounts of irrigations during the initial growth stage and 20 days enough spring season rainfall during bulb enlargement periods. Physical WP in terms of water use efficiency (WUEf) for treatments T1, T2, and T3 was 9.44 kg∙m–3, 11 kg∙m–3 and 10.6 kg∙m–3 for marketable yields. The WUEf and economic water productivity were significantly improved by T2 and T3. The WUEf difference between T2 and T3 was insignificant. However, T2 can be selected as an optimal irrigation level. Hence, deficit irrigation scheduling is an important approach for maximizing WP in areas where water is the main constraint for crop production. The planting dates should be scheduled such that the peak water requirement periods coincide with the rainy system.
EN
The use of phytoplankton as an indicator of water pollution is a promising tool for assessment of water quality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diversity indices, including the species richness and diversity of phyto-plankton, could be used for reliable assessment of water quality in the Wadaslintang Reservoir in Indonesia. Surveys were conducted monthly at eight sites, from July 2019 to October 2019. Phytoplankton was collected during the day at 10:00 until approximately 15:00 in the euphotic zone. The parameters investigated were species richness and the abundance of phytoplankton, as well as water quality parameters listed in Government Regulation Number 82 of 2001. The level of pollution was represented biologically by the Shannon–Wiener diversity index and physicochemically by the STORET (storage and retrieval of water quality data) index. Moreover, the two indices were compared to determine whether a particular diversity index was more effective for assessment of this reservoir. The results showed that during the dry season, 22 taxa of phytoplankton were present, belonging to Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, and Euglenophyta. During the wet season, 29 taxa were found, belonging to Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Chrysophyta. Based on the Shannon-Wiener index and STORET index, water quality was better during the wet season than during the dry season. The results of water quality assessment using both indices were consistent, but the diversity index was a more sensitive indicator of pollution levels. Therefore, the Shannon–Wiener index is a useful tool for assessment of water quality in the Wadaslintang Reservoir.
EN
The use of non-centralised water supply in remote settlements is currently the only possible option. Monitoring the water quality of such supply sources is a complicated task in such areas, especially when there are active karst processes and difficult groundwater conditions. The application of deterministic analytical models of water supply under the risk of disturbance to groundwater dynamics is not efficient. Significant quantitative and even qualitative changes in groundwater conditions may take place between the calculated points, and the underestimation of these changes in expectation-driven computation models may result in serious geoecological issues. This research studied and justifies the use of adaptive dynamic hydrogeological control in an area of non-centralised water supply based on the identification of key zones of geodynamic karst monitoring and the electrical express-monitoring of water resources. The identification of key zones is based on an integrated analysis of available groundwater information that describes changes in groundwater hydrodynamic conditions at the time of the karst forecast. The development of karst-suffusion processes is accompanied by more intense dynamic changes in local areas of geologic environment compared to the general variation in intensity. Information about the occurrence of destructive groundwater processes by means of selective geodynamic monitoring may thus be obtained much earlier than with environmental geodynamics monitoring as a whole. The experimental hydrogeological control of an area of non-centralised water supply was conducted on the right bank of the Oka River in Nizhny Novgorod region, a locality with an active manifestation of karst processes. Structure and algorithms of space-time processing of hydrogeological control data developed by authors have been used. The approach based on multifrequency vertical electrical sounding (MFVES) method has shown good correspondence with direct borehole observation when measuring depth of the first aquifer. Zones of unsafe water use have been revealed. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method and the need for further regular observations of destructive groundwater processes by means of selective hydrogeodynamic monitoring.
EN
The results of a research into the scale and consequences of the degradation of aquatic ecosystems in Ukrainian Polesie have been detected in article, and the areas of increased anthropogenic pressure have been identified which greatly affect the condition and number of aquatic macrophytes. The biodiversity of sites with different anthropogenic load was evaluated using the biodiversity criteria. In the research, the structural and functional features of macrophytic species diversity within Teteriv River ecological corridor as a typical river landscape of Ukrainian Polesie were determined and described, the floristic composition was determined. Within the ecological zones, the number of species and their projective coverage in areas with different anthropogenic pressures within Teteriv River ecological corridor were determined. The basic criteria for the implementation of deferred biomonitoring based on the analysis of the dynamics of the species composition of the phytocoenoses of Teteriv River ecological corridor on the indicators of ecological stability and plasticity using the species-specific criteria, are: Margalef species richness index, Sørensen–Dice index, Shannon diversity index, Simpson’s index, and Pielou’s evenness index. Based on the results, correlation dependencies have been constructed, which will allow to obtain data on the stability of the development of aquatic ecosystems according to the data of species surveys. Interconnections between biodiversity indicators and indicators of surface water quality within the Ukrainian Polesie were found; they are the fundamental component of a long-term monitoring of the stability in the development of aquatic phytocenoses.
EN
The Shatt Al Arab River (SAAR) is a major source of raw water for most water treatment plants (WTP’s) located along with it in Basrah province. This study aims to determine the effects of different variables on water quality of the SAAR, using multivariate statistical analysis. Seventeen variables were measured in nine WTP’s during 2017, these sites are Al Hussain (1), Awaissan (2), Al Abass (3), Al Garma (4), Mhaigran (5), Al Asmaee (6), Al Jubaila (7), Al Baradia (8), Al Lebani (9). The dataset is treated using principal component analysis (PCA) / factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis (CA) to the most important factors affecting water quality, sources of contamination and the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation. Three factors are responsible for the data structure representing 88.86% of the total variance in the dataset. CA shows three different groups of similarity between the sampling stations, in which station 5 (Mhaigran) is more contaminated than others, while station 3 (Al Abass) and 6 (Al Asmaee) are less contaminated. Electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) are plotted on Richard diagram. It is shown that the samples of water of Mhaigran are located in the class of C4-S3 of very high salinity and sodium, water samples of Al Abass station, are located in the class of C3-S1 of high salinity and low sodium, and others are located in the class of C4-S2 of high salinity and medium sodium. Generally, the results of most water quality parameters reveal that SAAR is not within the permissible levels of drinking and irrigation.
EN
Monitoring of surface waters within the transboundary section of the Western Bug River showed, that during 2014–2018, a significant excess of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was observed for some substances for fish ponds. As a result of this, the water in the river for these substances was rated as “dirty” in terms of purity and corresponded to water quality class IV, namely: phosphorus was observed to exceed the MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2015 (9.7 times), for manganese – an excess of the MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2018 (9.7 times) and in point Zabuzhzhia village in 2014 (7.9 times), 2015 (8.0 times), 2017 (7.1 times), 2018 (8.3 times); for the total iron – the exceeding of MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2016 (5.95 times) and 2017 (6.13 times); at the observation point Ustilug town in 2016 (5.23 times); in the observation point Zabuzhzhia village in 2016 (9.44 times) and 2017 (5.27 times). The assessment of the surface waters based on the determination of the pollution factor showed that during the study period their quality did not deteriorate but did not meet the norms. In general, surface waters of the river correspond to the second class of quality and are characterized as “poorly polluted” waters by the level of pollution.
EN
The fractured groundwater aquifers, predominantly found in South Africa, show varying groundwater chemical characteristics in various locations. The hydrochemistry of groundwater is affected by the weathering of rock formations in contact and anthropogenic activities. Determination of groundwater chemistry is important for aquifer protection and overall groundwater management. A hydrochemical analysis is a useful tool for identification of water types, chemical composition, its suitability for specified purposes, and an important requirement for water use licensing applications. The hydrochemical data of groundwater from 79 boreholes near Leliefontein, Kamiesberg local municipality of South Africa, were analysed, using integrated statistical, geostatistics and spatial interpolation methods. The result shows Na+ and Cl− to be the abundant cation and anion. The mean concentration of Na at Leliefontein was 267.39 mg/l, and that of Cl was 574.81 mg/l. The ionic concentrations in groundwater was in sequence of Cl− > Na+ > HCO3− > SO42− > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > NO3− > Si > K+ > F-. The analysis indicated that the cation exchanges in groundwater are influenced by limited silicate weathering, with calcite and dolomite dissolution. Geostatistical and spatial analysis interpolation for the major cation (Na) and major anion (Cl), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Water Quality Index (WQI) was performed using Inverse Distance Weighing method. The hydrochemical data for the Leliefontein groundwater were analysed to classify water for domestic use (drinking) and agriculture (irrigation) purposes, based on the recommended guidelines of the South African National Standard (SANS). The study area was characterised by high salinity of three water types, viz, Na-Cl seawater type, Ca-Cl reverse ion-exchange water type, and Na-HCO3 base ion-exchange water types. About 70–80% of the boreholes in Leliefontein met the requirement for irrigation application for Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and salinity hazard analysis, while the groundwater generally required further treatment before domestic use.
EN
One of the widespread sources of river pollution is the wastewater coming from both wastewater treatment plants and the stormwater system. Wastewater can vary significantly in composition and concentration of substances introduced into water bodies. Municipal effluents may contain significant amounts of organic matter and ammonia. Storm drains are diverse in composition and depend on the nature of the surface from which the water collects, but carry more suspended solids and less nutrients. The research was aimed at assessing the effect of surface runoff collected by the stormwater system from the territory of the city of Lublin on the Bystrica River using popular environmental indices, calculated on the basis of periphytonic algae species abundances: species number, Shannon’s H, rarefied species number, Pielou’s evenness, trophic diatom index (TDI). It was observed that the correspondence between a species diversity and the quality of the environment is not always straightforward. Therefore, the periphytonic algae diversity increases under the influence of runoff, as evidenced by the Shannon index. Nevertheless, pronounced changes are noted in the structure of the algal community, as shown by the Pielou index and NMDS. However, these changes in the structure are invisible if the trophic diatom index (TDI) is relied upon.
first rewind previous Strona / 39 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.