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EN
This paper is devoted to the development of an effective system for monitoring the technical condition of the axle boxes of rolling stock. To this end, the possibility of solving problems of fault diagnostics based on the theory of fuzzy sets is considered. This allows one note such difficult-to-formalise factors as experience and intuition of a highly qualified expert specialist. It showed that an expert system-based monitoring approach allows evaluation of the technical condition of the axle boxes, characterised by internal and external operating uncertainty. It also proposed the use of parameters such as vibration and noise for comprehensive monitoring of the technical condition of axle box units together with temperature. Furthermore, the combination of these diagnostic parameters and expert system’s possibility to receive all necessary information about the condition of the most critical components of the axle boxes in real-time and analyse the changes in their operational parameters was explored. The stages of modelling an expert system in the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox package of the MATLAB computing environment are presented.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono drganiową metodę diagnozowania silników trakcyjnych wzbudzanych magnesami trwałymi, które są wykorzystywane m.in. w pojazdach elektrycznych. Metoda wykorzystuje właściwości maszyn elektrycznych z magnesami trwałymi, a mianowicie zjawisko indukowania się napięcia w uzwojeniu twornika pod wpływem drgań mechanicznych wirnika względem stojana. Przedstawiono genezę metody, podobieństwo do elektrodynamicznego czujnika drgań, wyniki obliczeń oraz badań laboratoryjnych mających na celu detekcję częstotliwości, które odpowiadają wibracjom, wymuszonych niewywagą wirnika.
EN
This article presents a vibration diagnostic method designed for permanent magnets (PM) traction motors. Those machines are commonly used in traction drives of electrical vehicles. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method – electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. This work presents: the method genesis, the similarity of permanent magnet machine and vibration sensor, results of calculations and laboratory tests.
EN
A severe oscillation, accompanied with an abnormal “click” sound, of a fuel feeding pipe system during valve closing, when the feeding flowrate reaches a certain value, is observed experimentally. A fluctuation model in which stiffness and damping coefficients of the vibration system are time varying is proposed. Each coefficient is composed of two parts, one of which is constant and the other is time varying. Based on this model, simulation transients of the vibration displacement, velocity and pressure in the pipe are presented. Simulations of the pressure transients are compared with experimental data detected by pressure transducer, which shows that both have fluctuations in the transient process at a large flowrate.
EN
A floating ladder track is established in the present paper as a next-generation non-ballasted track system. The three-dimensional model consists of a track (mass-spring-damping system) and the underlying soil. Rectangular pulse loading with an amplitude of 60 kN is considered as the wheel loading system. A time domain coupled finite element with a semi-infinite absorbing boundary condition is employed using FEM software. Due to axial symmetry of the model instead of the track axle, only half of the model is simulated. It is observed that the performance of the floating ladder track is better in mitigating measured vibration than that of the traditional ballasted track. Numerical results of the floating ladder track reveal that the increase of damping and stiffness yields more vibration responses, which is a straight nonlinear relationship. Although increasing density of the protective layer decreases vibrations on the ground, it has no effect on structural components of the track except for the protective layer. Furthermore, this kind of track is more effective at a closer distance to the source of vibrations.
EN
The aim of the current paper is to investigate a small airplane model propeller of class F2D according to requirements of Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI, or World Air Sports Federation). In some cases, practical tests show that F2D models with flexible propellers produce specific extra noise and increase flight speed in comparison with “rigid” propellers. Therefore, the following hypothesis could be proposed: flexible characteristics of the increased noise are related to the resonant eigenfrequencies of the propeller. The operating range of the F2D class propeller (28,000-35,000 rpm) is close to or equal to the eigenfrequency resonance. The current investigation addresses dynamic/flexible vibrations of elastic propeller during engine run and researches dynamic parameters of the propeller as well as the contribution of these parameters to the model flight characteristics. To resolve this type of a problem, a stand, which allows completing a physical investigation of flexible propeller vibration modes and dynamic characteristics was created.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań śmigła małego modelu samolotu zaliczanego do klasy F2D (według klasyfikacji Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, FAI). W niektórych przypadkach testy wykazały, że modele F2 z giętkimi śmigłami, w porównaniu do śmigieł sztywnych, wydają dodatkowy hałas i zwiększają prędkość samolotu. Dlatego wysunięto hipotezę, że elastyczne charakterystyki zwiększonego hałasu są powiązane z rezonansem częstotliwości własnych śmigła. Zakres pracy śmigła klasy F2D (28 000-35 000 obr/min) jest zbliżony do jego częstotliwości własnych. Badania dotyczą elastycznych wibracji dynamicznych śmigła giętkiego w czasie rozruchu silnika i są nakierowane na wyznaczanie parametrów dynamicznych i ich wpływu na charakterystyki lotu modelu. Wykonano i opisano stanowisko, na którym przeprowadzono testy modalne drgań giętkiego śmigła. Na tej podstawie uzyskano charakterystyki dynamiczne.
EN
A dynamic advancement of the design of combustion engines generates a necessity of introduction of strategies of operation based on the information related to their technical condition. The paper analyzes problems related to vibration based diagnostics of valve clearance of a piston combustion engine, significant in terms of its efficiency and durability. Methods of classification have been proposed for the assessment of the valve clearance. Experiments have been performed and described that aimed at providing information necessary to develop and validate the proposed methods. In the performed investigations, the vibration signals were obtained from a triaxial accelerometer located in the engine cylinder head. A parameterization of the obtained vibration signal has been carried out for the engine operating under different engine loads, rotation speeds and valve clearance settings. The parameterization pertained to the specific features of the vibration signals, the derivative of the vibration signal as a function of time as well as the envelope of this derivative. In the first approach, the authors developed a classifier in the form of a set of binary trees that additionally allowed distinguishing the features significant in terms of the identification of adopted classes. For comparison, the authors also developed classifiers in the form of a neural network as well as a k-nearest neighbors algorithm using the Euclidean metric. Based on the performed investigations and analyses a method of valve clearance assessment has been proposed.
PL
Dynamiczny rozwój konstrukcji silników spalinowych generuje potrzebę wprowadzenia strategii eksploatacji jednostek napędowych, opartej na znajomości ich stanu technicznego. W artykule poddano analizie zagadnienia, związane z drganiową diagnostyką luzu zaworów tłokowego silnika spalinowego, istotnego ze względu na efektywność pracy silnika i jego trwałość. Zaproponowano wykorzystanie metod klasyfikacji do oceny poprawności luzu zaworowego. Przeprowadzono i opisano eksperymenty, które miały na celu dostarczenie informacji koniecznych do zbudowania i zweryfikowania zaproponowanych metod. W przeprowadzonych badaniach pozyskano sygnały drganiowe z trójosiowego czujnika przyspieszeń drgań zlokalizowanego na głowicy silnika. Dokonano parametryzacji uzyskanych przebiegów czasowych sygnału drganiowego dla silnika pracującego pod różnym obciążeniem, z różnymi prędkościami obrotowymi oraz z różnymi luzami zaworowymi. Parametryzacja dotyczyła zarówno cech sygnału przyspieszeń drgań, pochodnej przyspieszeń drgań względem czasu jak i obwiedni tej pochodnej. W pierwszym podejściu zbudowano klasyfikator w postaci zbioru drzew binarnych, który przy okazji pozwolił na wyodrębnienie istotnych, ze względu na przyjęte klasy, cech. Dla porównania zbudowano także klasyfikatory w postaci sieci neuronowej jak i algorytmu k – najbliższych sąsiadów z metryką euklidesową. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań i analiz zaproponowano metodę oceny luzu zaworowego.
EN
Entropy measurements are an accessible tool to perform irregularity and uncertainty measurements present in time series. Particularly in the area of signal processing, Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MPE) is presented as a characterization methodology capable of measuring randomness and non-linear dynamics present in non-stationary signals, such as mechanical vibrations. In this article, we present a robust methodology based on MPE for detection of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) states. The MPE is combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as a technique for visualization and feature selection and KNearest Neighbors (KNN) as a supervised classifier. The proposed methodology is validated by comparing accuracy and computation time with others presented in the literature. The results allow to appreciate a high effectiveness in the detection of failures in bearings (experiment 1) and ICE states (experiment 2) with a low computational consumption.
8
PL
W prezentowanej publikacji przedstawiono sposób strojenia konstrukcji na przykładzie konstrukcji stropu w Zakładach Spożywczych. Drgania przekazywane na strop pochodziły od przenośnika dwumasowego typu PVK2-9 wywołującego lokalne ponadnormatywne drgania. Opisano metodę identyfikacji szkodliwych drgań oraz sposób ich usunięcia poprzez zastosowanie podpory o zmiennej podatności. Miała ona za zadanie dostrojenie konstrukcji tak, aby znajdowała się poza rezonansem, tzn. aby częstotliwość drgań własnych układu konstrukcyjnego była różna od częstotliwości drgań wymuszonych przez urządzenia [1, 2, 3]. Zaproponowane rozwiązanie zweryfikowano po wykonaniu wzmocnienia przez rejestrację parametrów dynamicznych stropu wibrogramem wymuszenia kinematycznego [1, 2].
EN
The presented publication presents the way of structure tuning on the example of the ceiling structure in the Food Factory. The vibrations transmitted to the ceiling came from a two-mass conveyor type PVK2-9 causing local oversized vibrations. The method of identification of harmful vibrations and the method of their removal through the use of a support with variable susceptibility was described. The purpose of the variable-vibration support was to tune the structure to be outside the resonance, i.e. to make the frequency of own vibrations of the structural system different from those forced by the devices [1, 2, 3]. The proposed solution was verified after the reinforcement was performed by recording the dynamic parameters of the ceiling with the kinematic excitation program [1, 2].
9
Content available Ocena komfortu pieszego na kładkach. Case study
PL
Trend w projektowaniu nowych kładek dla pieszych wymaga, aby były one coraz bardziej „wyszukane” i lekkie. Bardzo często jednak z tego powodu obiekty te mają pierwszą częstotliwość giętną pomostu zbliżoną do wymuszenia chodem pieszego. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono trzy konstrukcje kładek dla pieszych. Każda z nich znalazła się w innej grupie narażenia na wystąpienie drgań rezonansowych, z uwagi na pierwszą częstotliwość drgań giętnych pomostu. Przeprowadzone badania pokazały, że kładka nad drogą S8, która znajdowała się w wysokiej grupie ryzyka, bez względu na sposób wymuszenia spełnia najwyższy poziom komfortu. W przypadku kładki w Bydgoszczy, która znalazła się w średniej grupie ryzyka, poziomy przyspieszeń były znacznie większe. Przy wymuszeniach synchronicznych zapewniały często tylko minimalny komfort jej użytkownikom. W przypadku kładki w Gdyni, mimo stosunkowo wysokiej wartości częstotliwości drgań własnych i niskiego ryzyka wystąpienia rezonansu, nawet dla bardzo małych grup pieszych, przyspieszenia były na bardzo wysokim poziomie. Kładka w normalnych warunkach eksploatacji zapewnia użytkownikom minimalny komfort. Przy wymuszeniach synchronicznych poziom komfortu jest już jednak nieakceptowalny. Przeprowadzone analizy i badania pokazują, że jednym z kluczowych elementów etapu projektowania jest analiza dynamiczna.
EN
The trend in designing new footbridges requires them to be more slender and light. This is due to the fact that the vibration frequencies of the modern footbridges are often close to the frequencies which are induced by pedestrians. This work presents experimental tests and numerical analysis of three footbridges. Each of them was in a different group of risk of the occurrence of resonance, due to the first bending frequency of the deck. The conducted experimental research showed that the footbridge over the S8 expressway, which was in the risk group, regardless of the way of excitation, fulfilled the highest level of comfort. In the case of the footbridge in Bydgoszcz, which was in the medium risk group, the acceleration levels were much higher. For synchronous excitations, the only minimal comfort level was provided to its users. For the footbridge in Gdynia, despite the relatively high value of frequencies and low resonance risk, even for very small pedestrian groups accelerations were at a very high level. The footbridge exhibited a minimum level of comfort during normal exploitation. However, the level of comfort is unacceptable for synchronous excitations. The conducted numerical analyzes and experimental test show that one of the key elements at the design stage is dynamic analysis.
PL
W referacie, rozważając przypadek elektrowni, w której stwierdzono znaczący wzrost przemieszczeń fundamentów budynku głównego jednego z bloków energetycznych, przedstawiono przykładowy sposób rozwiązywania tego typu zagadnień. Problem dotyczył zarówno osiadań statycznych, jak i dynamicznych. Ze względu na fakt, iż praca urządzeń (młyna węglowego) powoduje ruch trudny do ustalenia metodami analitycznymi, należało wstępnie wykonać pomiary drgań. Dzięki temu uzyskano czasowe przebiegi przyśpieszeń drgań fundamentów oraz wybranych punktów konstrukcji. Model obliczeniowy (MES) został poddany zarejestrowanemu na fundamencie wymuszeniu, zaś przebiegi czasowe przyśpieszeń drgań uzyskane w warunkach rzeczywistych posłużyły do walidacji jego parametrów (stałych materiałowych konstrukcji oraz gruntu i sztywności połączeń). Po uzyskaniu zadowalającej różnicy pomiędzy przyśpieszeniami (model MES – rzeczywista konstrukcja) zasymulowano trzy warianty naprawcze. W dwóch z nich drogę propagacji przecięto barierą antywibracyjną, zaś w jednym zwiększono sztywność gruntu pod fundamentami. Każde z rozważanych rozwiązań powodowało obniżenie drgań konstrukcji młynów węglowych. Jednak w przypadku „otulenia” fundamentów matą antywibracyjną uzyskano znaczne wzrosty przyśpieszeń drgań młynów. Zwrócono też uwagę, iż zwiększenie sztywności gruntu pod fundamentami pomimo ograniczenia poziomu amplitud drgań w całym obiekcie może ze względów technologicznych okazać się kłopotliwe.
EN
The paper presents case of selected power plant, where substantial increase of displacements of the foundations of the main power unit were observed and an exemplary method of solving such type of problem. The problem concerned both static settlements as well as vibrations. Since the operation of the equipment (coal mill) causes movement difficult to be determined using analytical methods, initially vibration measurements had to be made. As a result, time courses of foundations as well as selected points onto investigated structure accelerations were obtained. The computational model (FEM) was loaded with excitation registered on the foundation, while acceleration time courses obtained in real conditions were used to validate its parameters (material constants of structure and soil) and joints rigidity. After obtaining a satisfactory difference between accelerations (FEM model – real construction), three repair variants were simulated. In two of them the propagation path was separated with an anti-vibration barrier, while in one the stiffness of the soil below foundation was increased. Each of the mentioned solutions reduced the vibration level of the structure in the vicinity of coal mills. Nevertheless, in the case of "covering" foundations with anti-vibration mat, significant increases in vibration acceleration of mills were observed. It was also pointed out that increasing the soil stiffness below foundations, despite limiting the level of vibration amplitudes in the entire facility, may prove to be troublesome for technological reasons.
EN
The development of the automotive industry is conditioned by the application of production technologies, which directly depend on production volumes. Today's development of car production is possible only in conjunction with the volume of production, ensuring both the parameters of assembly and production quality. Their constant monitoring is related to the application of the verification tools and technologies used. Such is the length measurement process that needs to be precise in the automotive industry. The paper analyzes the precision length measurement system and its dynamic characteristics. The research is applied to solve the problems of dynamic processes of a precision length measuring system, and the obtained results can be used in the development of precision systems for other purposes. The obtained results describe the vibrations of the length measuring system housing and the measuring head, which show the weak points of the system at the respective frequencies. The paper analyzes the precision length measurement system and its dynamic characteristics. The obtained results describe the vibrations of the length measuring system housing and the measuring head, which show the weak points of the system at the respective frequencies.
EN
A size-dependent Euler–Bernoulli beam model is derived within the framework of the higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. Nonlocal equations of motion are derived by applying Hamilton’s principle and solved with an analytical solution. The solution is obtained using the Navier solution procedure. In the case of simply supported boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of natural frequencies and critical buckling temperature for free vibration problems are obtained. The paper investigates the thermal effects on buckling and free vibrational characteristics of functionally graded size-dependent nanobeams subjected to various types of thermal loading. The influence of higher-order and lower-order nonlocal parameters and strain gradient scale on buckling and vibration are investigated for various thermal conditions. The obtained results are compared with previous research.
PL
W pracy przedstawiona została analiza środowiska wibracyjnego na rusztowaniach budowlanych. Opracowanie opiera się na wynikach projektu, w którym brano pod uwagę bezpieczeństwo pracowników na rusztowaniach. Łączna liczba 120 rusztowań fasadowych została przeanalizowana w ciągu dwóch lat. Jedną z kwestii branych pod uwagę w tym projekcie był wpływ drgań na konstrukcje rusztowań i bezpieczeństwo pracowników przebywających na nich.
EN
The paper presents analysis of the vibrational environment on scaffoldings. It is based on the results obtained in the project considering workers safety on scaffoldings. The total number of 120 façade scaffoldings was analysed over a period of two years. One of the issues considered in this project was the vibrations influence on scaffoldings and workers safety. The values of natural frequencies were obtained based on in-situ measurements of free vibrations. Analysis of the tests results made it possible to verify the elaborated numerical models. Values of natural frequencies and displacements in mode shaped from numerical modal analyses were compared with test results. Measurements of forced vibrations were also made with various sources of vibrations active at scaffoldings. The detailed numerical dynamic analysis was performed considering excitation forces variable in time. The obtained results were compared with allowable values according to the appropriate Polish standards. Most influential sources of vibrations for human comfort were indicated in the conclusions.
EN
Acoustic barriers which are positioned along traffic lanes are designed to protect the surroundings from excessive noise. Such structures are to reverberate, diffract and damp the propagating acoustic waves. However, this method of shielding has some disadvantages which include constraint visibility and structure-born noise. The interaction between traffic-caused movement of air mass and acoustic barriers may generate infra noise waves. That is undesirable and should be estimated. The authors undertook the research to diagnose the plausible side effect of structure-born noise of such barriers because it may influence human body (Kasprzak, 2014). As a mechanical structure, the acoustic barrier is characterized by mechanical parameters which, in the field of modal analysis, are made up of natural frequencies, damping factors and mode shapes. In this paper the authors investigated the acoustic pressure distribution in the neighborhood of a real acoustic barrier in the scope of infra noise propagation. The methods of modal analysis were used to identify natural frequencies of the barrier and dominating frequencies of propagating waves in the far field. The correlation between observed vibration and acoustic signals is presented.
EN
Cavitation is an essential problem that occurs in all kinds of pumps. This cavitation contributes highly towards the deterioration in the performance of the pump. In industrial applications, it is very vital to detect and decrease the effect of the cavitation in pumps. Using different techniques to analysis and diagnose cavitation leads to increase in the reliability of cavitation detection. The use of various techniques such as vibration and acoustic analyses can provide a more robust detection of cavitation within the pump. In this work therefore, focus is put on detecting and diagnosing the cavitation phenomenon within a centrifugal pump using vibration and acoustic techniques. The results obtained from vibration and acoustic signals in time and frequency domains were analysed in order to achieve better understanding regarding detection of cavitation within a pump. The effect of different operating conditions related to the cavitation was investigated in this work using different statistical features in time domain analysis (TDA). Moreover, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique for frequency domain analysis (FDA) was also applied. Furthermore, the comparison and evaluation system among different techniques to find an adequate technique incorporating for accuracy and to increase the reliability of detection and diagnosing different levels of cavitation within a centrifugal pump were also investigated.
EN
Within this study, resonance phenomenon, which is one of the crucial problems in mechanical constructions, has been analyzed with respect to oil starvation failure in a ball bearing. A unique test rig is designed, constructed, and placed in a laboratory ambience. A ball bearing on the electrical motor, which is a component of the test rig, has been selected for acquisition of data within triple sensing technology in vibration, acoustic, and electrical consumption through testing conditions. The target of that study is condition monitoring of oil starvation fault and resonance fault for comparison of various predictive maintenance methods. The testing was carried out within the electrical frequency of 40.5 Hz, which actuated the electrical motor in order to identify the rotation speed. According to the analyzed results, oil starvation fault and resonance fault is most accurately inspected by vibration analysis.
EN
One of the key methods for diagnosing the structural degradation of technical objects relies on observations of mechanical vibrations that accompany equipment operation and damage. Hardware and software advancements and the development mathematical methods for modelling and inference have increased the popularity of vibroacoustic diagnostics in mechanical systems. Displacement in the time domain of physical points in a vibrating object is the primary diagnostic symptom that undergoes further processing in the measurement system. At present, vibrations are usually registered with the use of accelerometers or optical sensors. Advanced tools for image recording, processing and analysis are deployed in quasi-realistic observations of motion that cannot be perceived by the human senses. This article discusses a method for visualizing vibrations based on deliberate deformation of the registered image through motion magnification. The presented approach is illustrated with selected examples.
EN
This paper presents the investigations of vibrations of a vehicle equipped with controlled magneto-rheological (MR) dampers and aerodynamic elements. A scaled sports vehicle model was developed to conduct this research. The tests were carried out with kinematic excitation resulting from road roughness and motion at a variable speed. During the airflow, the aerodynamic elements forces and moments on the test body. Vehicle vibrations are limited by the means of MR controlled dampers. The damping force is determined on the basis of an algorithm, where various strategies for determining forces in MR damper have been adopted. Two criteria were considered for assessing the effectiveness of the control algorithm - minimising vertical acceleration and changes in wheel normal reactions on road surface. This paper presents the results of those studies.
19
Content available remote Vibroabrasive machining of large-size products on hydropulse drive machines
EN
The paper considers the issue of complex shape items surface depuration together with the most appropriate hydropulse drive future oriented equipment, used in order to address this challenge adequately. There had been considered the mathematical model of the vibration machine with complex space load, developed on the base of the structural chart and behavior pattern. There had been presented the results of the research of the test model plant with the hydro pulse drive for vibroabrasive depuration of the inner surface of the tubular items.
PL
W artykule rozważono zagadnienie kompleksowej obróbki powierzchni przedmiotów kształtowych wraz z najbardziej odpowiednim urządzeniem do sterowania przyszłościowym napędem hydropulsacyjnym. Rozważono matematyczny model maszyny wibracyjnej o złożonym obciążeniu przestrzeni, opracowanej na podstawie wykresu strukturalnego i wzoru zachowania. Przedstawiono wyniki badań modelu testowego z napędem hydropulsacyjnym do oczyszczania wibroabrazyjnego powierzchni wewnętrznej elementów rurowych.
20
Content available remote Noise and vibration analysis of a distribution transformer
EN
Transformer noise is a significant contribution to unwanted ambient noise, especially in the vicinity of the electrical transmission facility. It is therefore very important to get to know the mechanism of noise generation of the distribution transformer. As outcomes of this work, a finite element based multiphysics model is presented which provides a convenient and efficient toolchain for simulating the transformer sound emission mechanism. Finally, the operation of modelling chain is presented on a 200kVA distribution transformer simulation.
PL
Hałas transformatora ma znaczący wpływ na niepożądany hałas otoczenia, zwłaszcza w pobliżu instalacji przesyłowej prądu elektrycznego. Z tego powodu ważnym jest poznanie mechanizmu generowania szumu transformatora rozdzielczego. Jako wynik tej pracy przedstawiono model transformatora rozdzielczego 200 kVA oparty na analizie elementów skończonych, który zapewnia wygodny i wydajny zestaw narzędzi do symulacji mechanizmu emisji dźwięku z analizowanego urządzenia.
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