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EN
Diel changes in the vertical distribution and abundance of calyptopes were studied in the deepest area of the southern Adriatic over four seasons (July 2003, February 2004, October 2004, April 2009). Temperature variations were limited to the upper 100 m and salinity variations were small. Of previously known adult euphausiid species – 12 for the Adriatic (Gangai et al., 2012) and 13 for the Mediterranean (Mavidis et al., 2005) – calyptopes of 11 species of euphausiids were recorded. Abundance of calyptopes of all species was the highest in spring. Species were characterized according to their mean depth: surface (0-50 m), sub-surface (50-200 m), mesopelagic (200-800 m), or bathypelagic (800-1200 m) and vertical dispersion (scattered or non-scattered). Four diel patterns emerged: (i) nocturnal ascent to upper layers (Euphausia brevis, E. hemigibba, E. krohnii, Nematoscelis megalops, N. couchii), (ii) migration to upper layers at middle of the day and at night, and descent during the morning and evening (Stylocheiron maximum – only winter), (iii) weakly-migrating or non-migrating (S. longicorne), (iv) irregular migration independent of the day/night cycle (S. abbreviatum, S. maximum – during spring, summer and autumn, T. aequalis).
EN
Changes in the magnetic susceptibility of topsoil, especially in urban areas, are greatly affected by the deposition of anthropogenic metallic dust arising from industrial activities, the burning of fossil fuels, car wear, and tyre abrasion. In this study, magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out in vertical soil profiles of 30.0 cm depth from the surface at 10.0 cm intervals in about 431 locations within the Abuja metropolis with a view to investigate the penetration ability of magnetic pollutants in the ground. From the obtained data, 3-D surface contour maps were plotted for different depths. The results show a magnetic susceptibility decrease from the surface down the ground to the depth of 30.0cm; most of the recorded susceptibilities were of an anthropogenic origin rather than pedogenic activities. This indicates that the anthropogenic dust depositions are mostly a surface phenomenon and may therefore not pose a risk to groundwater aquifers and near surface wells.
EN
The influence of the shrub canopy on the spatial distribution of above and below ground arthropod communities in desertified ecosystems is largely unknown. Using the shrubs Hedysarum scoparium (H. scoparium) and Artemisia ordosica (A. ordosica) as model systems, the above and belowground arthropod communities were sampled by using pitfall trapping and hand-sorting, in order to examine the linkage between above and belowground arthropods across shrub microhabitats. Different profile layers harboured mostly distinct arthropod taxon and trophic groups that preferred specific microhabitats. Even the common taxa, including the Carabidae and Formicidae families, were found to have different abundance distributions in above and belowground soil layers across shrub microhabitats. Total abundance distribution was found to differ, while taxon-richness and Shannon-index distributions were similar in above and belowground parts across the shrub microhabitats. Markedly higher taxon-richness and Shannon-index values were found beneath the shrub canopy compared to the open spaces, particularly beneath the A. ordosica shrub canopy. The abundance distribution in above and below ground arthropod communities were affected by the shrub microhabitats along vertical and horizontal axes more than the richness and diversity of these communities. The A. ordosica shrub canopy (compared with the H. scoparium shrub) was found to have greater ecological implications on the spatial distribution of the arthropod communities. All these findings were expected to be helpful for the conservation of biodiversity, shrub plantation management, and desertification control.
EN
Novaya Zemlya Archipelago is the eastern boundary of the Barents Sea. The plankton of this region have been less intensively studied than those of other Arctic areas. This study of the mesozooplankton assemblage of Moller Bay was conducted in August 2010. The total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass ranged from 962 to 2980 individuals m-3 (mean š SD: 2263 š 921 indiv. m-3) and from 12.3 to 456.6 mg dry mass m-3 (mean š SD: 192 š 170 DM m-3) respectively. Copepods and appendicularians were the most numerous groups with Oithona similis, Pseudocalanusspp., Acartiaspp., Calanus glacialis and Oikopleura vanhoeffenni being the most abundant and frequent. Mesozooplankton abundance tended to decrease with depth, whereas an inverse pattern was observed for the total biomass. Total mesozooplankton biomass was negatively correlated with water temperature and positively correlated with salinity and chlorophyll a concentration. Comparison with previous data showed significant interannual variations in the total zooplankton stock in this region that may be due to differences in sampling seasons, climatic conditions and the distribution of potential food sources (phytoplankton and seabird colonies).
EN
The vertical distribution of zooplankton was examined in Lough Derg, Ireland. Zooplankton was collected at one location every 2 m from the surface to the bottom during 24 hours at four-hour intervals. Zooplankton was identified to the species level and its density was calculated for each taxon, depth and hour. We recorded 9 rotifer, 3 copepod, and 4 cladoceran species. The highest total zooplankton density (rotifers, copepods, cladocerans, mysids and zebra mussel larvae) was recorded at 3 a.m. Rotifers preferred mainly a depth from 0 to 8 m, while copepods and cladocerans were observed within the whole water column during a 24 hour observation. It was a different pattern of diurnal migration than that Southern and Gardiner (1932) received, though they didn’t study rotifers. Probably food concentration and/or predators, or other environmental factors could influence the diel vertical migration of zooplankton from Loug Derg.
6
EN
Studies were conducted in littoral sand deposits of a eutrophic, deep lake (Lake Mikołajskie, Masurian Lakeland, Poland) in aim to test the hypothesis that epihydroarenal (the most upper layer of sand deposits) may play a role of a refuge from visual predators for rotifers from adjacent water layer. However, a comparison of the daily vertical distribution of the rotifer community structure and densities in microlayers of the lake psammolittoral, i.e. adjacent water layer (5.0-0.0 cm), epihydroarenal (0-0.5 cm) and three microlayers of endohydroarenal (0.5-1.0 cm, 1.0-1.5 cm and 1.5-2.0 cm) revealed a lack of up-and-down vertical migrations of the animals. During day and night hours, both on 5/6 and 11/12 July, rotifers were concentrated in epihydroarenal. In all cases 64 to 85% of rotifer community inhabited this layer, whereas up to 4% occurred in adjacent water layer. Large and permanently renewed food resources (algae and bacteria) in the most upper layer of sand deposits form a very thin layer that can be called "a canteen". This may explain permanent concentration of rotifers in the layer.
EN
The density and biomass of planktonic ciliates significantly differed between sample sites in a deep, mesotrophic lake, with the lowest numbers in the hypolimnion and the highest in the epilimnion. The community composition varied greatly with depth. Oligotrichs dominated in the epilimnion, where prostomatids and peritrichs were also important components of the community. The density of oligotrichs and peritrichs decreased in the metalimnion, and they were absent from the hypolimnion. In the deep metalimnion the most abundant groups were prostomatids, haptorids and scuticociliates. In the hypolimnion, the ciliate community was dominated by scuticociliates and heterotrichs. In the epilimnion and metalimnion a significant positive correlation was observed between ciliate numbers, chlorophyll a and heterotrophic flagellate density. In all three zones the number of ciliates was most strongly correlated with water temperature, concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (Ptot) and bacterial density, whilst in the hypolimnion there was a significant correlation between ciliate numbers and the dissolved oxygen concentration.
EN
This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplankton pigments together (photosynthetic and photoprotecting). Knowledge of this factor is highly desirable in the construction of state-of-the-art "light-photosynthesis" models for remote-sensing purposes. The expression enables fa to be estimated with considerable precision on the basis of two surface parameters (available from satellite observations): the total chlorophyll a concentration at the surface Ca(0) and the spectral downward irradiance Ed(?, 0) just below the sea surface. The expression is applicable to Baltic waters from the surface down to an optical depth of ? ? 5. The verification of the model description of fa was based on 400 quasi-empirical values of this factor which were calculated on the basis of empirical values of the following parameters measured at the same depths: Ed(?, z) (or also PAR(z)), apl(?, z), and the concentrations of all the groups of phytoplankton pigments Ca(z) and Cj(z) (where j denotes in turn chl b, chl c, PSC, phyc, PPC). The verification shows that the errors in the values of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa estimated using the model developed in this work are small: in practice they do not exceed 4%. Besides the mathematical description of the vertical distribution of fa, this paper also discusses the range of variation of its values measured in the Baltic and its dependence on the trophic index of a basin and depth in the sea. In addition, the similarities and differences in the behaviour of fa in Baltic and oceanic basins are compared.
EN
This article is the first in a series of three describing the modelling of the vertical different photosynthetic and photoprotecting phytoplankton pigments concentration distributions in the Baltic and their interrelations described by the so-called non-photosynthetic pigment factor. The model formulas yielded by this research are an integral part of the algorithms used in the remote sensing of the Baltic ecosystem. Algorithms of this kind have already been developed by our team from data relating mainly to oceanic Case 1 waters (WC1) and have produced good results for these waters. But their application to Baltic waters, i.e., Case 2 waters, was not so successful. On the basis of empirical data for the Baltic Sea, we therefore derived new mathematical expressions for the spatial distribution of Baltic phytoplankton pigments. They are discussed in this series of articles. This first article presents a statistical model for determining the total concentration of chlorophyll, a (i.e., the sum of chlorophylls a+pheo derived spectrophotometrically) at different depths in the Baltic Sea Ca(z) on the basis of its surface concentration Ca(0), which can be determined by remote sensing. This model accounts for the principal features of the vertical distributions of chlorophyll concentrations characteristic of the Baltic Sea. The model's precision was verified empirically: it was found suitable for application in the efficient monitoring of the Baltic Sea. The modified mathematical descriptions of the concentrations of accessory pigments (photosynthetic and photoprotecting) in Baltic phytoplankton and selected relationships between them are given in the other two articles in this series (Majchrowski et al. 2007, Woźniak et al. 2007b, both in this volume).
EN
This is the second in a series of articles, the aim of which is to derive mathematical expressions describing the vertical distributions of the concentrations of different groups of phytoplankton pigments; these expressions are necessary in the algorithms for the remote sensing of the marine ecosystem. It presents formulas for the vertical profiles of the following groups of accessory phytoplankton pigments: chlorophylls b, chlorophylls c, phycobilins, photosynthetic carotenoids and photoprotecting carotenoids, all for the uppermost layer of water in the Baltic Sea with an optical depth of ? ? 5. The mathematical expressions for the first four of these five groups of pigments, classified as photosynthetic pigments, enable their concentrations to be estimated at different optical depths in the sea from known surface concentrations of chlorophyll a. The precision of these estimates is characterised by the following relative statistical errors according to logarithmic statistics ?_: approximately 44% for chlorophyll b, approx. 39% for chlorophyll c, approx. 43% for phycobilins and approx. 45% for photosynthetic carotenoids. On the other hand, the mathematical expressions describing the vertical distributions of photoprotecting carotenoid concentrations enable these to be estimated at different depths in the sea also from known surface concentrations of chlorophyll a, but additionally from known values of the irradiance in the PAR spectral range at the sea surface, with a statistical error ?_ of approximately 42%.
EN
Vertical distribution of chosen species of Rotifera was studied in Piaseczno Lake, during a water stagnation period, in the summer of 2004. Environmental factors, such as temperature, dissolved oxygen and water transparency in the whole water column were measured. The presence of a total of 45 species of Rotifera was found. The analysis of the diel vertical distribution of the examined species of rotifer communities revealed differentiated models. Diel vertical migrations were observed in the case of Gastropus stylifer, Asplanchna priodonta and Trichocerca similis. The remaining species (Kellicottia longispina, Polyarthra dolichopter and P. vulgaris) did not undergo migrations, they remained within a certain water layer throughout the day and night. These differences in the diel behaviour of particular species of rotifers may be mostly dependent on particular ecological requirements and different forms of predation caused by invertebrate and young fish predators.
EN
Diel vertical distribution of Crustacean communities was studied in Piaseczno Lake, in the water stagnate period, in the summer of 2004. Additionally, temperature, dissolved oxygen and water transparency in the whole water column were measured. The presence of a total of 30 species of crustaceans was found. Vertical distribution of both cladocerans and copepods was uneven and the highest numbers of individuals was noticed in the epilimnion. In the case of the larval stages of Copepoda the highest abundances were recorded in the metalimnion. Diel vertical migrations were observed only for three species - Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Daphnia hyalina and Mesocyclops oithonoides. Species which remained in the surface layers of water were cladocerans such as Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus and Bosmina longirostris, while the rest of the species revealed an equal pattern of distribution in the water column. Diversified vertical distribution and diel vertical migrations of crustacean zooplankton ware probably caused by intense pressure of predators, mainly planktivorous fish present in great numbers in the examined water body, as well as the seeking of optimal life conditions in the pelagic zone of Piaseczno Lake (Jezioro Piaseczno).
EN
The composition and abundance of cyanobacteria in three lakes of the Polesie Lubelskie (East Poland) were studied in summer periods. Vertical distribution of these algae was analysed in two depths - in epilimnion and deoxygenated metalimnion. Species composition and domination was similar for these two sites. It means that the species like: Limnothrix planctonica (Wołosz.) Meffert, Limnothrix redekei (Van Goor) Meffert, Planktothrixs agardhii (Gom.) Anagn. et Kom., Woronichinianaegeliana (Unger) Elenk. and Microcystis viridis (A. Braun in Rabenhorst) Lemm. are not affected by turbulence of water as well as by oxygen conditions.
14
Content available remote Adenosine triphosphate in the marine boundary layer in the southern Baltic Sea
EN
Changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration were measured in the offshore and coastal waters of the Gdansk Basin in spring. As regards the vertical distribution, it was found that high ATP concentrations occurred mainly in the euphotic layer (above the thermocline) and near the bottom (below the halocline). The high concentrations of ATP in the euphotic layer resulted from primary and secondary production, while the other maximum was due to the presence of bacteria actively degrading organic matter. Changes in ATP concentration in the euphotic layer were closely correlated with the phase of the day. An increase in ATP concentrations in the surface microlayer was observed in the evening and at night, probably as a result of heterotroph proliferation. During daylight, ATP production was inhibited by increasing radiation, hence its concentrations in the sea surface microlayer were considerably lower. Strong winds exerted a significant influence on ATP concentrations in the surface microlayer and in the subsurface water. Windstress depressed ATP concentrations. The biomass of living microorganisms in the microlayer was comparable with the microbiomass beneath the halocline.
EN
Phytoplankton structure (abundance, taxonomical structure, species diversity) as well as physico-chemical factors (tem-perature, pH, electrolytic conductivity, oxygen concentration) were observed in a natural, shallow, small lake. The comparison of three zones within the studied lake showed distinct trophic differentiation. The biodiversity indices, which were used in this analysis, appeared to be useful in determining the lake functions.
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