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PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki doświadczeń dotyczących wpływu modyfikacji podłoża na energię i zdolność kiełkowania nasion lucerny i koniczyny czerwonej. Do badań wykorzystano podłoża naturalne wykonane z włókien bambusowych, bez i po modyfikacji. Zaproponowano zastosowanie tkanin pokrytych cienką warstwą srebrną otrzymaną w procesie fizycznego osadzania próżniowego, jako procesu zapewniającego dobrą adhezję cząstek metalu do włókien. W efekcie uzyskano zwiększenie zdolności kiełkowania nasion o około 20%.
EN
The article presents the results of experiments on the impact of substrate modification on energy and germination ability of lucerne and red clover seeds. Natural substrates made of bamboo fibers were used for the tests, without and after modification. It has been proposed to use fabrics covered with a thin silver layer obtained in the process of physical vacuum deposition as a process ensuring good adhesion of metal particles to fibers. As the result of research, the germination ability of seeds increased by about 20%.
2
Content available remote Development of chalcogenide solar cells : Importance of CdS window layer
EN
The solar photovoltaic technology is one of the renewable technologies with the potential to shape a future-proof, reliable, scalable and affordable electricity system. It is important to provide better resources for any upcoming technology. CdS/CdTe thin films have long been considered as one enticing option for reliable and cost-effective solar cells to be developed. N-type CdS as a transparent window layer in heterojunction structures is one of the best choices for CdTe cells. In a solar cell structure, window layer material plays a very crucial role to improve its performance. For this reason, this review focuses on the basic and significant aspects such as importance of the window layer thickness, degradation effect, use of nano-wire arrays, and an ammonia-free process to deposit the window layer. Also, an attempt has been made to analyze various processes improving window layer properties. Necessary discussions have been included to review the impact of solar cell parameters on the above aspects. It is anticipated that this review article will fulfill the requirement of knowledge to be used in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe solar cells.
3
Content available remote Study of Ho doped Ag2S thin films prepared by CBD method
EN
Ho doped Ag2S thin films were grown on the glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at room temperature. The bath contained aqueous solution of silver nitrate, thiourea, EDTA, ammonia and holmium nitrate. Silver nitrate was used as a silver (Ag+) ion source; thiourea as sulfur (S−) ion source, EDTA was a complexing agent while ammonia was used to maintain pH, Ho(NO3)3 was taken as a source of Ho ions. The optical absorption edge of undoped (pure) and Ho doped silver sulfide films was determined between 324 nm and 298 nm showing blue shift as compared to bulk Ag2S. Band gaps calculated from Tauc plot also showed an increase in values for doped samples. The increase in band gap indicates reduced particle size in the prepared Ho doped films. The photoluminescence emission peaks were observed at around 578 nm to 601 nm wavelength and excitation peaks were found at 351 nm to 294 nm for undoped and doped films. The SEM micrograph consists of globular ball type and flower type structures observed in the prepared films of Ho doped Ag2S.
EN
The aim of this work was to produce a thin SnO2 film by a technique combining the sol-gel method and electrospinning from a solution based on polyvinylpyrrolidone and a tin chloride pentahydrate as a precursor. The spinning solution was subjected to an electrospinning process, and then the obtained nanofiber mats were calcined for 10 h at 500°C. Then, the scanning electron microscopy morphology analysis and chemical composition analysis by X-ray microanalysis of the manufactured thin film was performed. It was shown that an amorphous-crystalline layer formed by the SnO2 nanofiber network was obtained. Based on the UV-Vis spectrum, the width of the energy gap of the obtained layer was determined.
EN
Thin films of crystallized LaCoO3 were grown on Si substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition at different temperatures (750°C, 850°C and 1000°C). The structural characterization of the LaCoO3 thin films was done by combining several techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD). The thin films crystallized in the expected rhombohedral phase whatever the deposition temperature, with an increase of crystallite size from 70 nm at 750°C to 100 nm at 1000°C, and an average thickness of the thin films of less than 200 nm. At 850°C and 1000°C, the thin films are crack-free, and with a lower number of droplets than the film deposited at 750°C. The grains of LaCoO3 film deposited at 850°C are columnar, with a triangular termination. At 1000°C, an intermediate layer of La2 Si2 O7 was observed, indicating diffusion of Si into the deposited film.
EN
In vestigation of influence of TiN thin film morphology on deformation inhomogeneities is an overall subject of the research. Numerical modelling approach that was selected for the study is based on the digital material representation concept, which gives an opportunity to directly replicate columnar microstructure morphology of an investigated thin film. Particular attention in this paper is put on the discussion of the influence of cellular automata neighbourhood on thin-film digital morphologies and their further deformation behaviour. Additionally, an evaluation of representativeness aspects of the digital models, in particular, the analysis of the influence of a number of columns, their dimensions and variations in their properties on the material behaviour during compression tests is also presented. The non-periodic boundary conditions are assumed during the investigation. Obtained data in the form of equivalent stress distributions as well as homogenized stress-strain curves from analyzed case studies are presented and discussed within the paper.
EN
CdS thin films with (1 1 1) orientation were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at 80±5 °C using the reaction between NH4OH, CdCl2 and CS(NH2)2. The influence of annealing temperature varying from 150 °C to 250 °C was studied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Various parameters, such as dislocation density, stress and strain, were also evaluated. SEM analysis indicated uniformly distributed nano-structured spherically shaped grains and net like morphology. Optical transmittance study showed the wide transmittance band and absence of absorption in the entire visible region. I-V characterization of p-Si/n-CdS diode and photoluminescence studies were also carried out for the CdS films.
EN
The present work reports on the optimization of substrate temperature, molar concentration and volume of the solution of nickel oxide (NiO) thin films prepared by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) technique. NiO films were optimized and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, UV-Vis and I-V measurements. Based on XRD analysis, the molar concentration, volume of solution and substrate temperature of the prepared NiO films were optimized as 0.20 M, 5 mL and 450 °C for P-N diode applications. The XRD pattern of the optimized NiO film revealed cubic structure. The surface morphological variations and elemental composition were confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis. The optical properties were studied with UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the minimum band gap value was 3.67 eV for 450 °C substrate temperature. Using J-V characteristics, the diode parameters: ideality factor n and barrier height Фb values of p-NiO/N-Si diode prepared at optimum conditions, i.e. 450 °C, 0.2 M, 5 mL, were evaluated in dark and under illumination.
EN
Thin films of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) were developed by thermal evaporation technique. The annealing effect on the structural properties of Ge10–xSe60Te30Inx (x = 0, 2, 4 and 6) films has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results indicate amorphous nature of the as-prepared films whereas crystalline phases in annealed films were identified. Structural parameters such as average crystallite size, strain, and dislocation were determined for different annealing temperatures. Effect of annealing on optical constants of prepared films has been explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 1000 nm. Various optical constants were determined depending on annealing temperature. It has been noticed that the film transparency and optical bandgap Eg have been reduced whereas the absorption coefficient α and extinction coefficient k increased with increasing annealing temperature. It was found that the prepared samples obey the allowed direct transition. The reduction in optical bandgap with annealing temperature has been described by Mott and Davis model. Due to annealing dependence of the optical parameters, the investigated material could be utilized for phase change memory devices.
PL
W artykule omówione są różne sposoby przeprowadzania obliczeń dla techniki odbiciowej wysokoenergetycznej dyfrakcji elektronowej, nazywanej zwykle techniką RHEED. Technika ta w chwili obecnej często znajduje zastosowanie m.in. do monitorowania wzrostu cienkich warstw przy użyciu metody PLD, czyli osadzania z wykorzystaniem lasera impulsowego. Artykuł poświęcony jest różnym aspektom teoretycznym opisu dyfrakcji typu RHEED. W przypadku, gdy sieć krystaliczna badanego materiału jest niemal idealna, natężenia wiązek elektronów odbitych od powierzchni powinny być wyznaczane przy użyciu dynamicznej teoria dyfrakcji, czyli z pomocą równań różniczkowych cząstkowych właściwych dla ruchu falowego. W przypadku osadzania cienkich warstw, ułożenie atomów jest jednak zwykle dalekie od idealnego i dlatego stosowanie teorii uproszczonych może być pomocne. W ogólności problem przeprowadzania symulacji komputerowych dla dyfrakcji elektronów, dla częściowo uporządkowanych struktur wciąż jest otwarty.
EN
Different methods of executing calculations for reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are discussed in the article. Currently, RHEED is often applied among others to monitor preparation of thin films with the use of pulsed laser deposition. The article is devoted to different theoretical aspects of description of the diffraction phenomenon for electrons. For the case of the material with a nearly ideal crystal lattice, intensities of electron beams reflected from the surface should be determined with the employment of the dynamical diffraction theory, i.e. with the use of partial differential equations proper for the wave motion. However, for the case of the deposition of thin films, the arrangement of atoms is usually far from the ideal one and because of this reason the employment of simplified theoretical approaches may be profitable. In general, the problem of the faithful carrying out computer simulations for electron diffraction, for partially ordered structures is still open.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badania wpływu struktury na właściwości elektryczne oraz optyczne cienkich warstw na bazie tlenków tytanu i miedzi. Cienkie warstwy tlenku miedzi oraz dwuwarstwy TiO₂/CuxO o różnej grubości TiO₂ na powierzchni CuxO były naniesione metodą rozpylania magnetronowego. Wytworzone dwuwarstwy TiO₂/CuxO o różnej grubości TiO₂ były nanokrystaliczne o jednoskośnej strukturze tlenku miedzi II (CuO). Średni rozmiar krystalitów był w zakresie od 10 nm do 14 nm. Stwierdzono, że rezystywność dla cienkiej warstwy CuO była równa 0,7•103 Ω•cm, natomiast dla struktur TiO₂/CuO była w zakresie 0,8•103 ÷ 1,5•103 Ω•cm. W przypadku powłok dwuwarstwowych TiO₂/CuO średnia wartość współczynnika transmisji światła wynosiła ponad 80%.
EN
This paper provides research investigation results and analysis of influence of the structure on electrical and optical properties of thin films based on the titanium and copper oxides. CuxO and TiO₂/CuxO thin films with different thickness of top TiO₂ layer coatings were deposited by the reactive magnetron sputtering method. TiO₂/CuxO bilayers with different thickness of top TiO₂ layer were nanocrystalline and had monoclinc structure of CuO. The crystallite sizes were in the range of 10 nm to 14 nm. It was found that the resistivity for the CuO film was equal to 0.7•103 Ω•cm, and for TiO₂/CuO structures was in the range of 0.8•103 ÷ 1.5•103 Ω•cm. As-prepared bilayers were well transparent, average transparency was above 80%.
PL
W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu rodzaju podłoża na właściwości cienkich warstw ITO, takich jak chropowatość powierzchni, zwilżalność, rezystywność oraz współczynnik odbicia światła. Analizie poddano warstwy ITO o grubości 70 nm, naniesione metodą rozpylania magnetronowego na podłoża z krzemionki amorficznej (SiO₂), krzemu (Si), poliwęglanu (PC) oraz poli(tereftalanu etylenu) (PET). Badania wykazały istotny wpływ ukształtowania powierzchni podłoża na właściwości naniesionej cienkiej warstwy ITO. Uzyskana rezystywność warstw ITO wykazała różnice nawet o kilka rzędów wielkości dla zastosowanych różnych podłoży. Cienkie warstwy ITO wykazały właściwości hydrofilowe na każdym badanym podłożu, natomiast największą wartością kąta zwilżania charakteryzowała się warstwa ITO/SiO₂. Najmniejszą wartość współczynnika odbicia światła dla długości fali 550 nm wykazała warstwa tlenku indowo-cynowego na podłożu krzemowym i wynosiła ok. 3,2%.
EN
This paper presents the results of research on the influence of substrate type on the properties of ITO thin films, such as surface roughness, wettability, resistivity and light reflectance. ITO 70 nm thick coatings were deposited using magnetron sputtering to amorphous silica (SiO₂), silicon (Si), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The research showed a significant influence of the surface roughness of the substrate on the properties of the deposited ITO thin film. The obtained resistivity of ITO thin films varied even by several orders of magnitude for the various substrates used. Investigated materials showed a hydrophilic properties on each substrate, but the ITO/SiO₂ layer was characterized by the highest value of the contact angle. The lowest value of the reflectance at the wavelength of 550 nm showed the indium-tin oxide thin film deposited on the silicon substrate and was about 3.2%.
PL
W pracy przedstawiona została analiza wpływu parametrów procesu technologicznego wytwarzania cienkich warstw tlenków miedzi na ich właściwości strukturalne, optyczne oraz elektryczne. Badaniu poddane zostały warstwy wytworzone za pomocą metody stałoprądowego rozpylania magnetronowego w atmosferze mieszaniny O₂:Ar o zawartości O₂ wynoszącej odpowiednio 75% oraz 100%. Właściwości strukturalne badanych warstw określone zostały na podstawie badania metodą dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej. Właściwości optyczne scharakteryzowano na podstawie pomiaru transmisji światła, a elektryczne na podstawie charakterystyk prądowo-napięciowych. Badanie metodą XRD wykazało, że uzyskano warstwy CuO (tlenku miedzi II) w postaci tenorytu o średnim rozmiarze krystalitów wynoszącym około 13 nm. Badanie właściwości optycznych wykazało, że nie ma różnicy w transmisji światła dla promieniowania krótszego niż około 600 nm. Nieznaczne różnice zauważalne między warstwami widoczne są powyżej tej długości. Średnia wartość transmisji dla długości fali λ = 550 nm wynosiła 35%. Badanie właściwości elektrycznych wykazało, że warstwa naniesiona w mieszaninie O₂:Ar zawierającej 75% O₂ miała rezystancję wynoszącą około 17 kΩ podczas gdy rezystancja warstwy wytworzonej w atmosferze wyłącznie tlenowej wynosiła około 5 kΩ.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the impact of the parameters of the technological process of copper oxides thin films on their structural, optical and electrical properties. Investigated films were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering method in the atmosphere of the O₂:Ar mixture with an O₂ content of 75% and 100% respectively. The structural properties of the investigated films were determined based on the X-ray diffraction method. Optical properties were characterized on the basis of light transmission measurements, and electrical properties based on current- -voltage characteristics. The XRD showed that CuO (copper oxide II) films were obtained in the form of a tenorite with an average crystallite size of about 13 nm. The investigation of the optical properties showed that there is no difference in light transmission for wavelength shorter than approximately 600 nm. Slight differences between the layers are visible above this length. The average transmission value at wavelength λ = 550 nm was 35%, so these layers can be used in transparent electronics. Testing of electrical properties showed that the layer deposited in the O₂:Ar gas mixture containing 75% of O₂ had a resistance of approximately 17 kΩ, when the resistance of the layer prepared in a pure oxygen atmosphere of approximately 5 kΩ.
EN
The aim of the work was to obtain thin bismuth oxide films containing, at room temperature, the Bi1,5Er0,5O3 phase. This phase corresponds to the structure of the high-temperature δ-Bi2O3 phase, in pure bismuth oxide, characterized by the highest ionic conductivity of all known solid state ionic conductors. The high-temperature δ-Bi2O3 phase with the face centered cubic structure, in pure bismuth oxide, occurs only at temperature above 730°C. Stabilization of the δ-Bi2O3 phase at room temperature was achieved by an addition of the erbium together with the employ-ment of the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. The influence of an amount of Er alloying and the film thickness on surface morphology, microstructure, phase composition of thin films were investigated. The velocity of deposition of thin layers of bismuth stabilized with erbium in the PLD process using the Nd: YAG laser was about 0.5 nm/s.The investigation results of erbium doped bismuth oxide thin films deposited onto (0001) oriented Al2O3 monocrystalline substrate are presented. Thin films of uniform thickness, without cracks, and porosity were obtained. All deposited thin films (regardless of the film thickness or erbia (Er2O3) content) exhibited a columnar structure. In films stabilized with erbium, up to approx. 250 nm thickness, the columns have a diameter at the base from 25 to 75 nm. The columns densely and tightly fill the entire volume of the films. With increasing of the film thickness increases, porosity also significantly increases. In thin layers containing from 20 to 30 mole % Er2O3 the main identified phase at room temperature is Bi1,5Er0,5O3. It is similar to the defective fluorite-type structure, and belongs to the Fm-3m space group. This phase corresponds to the structure of the high-temperature δ-Bi2O3 phase in pure bismuth oxide.
PL
W ramach technologii fotowoltaicznych wyróżniamy obecnie trzy generacje. Pierwsza z nich to ogniwa z mono- i polikrystalicznego krzemu (c-Si), druga obejmuje ogniwa wykonane na bazie technologii cienkowarstwowej, zarówno z krzemu amorficznego (a-Si), jak i diseleneku indowo-miedziowo-galowego (CIGS), tellurku kadmu (CdTe) oraz arsenku galu (GaAs). Trzecia generacja to najnowsze technologie, takie jak: organiczne ogniwa słoneczne, ogniwa uczulane barwnikami czy ogniwa hybrydowe. Przyjmuje się, że średnia długość życia modułu fotowoltaicznego wynosi około 17 lat, co w połączeniu ze wzrastającym zainteresowaniem technologią fotowoltaiczną wiąże się ze zwiększona ilością odpadów, trafiających na składowiska. Oszacowano, że w 2026 roku liczba odpadowych modułów fotowoltaicznych osiągnie 5 500 000 ton. Będą to zarówno pozostałości po procesie produkcji, elementy uszkodzone podczas użytkowania oraz zużyte moduły fotowoltaiczne. Rozwój technologii fotowoltaicznych prowadzi również do doskonalenia istniejących i badań nad opracowaniem nowych metod recyklingu, dostosowanych do procesów produkcji modułów. W pracy zaprezentowano stan wiedzy na temat opracowanych technologii recyklingu modułów, wykonanych z krystalicznego krzemu oraz modułów cienkowarstwowych. Przedstawiono wyniki badań własnych nad procesem delaminacji modułów oraz roztwarzania elementów ogniw wykonanych w obu technologiach. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań określono minimalną temperaturę, która powinna zostać zastosowana podczas dekompozycji materiału laminującego. U dowodniono, że folie wykonane przez różnych producentów ulegają procesom delaminacji w różnym stopniu, co może być spowodowane różnicami w stopniu usieciowana i stosunkowi polietylenu do polioctanu winylu. Przy wykorzystaniu metody trawienia sekwencyjnego podczas usuwania metalizacji można odzyskać nawet 1,6 kg srebra na 1 t połamanych mono- i polikrystalicznych ogniw krzemowych.
EN
At present we divide photovoltaic technologies into three generations. The first generation are monoand polycrystalline silicon solar cells (c-Si), the second one includes thin film technology both amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper-gallium-indium diselenide (CIGS), cadmium telluride (CdTe), or gallium arsenide (GaAs). The third generation are newest technologies such as: organic solar cells, cells sensitized with dyes or hybrid cells. It is assumed that the average lifespan of the module is about 17 years, which in addition with the growing interest in solar technology results in an increasing amount of electronic waste in the land fields. I t has been estimated that in 2026, the number of waste photovoltaic modules will reach 5,500,000 tons. These will include both residues from the production process, components damaged during usage and end of life solar modules. Advanced photovoltaic technologies lead to the research and development of new methods of recycling adapted to the production processes. The article presents the state of knowledge regarding recycling technologies for modules from crystalline silicon and thin films. The results of own research of the delamination process and the recovery of cells elements in both technologies are introduced. As a result of the tests, the minimum temperature which should be used during the decomposition of the laminating material was determined. I t has been proven that foil made by different manufacturers is processed in varying degrees. That might be caused by differences in the cross-link degree and the ratio of polyvinyl acetate. U se of the sequential etching method to remove metallization, provides a possibility to recover up to 1.6 kg of silver per 1t of broken mono- and polycrystalline silicon cells.
EN
The world economy needs new breakthrough in the technological and material efficiency and costs in the manufactured solar cells. The authors present new studies on triple junction photo voltaic structures using nano-technological solutions. The system of the amorphous a-Si:H sandwich with the scattered light particles, the plasmonic nano Si in the a-Si:H matrix structure and the silicon-germanium sandwich on the multi ZnO layer electrode- reflector was made and studied in detail.
PL
Określono możliwości badania cienkich warstw o grubości poniżej 1 mikrometra metodą mikroanalizy rentgenowskiej przy zastosowaniu metody korekcji opartej na dopasowaniu funkcji rozkładu wzbudzenia promieniowania φ(ρz) do danych doświadczalnych. Wykonano serię badań testowych z powierzchni warstw jednoskładnikowych: Au na podłożu Ni i Si o grubościach w przedziale 10–50 nanometrów oraz dwuskładnikowych: tlenek indu na podłożu Si i tlenek krzemu na podłożu Ti. Stwierdzono, że obliczenia zarówno grubości warstw w zakresie od kilku do kilkuset nanometrów, jak i składu chemicznego są poprawne. Badania nie wykazały wpływu rodzaju podłoża i napięcia przyspieszającego na poprawność wyników. Pokazano, że mapy rozkładu grubości bardzo dobrze ilustrują niejednorodności warstw. Stwierdzono, że zarówno mapowanie, jaki i obliczenia ilościowe są czułe na niewielkie różnice grubości rzędu 2–3 nm.
EN
One of the parameters of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding is a tool sleeve depth in the joined components. The value of the depth depends on inter alia joined sheets thicknesses, a tolerance with which the sheets were made and the other parameters of the RFSSW process. The aim of the work was to determine the impact of tool depth on the quality of the RFSSW joints. Joints made of an aluminum alloy 2024-T3 sheet having a thickness of 1.0 mm and an aluminum alloy D16UTW sheet having a thickness of 0.6 mm were analysed. The welding was performed on the side of the sheet made of aluminum alloy 2024-T3. Three tool depths without changing the other welding parameters were tested. The tool depths were following: 1.10 mm, 1.15 mm and 1.20 mm. For each variant 10 RFSSW welds were made. Eight of them were served to assess the load bearing capacity of the joints with consideration plastic strain analysis, one of them were for macrostructural assessment, and one of them were for a visual assessment.
EN
Effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of As30Te60Ga10 thin film was studied using various techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The DSC analysis revealed that the As30Te60Ga10 glass has a single glass transition and crystallization peak while XRD results confirmed that the as-prepared and annealed films have crystalline nature. The coexistence of the crystalline phases in the investigated films could be attributed to the formation of orthorhombic As, hexagonal Ga7Te10, and monoclinic As2Te3 phases. It was found that the average crystallite size and optical parameters of the studied films depend on the annealing temperature. For example, the optical band gap decreased from 1.54 eV to 1.11 eV as the annealing temperature increased from 300 K to 433 K.
19
Content available remote Optical properties of AlN layers obtained by magnetron sputtering
EN
The growth of AlN layers on glass substrates using magnetron sputtering method was performed and the grown layers were subjected to optical measurements. Transmission spectra of the layers grown at different content of N2 in the atmosphere were obtained. The transmission spectra as well as energy gap depended on N2 content. The annealing of the layers in air led to transmission changes and influenced energy gap and refractive index values.
20
Content available remote Influence of magnetron powering mode on various properties of TiO2 thin films
EN
In this paper, comparative studies on the structural, surface, optical, mechanical and corrosion properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by continuous and sequential magnetron sputtering processes were presented. In case of continuous process, magnetron was continuously supplied with voltage for 90 min. In turn, in sequential process, the voltage was supplied for 1 s alternately with 1 s break, therefore, the total time of the process was extended to 180 min. The TiO2 thin films were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate and the surface morphology was homogeneous. Structural analysis showed that there were no major differences in the microstructure between coatings deposited in continuous and sequential processes. Both films exhibited nanocrystalline anatase structure with crystallite sizes of ca. 21 nm. Deposited coatings had high transparency in the visible wavelength range. Significant differences were observed in porosity (lower for sequential process), scratch resistance (better for sequential process), mechanical performance, i.e. hardness:elastic modulus ratio (higher for sequential process) and corrosion resistance (better for sequential process).
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