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EN
Fabric quality control and defect detection are playing a crucial role in the textile industry with the development of high customer demand in the fashion market. This work presents fabric defect detection using a sensitive plant segmentation algorithm (SPSA) which, is developed with the sensitive behaviour of the sensitive plant biologically named “mimosa pudica”. This method consists of two stages: The first stage enhances the contrast of the defective fabric image and the second stage segments the fabric defects with the aid of the SPSA. The SPSA proposed was developed for defective pixel identification in non-uniform patterns of fabrics. In this paper, the SPSA was built through checking with devised conditions, correlation and error probability. Every pixel was checked with the algorithm developed to be marked either a defective or non-defective pixel. The SPSA proposed was tested on different types of fabric defect databases, showing a much improved performance over existing methods.
PL
Wraz z rozwojem zapotrzebowania klientów na rynku mody kontrola jakości tkanin i wykrywanie defektów odgrywa kluczową rolę w przemyśle tekstylnym. W pracy przedstawiono wykrywanie defektów tkanin przy użyciu czułego algorytmu segmentacji roślin (SPSA), który został opracowany na podstawie rośliny o nazwie biologicznej „mimosa pudica”. Ta metoda składa się z dwóch etapów. Pierwszy etap to wzmocnienie kontrastu wadliwego obrazu tkaniny, a drugi etap segmentował defekty tkaniny za pomocą SPSA. Proponowana metoda z użyciem SPSA została opracowana do identyfikacji wadliwych pikseli w niejednorodnych wzorach tkanin. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki SPSA, a także dokonano ich weryfikacji pod kątem korelacji i prawdopodobieństwa błędu. Każdy piksel został sprawdzony za pomocą opracowanego algorytmu, tak aby został zaznaczony piksel wadliwy lub nieuszkodzony. Proponowany algorytm SPSA został przetestowany na różnych typach baz danych defektów tkanin i wykazał niezwykłą wydajność w stosunku do istniejących metod.
EN
To obtain anti-corrosive thermo-diffusion zinc coatings, the authors use highly effective zinc saturating mixtures. This technology makes it possible to obtain coatings with a high zinc content in the δ-phase as well as a zinc-rich phase of FeZn13 (ζ-phase) on the coating surface. As a result of long-term studies into the corrosion properties of thermo-diffusion zinc (TDZ) coatings conducted by the authors, a number of features of their corrosive behavior have been established. The corrosion rate of those coatings in desalted and chloride-containing media is lower than those of galvanic or hot-dip zinc coatings. The corrosion behavior depends on the content of zinc on the surface and the texture features of the coating. The results showed that on the surface of thermo-diffusion coatings in the corrosion on media containing chloride ions, zinc hydroxychloride (simonkolleite - Zn5Cl2[OH]8[H2O]) has been formed. Compared to coatings obtained by other methods, the rate of simonkolleite formation was higher on TDZ coatings, which might have a positive effect on their resistance in aggressive atmospheres.
EN
In this article, an effort has been made to investigate the evolution of microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of AA 7075 alloy during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) by route BC at room temperature at a pressing speed of 1 mm/min. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of rod-like (MgZn2) precipitates in annealed conditions which were broken after two ECAP passes along with remarkable grain refinement due to high imposed strain after the second pass. After two consecutive ECAP passes, hardness, yield strength, and tensile strength of the alloy increased significantly in comparison to initial annealed condition. The fraction of high angle boundaries (HABs) and grain misorientation angle significantly increased after ECAP passes compared to the initial condition. Texture measurements were performed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), on TD plane (parallel to extrusion direction). Texture results revealed the dominance of Cθ and A∗2θ components after the first pass and the presence of strong Bθ, B¯θ and A¯θ components along with weaker A∗2θ,Cθ components after the second pass. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the average dimple size was gradually reduced with increasing the ECAP passes.
4
Content available remote Microstructural characterization of ULC steel
EN
In the present study, microstructure of the ULC steel was investigated by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The pure ferrite phase consisting of various crystalline orientations, e.g. (110) and (200) etc., existed in the ULC steel. Ultra-fine grains of ferrite were observed in the ND-TD cross-section (⊥ RD), meanwhile, typical lamina were seen in the ND-RD cross-section (// RD) of the steel sheet. Grain size of the annealed steel was observed to be coarser and equiaxed in all direction. According the EBSD results, intensities of the beneficial texture {111}<001> increased in the annealed steel, but weakened in the cross-section that was parallel to rolling direction. Ratio of low-angle grain boundaries (1°< LAGBs < 15°) in the annealed steel was estimated as the higher value (93.1 %) than that in the cold-rolled steel (69.1 %).
EN
The aim of study was to determine the influence of sonication and freezing on the kinetic of the microwave-vacuum drying, energy consumption and physical properties of whole cranberries as well as evaluate the applicability of sonication instead of freezing in order to change their physical properties and the drying kinetic of whole cranberries. Microwave-vacuum drying of whole cranberries with/without initial treatments took from 12 ± 1 to 14.5 ± 0.5 minutes. All of treatments did not significantly shorten the drying time of cranberries. However, they increased SMER values even by 31%. Despite of cryogenic freezing, all of treatments significantly increased the values of Dew. Sonication combined with drying allowed to obtain dried berries characterized by the lowest cohesiveness (0.19±0.02), springiness (0.62±0.02) and chewiness (3.4±0.8 N), while cryogenic freezing combined with drying allowed to obtain dried fruits characterized by highest springiness (0.75±0.03) and low chewiness (3.3±0.5 N). The highest lightness (32.2±0.7), redness (32.6±0.8), and yellowness (11.1±0.7) were found for fruits subjected to initial convective freezing before drying. The efficiency of sonication in color change was comparable to cryogenic freezing and much lower than convective freezing. All of initial treatments increased such thermal properties of dried cranberries as thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena właściwości fizykochemicznych sosów serowych otrzymanych na bazie kazeiny kwasowej i rafinowanego oleju rzepakowego z dodatkiem koncentratu białek serwatkowych (WPC80) w ilości 2-8%. Zastosowanie różnej ilości dodatku koncentratu białek serwatkowych (WPC80) miało wpływ na właściwości fizykochemiczne otrzymanych sosów serowych. Wraz ze zwiększaniem zawartości białka serwatkowego WPC80 obserwowano wzrost twardości i przylegalności badanych sosów. Najwyższą spójność zauważono w sosie z dodatkiem 6% WPC80, sprężystości zaś w sosie z dodatkiem 4% WPC80. Wraz ze wzrostem ilości dodatku białka serwatkowego do produktu zwiększeniu ulegała lepkość sosów serowych. Ponadto wszystkie sosy charakteryzowały się wysoką sprężystością. Intensywność kolorów ocenianych produktów była istotnie różna (p<0,05), natomiast barwę określono jako kremową. Gęstość otrzymanych sosów nie charakteryzowała się równomiernym wzrostem względem ilości dodawanego białka serwatkowego. Aktywność wody utrzymywała się na podobnym poziomie.
EN
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties cheese sauces obtained on basis of acid casein and rapeseed oil with addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC80) in an amount between 2-8%. The use of various concentrations of whey protein concentrate (WPC80) had an impact on the physicochemical properties of obtained cheese sauces. As the WPC80 whey protein content was increased, there was also observed an increase in hardness and adhesiveness of tested sauces. The highest increase in cohesiveness was noticed in the sauce with the addition of 6% WPC80, and the springiness in sauce with the addition of 4% WPC80. With the increasing amount of whey protein added to the product, apparent viscosity of cheese sauces increased. In addition, all cheese sauces were characterized by high springiness. The color intensity of the evaluated sauces was significantly different (p<0.05) and it could be described as creamy. The density of the tested product was not characterized by even increase in the amount of added whey protein, while the water activity remained at a similar level.
7
Content available remote Methods for texture improvement in electrical steels
EN
Aiming the development of high efficiency electric motors for electric vehicles, there is strong pressure for improvement of the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets. One of the clearest possibilities is crystallographic texture enhancement. In this review, diverse methods for texture improvement are presented and discussed. All of them have the drawback of increasing the cost of material processing.
PL
Materiały magnetyczne używane w pojazdach elektrycznych powinny mieć bardzo dobre właściwości. Jedną z metod ich poprawy jest polepszenie ich tekstury. W artykule przedtawiono metody poprawy tekstury oraz analizowano zalety iwady tych metod, włącznie z kosztami produkcji.
EN
Appropriate skid resistance properties of airfield pavements are extremely important in terms of the safety of air operations. Their evaluation is not limited to the measurements of the coefficient of friction, which determines the roughness of a pavement, but also involves measuring the depth of the pavement texture (micro- and macrotexture), which is a component of the tire-pavement contact surface friction characteristics. It should be stressed that the current aviation documents do not contain a strict interconnection between the texture depth parameter and airfield pavement coefficient of friction criteria. Based on the result population gathered in the course of the field tests, the authors plan to determine the impact of texture on the roughness of airfield pavements.
PL
Odpowiednie właściwości przeciwpoślizgowe nawierzchni lotniskowych są niezwykle istotne w aspekcie bezpieczeństwa wykonywania operacji lotniczych. Ich ocena nie ogranicza się tylko do pomiarów współczynnika tarcia określającego stan szorstkości nawierzchni, ale obejmuje również pomiary głębokości tekstury nawierzchni (mikrotekstura i makrotekstura), czyli elementu składowego charakterystyki tarcia powierzchni styku opona/nawierzchnia. Należy podkreślić, iż w chwili obecnej w dokumentach lotniczych nie ma ścisłego powiązania kryteriów dla parametru głębokości tekstury i parametru współczynnika tarcia nawierzchni lotniskowych. Na podstawie zgromadzonej populacji wyników podczas badań terenowych, autorzy chcą określić wpływ tekstury na szorstkość nawierzchni lotniskowych.
EN
Knowing how to identify terrain types is especially important in the autonomous navigation, mapping, decision making and emergency landings areas. For example, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can use it to find a suitable landing position or to cooperate with other robots to navigate across an unknown region. Previous works on terrain classification from RGB images taken onboard of UAVs shown that only static pixel-based features were tested with a considerable classification error. This paper presents a computer vision algorithm capable of identifying the terrain from RGB images with improved accuracy. The algorithm complement the static image features and dynamic texture patterns produced by UAVs rotors downwash effect (visible at lower altitudes) and machine learning methods to classify the underlying terrain. The system is validated using videos acquired onboard of a UAV with a RGB camera.
EN
The aim of the paper is the residual stress analysis of AlSi10Mg material fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The SLM technique allows to product of complex geometries based on three-dimensional model, in which stiffness and porosity can be precisely designed for specific uses. As the studied material, there were chosen solid samples built in two different directions: parallel (P-L) and perpendicular (P-R) to the tested surface and cellular lattice built in perpendicular direction, as well. In the paper, for the complex characterization of obtained materials, the phase analysis, residual stress and texture studies were performed. The classical non-destructive sin2ψ method was used to measure the residual stress measurements. The final products, both solid sample and cellular lattice, have a homogeneous phase composition and consist of solid solution Al(Si) (Fm-3m) type, Si (Fd-3m) and Mg2 Si (Pnma). The obtained values of the crystallite size are in a range of 1000 Å for Al(Si), 130-180 Å for Si phase. For Mg2 Si phase, the crystallite sizes depend on sintering process, they are 800 Å for solid samples and 107 Å for cellular lattice. The residual stress results have the compressive character and they are in a range from –5 to –15 MPa.
EN
Microstructure and texture of the CuCr0.6 alloy processed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) at room temperature were investigated. The RCMR processing was applied for the samples in different initial conditions in the solid solution followed by quenching into iced water at 1000°C for 3 h and in aging treatment conditions performed at 500°C for 2 h and at 700°C for 24 h. Application of the solution and aging processes prior to RCMR deformation results in the partial dissolution of Cr particles into the Cu matrix and precipitation of the second phase particles. RCMR processing with value of the total effective strain (εft) of 5 was introduced to the material. It was found that the RCMR method is effective in texture weakening. The obtained results revealed that there is a large similarity in texture orientations after RCMR processing independently of heat treatment conditions. Cyclic character of deformation leads to an incomplete transition of LAB to HAB.
EN
In the current research the hydrostatic extrusion (as one of the most common method of grain refinement) of the commercial 1.4462 duplex stainless steel was carried out using several reduction stages leading to a cumulative deformation strain ɛ = 1.4, and then ɛ = 3.8. The extrusion process has led to a change of microstructure and texture of the investigated material as was expected. Moreover, these changes were accompanied by improvements in mechanical properties measured by the nanohardness. The aim of this research was the characterization of the texture, residual stress and mechanical properties after subsequent stages of deformation.
EN
People with visual impairments make up a very large part of society. Elderly people, as well as children and young people, are affected by sight impairments that sometimes continue until they lose their sight. These people should be facilitated as to their functioning in the environment through appropriate space design. It is reasonable and advisable to adapt the living quarters in particular to meet their needs. In this study, the authors investigated the preferences for colours and textures in living space, with particular emphasis on the kitchen.
EN
The paper presents research and analysis of PTFE wear during cooperation with steel. The surface of steel elements was subjected to laser texture. Three different patterns of texture were applied to the surface of steel elements. For comparative purposes, an element without a structure was also tested. The experiment was carried out in a roller-plate test on the author’s research stand. As part of the conducted tests, the linear wear of PTFE plates was determined, and the values of the kinetic and static friction coefficients of the tested friction pairs were determined. Steel friction surfaces were also subjected to SEM microscopic observation. The obtained results showed an apparent effect of laser texture on changes in friction and wear of PTFE. This influence is different and depends on the pattern of the texture.
PL
Przedstawiono badania i analizę zużycia PTFE podczas współpracy ze stalą. Powierzchnię elementów stalowych poddano teksturowaniu laserowemu. Na powierzchnię elementów stalowych naniesione zostały 3 różne wzory struktur. W celach porównawczych badaniom poddano również element bez naniesionej struktury. Badania przeprowadzono w skojarzeniu walec–płytka na autorskim stanowisku badawczym. W ramach przeprowadzonych badań wyznaczone zostało zużycie liniowe płytek PTFE oraz określone zostały wartości współczynnika tarcia kinetycznego i statycznego badanych par trących. Stalowe powierzchni trące poddane zostały również badaniom mikroskopowym SEM. Uzyskane wyniki wykazały wyraźny wpływ teksturowania laserowego na zmiany oporów ruchu oraz zużycie PTFE. Wpływ ten jest różny i zależny od wzoru zastosowanej struktury.
PL
W artykule poddano ocenie teksturę i jednorodność właściwości mechanicznych w procesie wyciskania na gorąco kształtowników ze stopu aluminium w gatunku EN AW-5019. Figury biegunowe typu (111), (200), (220) przedstawiono dla przekrojów poprzecznych profili wyciskanych o różnym kształcie przekroju poprzecznego. W celu wyznaczenia anizotropii właściwości mechanicznych, próbki wycięte pod różnym kątem w stosunku do kierunku wyciskania (0, 45 i 90°) poddano statycznej próbie rozciągania. Stwierdzono występowanie różnych charakterów tekstur, w tym tekstury włóknistej, w zależności od kształtu wyciskanego profilu. Najwyższą wytrzymałość na rozciąganie Rm oraz najwyższe wydłużenie procentowe A, odnotowano dla próbek zorientowanych równolegle do kierunku wyciskania.
EN
The paper evaluated the texture and homogeneity of mechanical properties in the hot extrusion process of sections from EN AW-5019 aluminum alloy. Polar figures of type (111), (200), (220) were presented transverse cross sections in extruded profiles of different shapes. In order to determine the anisotropy of the mechanical properties, the samples cut at different angles to the extrusion direction (0, 45 and 90°) were subjected to a static tensile test. Various texture characteristics were found, including fibrous texture, depending on the shape of the extruded profile. The highest tensile strength Rm, and the highest percentage elongation A, were determined for samples oriented parallel to the extrusion direction.
EN
The paper presents studies of different ways of finishing the top surface of concrete pavements. The authors carried out investigations on selected concrete pavement stretches of motorways and expressways in Poland and analysed the variation in roughness and texture depending on the type of pavement structure and base, the temperature, the type of surface finish and the in-service time. It has been found that the construction technology and the type of pavement structure have a bearing on roughness while the top surface finish technology has an effect on texture. The highest pavement smoothness values were measured on the jointless continuously reinforced pavements. It is shown that the texture index considerably depends on the pavement service time. No effect of temperature on the investigated parameters was observed.
PL
W pracy zamieszczono studia nad różnymi sposobami wykończenia górnych warstw powierzchniowych na- wierzchni betonowych. Badania własne na wybranych odcinkach dróg autostradowych i ekspresowych w Polsce o nawierzchni betonowej pozwoliły przeanalizować zmienność równości i tekstury w zależności od typów konstrukcji, podbudów, temperatury, sposobów wykończenia oraz okresów eksploatacji. Wykazano, że na zmianę równości wpływa technologia budowy oraz typ konstrukcji, a na zmianę tekstury technologia wykończenia górnej powierzchni. Największe wartości równości uzyskano dla nawierzchni bezdylatacyjnych o ciągłym zbrojeniu. Wykazano, że wskaźnik tekstury znacznie zależy od okresu eksploatacji nawierzchni. Nie stwierdzono wpływu temperatury na badane parametry.
PL
W publikacji przeprowadzono studia nad różnymi technologiami wykończenia górnych warstw powierzchni nawierzchni betonowych. Analizy wykonano na podstawie badań własnych na wybranych odcinkach dróg autostradowych i ekspresowych w Polsce o nawierzchni betonowej. Na tej podstawie ustalono zmienność równości i tekstury w zależności od różnych typów konstrukcji, sposobów wykończenia oraz okresów eksploatacji. Stwierdzono, że na zmianę równości istotnie wpływa technologia budowy oraz typ konstrukcji, a na zmianę tekstury technologia wykończenia górnej powierzchni. Dla nawierzchni bezdylatacyjnych o ciągłym zbrojeniu uzyskano najlepszą równość. Wykazano, że wskaźnik tekstury jest mocno zależny od okresu eksploatacji nawierzchni. Dodatkowo przeprowadzono ocenę wpływu równości i tekstury na poziom hałasu w kabinie pojazdu.
EN
We studied various technologies of finishing the upper layers of the concrete pavements.The analyses were made on the basis of own research on selected sections of motorway and express roads with a concrete surface in Poland. On this basis, the variability of equality and texture was determined depending on different types of structures, finishing methods and operational periods. It was found that the change of construction technology and the type of construction signifkantly influence the change of equality, while the technology of finishing the upper surface influences the texture. The best equality was obtained for the nondilatation pavements with continuous reinforcement. It was shown that the texture indicator is strongly dependent on the pavement exploitation. In addition, an assessment of the impact of equality and texture on the noise level in the vehicle's cabin was carried out.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki oceny tekstury pięciu rodzajów pieczywa przeprowadzonej w różnych okresach od wypieku. Do badań wykorzystano własnoręcznie wypieczone bochenki: orkiszowy, żytni, owsiany, pszenny pełnoziarnisty i kukurydziany. Pomiaru twardości dokonywano w dzień, dwa dni i siedem dni od wypieku. Do przeprowadzenia analizy tekstury skorzystano z instrumentalnego testu TPA, wykonanego z użyciem Analizatora CT3. Dla uzyskanych wyników twardości obliczono podstawowe statystyki oraz dokonano analizy porównawczej w oparciu o test Fishera. Wyniki analizy wykazały statystycznie istotną różnicę twardości różnych rodzajów pieczywa dla każdego przypadku. Największe zróżnicowanie zaobserwowano dla wypieku świeżego i 2 dni po wypieku, natomiast najmniejsze dla pieczywa siedmiodniowego. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują na wpływ czasu przechowywania na wzrost twardości pieczywa.
EN
Thje article presents the results of texture evaluation of five types of bread made in different periods from baking. The research involved the use of self-baked loaves: spelled, rye, oat, wheat whole grain and corn. Hardness measurements were made day, two days and seven days after baking. An instrumental TPA test was used to analyze the texture, which was made using the CT3 Analyzer. For the gotten results, basic statistics and comparative analysis based on the Fisher test were calculated. The results of the analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the hardness of different types of bread for each case. The greatest variation was observed for fresh baking and 2 days after baking, while the smallest for seven-day bread. The obtained results indicate the influence of storage time on the increase of hardness of bread.
EN
This paper presents the results of analysis of commercial CuSn6 alloy in form of strips at semi-hard state, plastically deformed in the process of repetitive corrugation. The influence of process parameters on the value of residual stresses and texture of examined material was investigated. As a result of residual stress analysis, the presence of compressive stresses for all analysed samples, regardless of the method of plastic working and direction of measurement, was confirmed. The distribution and the value of the stresses depend on the applied deformation process. Texture analysis shows that in the classically rolled strip, in addition to the Brass {110}<112> component, also the Goss {110}<001> and Copper {112}<111> components are present, and their contribution diminishes with the increase in the number of cycles of repetitive corrugation process. After intense plastic deformation the strip is characterised by two distinct texture components, {110}<112> and {110}<111>.
EN
The combined effect of sulfur (S) and acid soluble aluminum (Als ) content on precipitates and microstructures in grain-oriented silicon steel were investigated. The results show that there are dominant AlN and a little amount of MnS-AlN composite in annealed hot-rolled band, and the amount of precipitates increases distinctly with increasing Als content, while S content plays a negligible role. The inhibitors that precipitate during hot band annealing can restrain the grain growth during hot band annealing and primary annealing, and the smaller grains of annealed hot-rolled band can contribute to the formation of {111} <112> texture during primary annealing. Lower S content is conducive to the formation of {111} <112> texture during primary annealing by promoting the formation of Goss texture during hot rolling.
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