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EN
In the present paper, computed tomography (CT) inspection is shown. The CT inspection method allowed to rate the density of defects hidden inside a material, which has a significant role in the live material. The method allows to evaluate the reliability of tensile test’s results. In our analysis, the position of crack propagation was determined by CT, and the tensile test was performed to check the accuracy of the nondestructive method. The tensile tests were performed on Inconel 738LC [1] samples.
EN
Additive manufacturing has recently expanded its potential with the development of selective laser melting (SLM) of metallic powders. This study investigates the relation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy produced by SLM followed by a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment. HIP treatment minimizes the detrimental influence of material defects. Tensile specimens produced with reference to specific building axes were prepared using a Renishaw A250 system. It has been found that the tensile strength and elongation depend on specimen building direction. Microstructural and textural characterizations were carried out to identify the source of differences.
EN
The paper is focused on study of plasticity and formability of dual phase steel DP 450, which is used in automotive industry. The paper shows results from tensile test for plasticity determination and also results of technological tests for complex evaluation of formability. These consisted from Erichsen cup test, Fukui test and Schmidt test. The paper shows also results of microhardness measurement.
PL
Artykuł koncentruje się na badaniu plastyczności i odkształcalności stali dwufazowej DP 450, która jest stosowana w przemyśle motoryzacyjnym. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki prób rozciągania dla określenia plastyczności, a także wyniki testów technologicznych dla kompleksowej oceny odkształcalności. Składały się one z testu pucharowego Erichsena, testu Fukui i testu Schmidta. W pracy przedstawiono również wyniki pomiaru mikrotwardości.
EN
The presented research deals with the development of the numerical model for resins used for stereolithography (SLA) rapid prototyping. SLA is an additive method of production of models, prototypes, elements or parts of constructions with the use of 3D printing that covers photochemical processes by which light causes chemical monomers to link together to form polymers. Such method is very useful in design visualization, but also can be applied in numerical modelling for the purpose of validation and verifi-cation. In this application the resin strength parameters must be described and on the base of them the numerical material model is developed and validated. Such a study for SLA resins was presented in the paper.
EN
The aim of the study was the estimation of the ability of hyperelastic material models for the fitting of experimental data obtained in the tensile testing of silicone liners used in lower-limb prosthetics. Three groups of liners were analysed: I – silicone liner, II – part of the liner in which the silicone has a fabric reinforcement, III – silicone liner with an outer covering material. Both longitudinal and circumferential samples were taken. The Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden parameters of constitutive models of hyperelastic materials were calculated.
PL
Celem badań była ocena przydatności modeli materiałów hipersprężystych do dopasowania danych doświadczalnych uzyskanych w próbie rozciągania dla silikonowych linerów ortopedycznych stosowanych w protezach dolnych. Przeanalizowano trzy grupy: I – liner silikonowy, II – liner silikonowy z wewnętrznym wzmocnieniem, III – liner silikonowy z zewnętrznym wzmocnieniem. Wyróżniono dwa kierunki pobrania próbek: podłużny i obwodowy. Zidentyfikowano parametry określonych funkcji modeli konstytutywnych materiałów hipersprężystych: Neo-Hookean’a, Mooney-Rivlin’a i Ogden’a.
PL
Duże zapotrzebowanie na odkuwki w postaci pierścieni dla różnych gałęzi przemysłu wymaga stosowania nowoczesnych stali martenzytycznych o właściwościach mechanicznych dostosowanych do konkretnego zastosowania. Aby sprostać wymaganiom rynku, powstała koncepcja projektu niskoodpadowej technologii kształtowania wielkogabarytowych pierścieni ze stali X20Cr13 i X10CrMoVNb9-1 o profilowanych pobocznicach. Liderem projektu jest firma Zarmen FPA. Jednym z etapów tego projektu jest opracowanie technologii obróbki cieplnej pierścieni. Wykonano badania mikrostruktury i właściwości mechanicznych (wg norm PN-EN ISO 6892-1:2016-09, PN-EN ISO 148-1:2017-02 i PN-EN ISO 6507-1:2007) na próbkach pobranych z odkuwek kutych swobodnie przy temperaturze 1110±20°C z redukcją wysokości materiału wsadowego 50% oraz obrobionych cieplnie w 2 wariantach: hartowanie stali X20Cr13 z temperatury 1020±10°C w oleju oraz odpuszczanie przy temperaturze 600°C i 700°C, hartowanie stali X10CrMoVNb9-1 z temperatury 1050±10°C w oleju oraz odpuszczanie przy temperaturze 650°C i 700°C. Materiałem wsadowym były wałki ϕ40x60 mm. Wykonano też badania porównawcze na próbkach pobranych z wałków w stanie dostawy hutniczej i poddanych obróbce cieplnej w tych samych warunkach co odkuwki. Wskaźniki Rp0,2 i Rm, zgodne z założeniami, otrzymano dla obu stali po odpuszczaniu próbek pobranych z odkuwek przy temperaturze 700°C, wynoszące odpowiednio: 660 MPa i 844 MPa dla stali X20Cr13 oraz 764 MPa i 893 MPa dla stali X10CrMoVNb9-1. Wydłużenie próbek z obu stali wyniosło 21%, a praca łamania KV2: 25 J dla stali X20Cr13 i 38 J dla stali X10CrMoVNb9-1. Planowana jest weryfikacja właściwości mechanicznych uzyskanych na próbkach pobranych z kutych wałków oraz z eksperymentalnie walcowanych pierścieni.
EN
The large demand for forgings in the form of rings for various branches of industry requires the application of modern martensitic steels with mechanical properties adapted to the specific application. To meet the requirements of the market, the first concept of low-waste forming technology for large-size rings made of X20Cr13 and X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel, with profiled side surfaces, was created. The leader of the project is Zarmen FPA. One of the stages of this project is the development of ring heat treatment technology. Tests of microstructure and mechanical properties (according to standards PN-EN ISO 68921:2016-09, PN-EN ISO 148-1:2017-02 and PN-EN ISO 6507-1:2007) were performed on samples collected from flat-die forgings at temperature 1110±20°C with 50% height reduction of the stock material and heat treatment in 2 variants: hardening of X20Cr13 steel from temperature 1020±10°C in oil and tempering at temperature 600°C and 700°C, hardening of X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel from temperature 1050±10°C in oil and tempering at temperature 650°C and 700°C. The stock material was ϕ40x60 mm shafts. Comparative tests were also performed on samples collected from shafts in the state as delivered from the mill and subjected to heat treatment under the same conditions as forgings. Indicators Rp0.2 and Rm, according to assumptions, were obtained for both steels after tempering of samples collected from forgings at temperature 700°C, and were equal to, respectively: 660 MPa and 844 MPa for X20Cr13 steel and 764 MPa and 893 MPa for X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel. Elongation of samples for both steels was 21%, and energy absorbed during fracture KV2: 25 J for X20Cr13 steel and 38 J for X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel. It is planned to verify mechanical properties obtained in samples collected from forged shafts and from experimentally rolled rings.
EN
3D polymer-based printers have become easily accessible to the public. Usually, the technology used by these 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). The majority of these 3D printers mainly use acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) to fabricate 3D objects. In order for the printed parts to be useful for specific applications, the mechanical properties of the printed parts must be known. The aim of this study is to determine the tensile strength and elastic modulus of printed materials in polylactic acid (PLA) according to three important printing parameters such as deposition angle, extruder temperature and printing speed. The central composite design (CCD) was used to reduce the number of tensile test experiments. The obtained results show that the mechanical properties of printed parts depend on printing parameters. Empirical models relating response and process parameters are developed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the validity of models relating response and printing parameters. The optimal printing parameters are determined for the desired mechanical properties.
EN
Glass fibre reinforced composites are used in many branches of industry. Polyester-glass laminates serve as structural material in shipbuilding (e.g. hulls of units, superstructures), in railways, automotive (e.g. elements of car bodies and interior fittings, roofs of wagons, cisterns) or aviation (e.g. aircraft fuselages, fuel tanks, completion beaks and ballasts). Factors affecting the increase of their use include low specific gravity, optimal strength properties, corrosion resistance. This is associated with a large amount of post-production and post-use waste. The recycling problem of these materials remains unresolved. The article presents the technology of processing polyester-glass waste in order to obtain a recycle with a specific granulation. The selected technology for the production of layered composites with reinforcement in the form of recycle is described. For testing, granulation was selected for 1.2 and 3 mm, as well as content: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Using the water-cutting method, samples were prepared according to the standard static tensile test for plastics. The tests were carried out using a universal testing machine as well as an extensometer for samples with granulation of 1.2 mm and 3 mm, as well as the selected recycled percentage. Obtained results of the research indicated that granulation as well as content affects the strength properties of composites. As the granulation increases, at the same content, the material gains less deformation. The increase in the amount of the recycle reduces the strength properties of the material, and also due to the decrease in the deformation value - the material becomes brittle.
EN
Composites are materials used for various types of constructions in the automotive industry, aviation, and shipbuilding. Due to the wide use of these materials, there is a problem with their recycling. Such material requires appropriate processing technology, which has been developed to obtain a recyclate with a specific granulation. The use of hand laminating technology made composites with the addition of polyester and glass recyclate with granulation of 1.2, as well as content: 0%, 20%, 30%. These types of materials are exposed to various types of atmospheric factors that affect their durability. Aging is defined as changes in the composite when exposed to atmospheric conditions, such as sunlight, temperature, thermal cycles, water in various forms and wind. This article uses recycled polyester and glass composites to investigate the effect of aging in seawater on their strength properties. These tests can be used to pre-assess the applicability of newly developed materials as construction or protective coatings. They were carried out on a specially prepared station for accelerated tests, with elevated temperature (35ºCC), as well as brine spray imitating sea atmosphere. The method is used to accelerate the aging processes occurring in composite materials. Samples were subjected to cycles of 5, 30 and 60 days respectively. Samples were weighed and measured before and after each cycle. In order to investigate the effect of aging on strength properties, the composites underwent a static tensile test in accordance with the standard for plastics. Studies have shown that as a result of the aging process, the strength properties decrease slightly, which affects the favourable assessment of these materials as constructional.
EN
This paper focused on the effect of pure torsion deformation and various torsion pitches on the mechanical properties of the commercial pure Al wires which has not been examined so far. The initial wires with diameter of 4 mm have been torsion deformed to different pitch length (PL). In order to investigate the effect of gradient microstructure caused by torsion deformation, three different pitch length of 15 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm are considered. The results revealed that the level of grain refinement is correlated with the amount of induced plastic shear strain by torsion deformation. For the wire with pitch length of 15 mm, the grain sizes decreased to about 106 μm and 47 μm in the wire center and edge from the initial size of about 150 μm of the annealed wire. The micro-hardness measurement results show a gradient distribution of hardness from the wire center to the wire surface that confirmed the increasing trend of plastic shear strain obtained by FE simulations. The hardness of annealed sample (35 HV) is increased up to 73 HV at the wire surface for the smallest pitch length. The yield and ultimate tensile strength of the torsion deformed wires are also increased up to about 85 MPa and 152 MPa from the initial values of 38 MPa and 103 MPa of the annealed one respectively while the maximum elongation reduced significantly.
EN
This work is focused on the effect of rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) on microstructure, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of CuCr0.6 and CuFe2 alloys in states after applying different heat treatments. The mechanical properties were determined by using MST QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation (DIC). Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used for microstructural characterization. The RCMR processed alloys shows high mechanical strength (UTS:539 MPa for CuCr0.6 alloy and UTS:393 MPa for CuFe2 alloy) attributed to the high density of coherent precipitates (after aging at 500 °C/2 h) and ultrafine grained structure. Plastically properties as uniform elongation (Agt) was about (∼1%) for both alloys after RCMR deformation. The RCMR processing induces a significant reduction of the electrical conductivity for samples, which were quenched before deformation, but for samples which were subjected to aging before deformation, the electrical conductivity was restored thanks to precipitation process.
EN
Nowadays, there are several reasons for the utilization of the sheets made of aluminum in the car body production. Besides decreasing the car body weight, there is a need to reduce fuel consumption of the vehicle as well as the environmental impact by lower production of emissions. Moreover, such reasons are mutually dependent or influence each other. The application of the aluminum sheets in hybrid car body production resulted in the need for innovative joining techniques, which could make it possible to successfully join sheets from aluminum alloys. Mechanical clinching is one of the new or innovative joining techniques, which belongs to cold-forming joining process, which makes it possible to join different kinds and thicknesses of sheets. Individual materials and thicknesses can be combined. The mechanically clinched joints are durable, and the joining process duration is very fast (duration of 1s) and does not have a distinctive impact on the environment; a protective layer of the sheets remains intact. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the properties of hybrid joints that were prepared by the single stroke clinching process with a rigid die. The hot-dip galvanized steel sheets DC06 and H220PD combined with the sheets from aluminum alloys EN AW 5754 (having different values of the hardness – H11, H22, and H24) and EN AW 6082 were used for joining. The results from experiments confirmed the mechanical clinching is the suitable technique for joining such combination of sheets. However, some considerations, such as the arrangement of the sheets about the punch and die, must be regarded.
EN
The paper presents the analysis of fatigue test results of the 30CrNiMo8. It presents the models about tensile and bending. The research was carried out using the fatigue characteristics of both Monson-Coffin-Basquin. The results are presented in graphical form, which allows comparison of materials in terms of stress and strain.
PL
Artykuł zawiera wyniki badań nowego gatunku wysokowytrzymałej stali na bazie układu Fe-0,3%C-1,7%Mn-3%Al z dodatkami Cu i / lub Nb, o granicy plastyczności w temperaturze otoczenia minimum 500 MPa, charakteryzującego się dwufazową strukturą γ + α/δ w temperaturze walcowania na gorąco i wynikającą z tego podatnością do tworzenia mikropasmowości strukturalnej. Głównym celem badań nowego gatunku stali było ustalenie odporności mechanicznej na oddziaływanie cieplne w warunkach pożaru w zakresie temperatury 400÷600ºC. Odporność stali na oddziaływanie cieplne oceniono na podstawie wyrażonego w procentach stosunku wartości granicy plastyczności w podwyższonej temperaturze do wartości granicy plastyczności w temperaturze otoczenia: (Re(ET)/Re(RT))·100%. Wyniki badań wykazały, że nowa stal o granicy plastyczności w temperaturze otoczenia powyżej 500 MPa, charakteryzuje się istotnie większą odpornością na krótkotrwałe (standardowo 20 minut) oddziaływanie cieplne w wysokiej temperaturze do 600ºC mierzone współczynnikiem (Re(ET)/Re(RT))·100%, niż stosowane obecnie stale konstrukcyjne nie zawierające Mo w ilości minimum 0,5%.
EN
The paper contains results of investigation of a new high strength steel grade based on a Fe-0.3%C-1.7%Mn-3%Al system with additions of Cu and / or Nb, with yield strength at ambient temperature minimum 500 MPa, showing a two-phase γ + α/δ structure at temperature of hot rolling and resulting from it ability to form structural microbanding. Main goal of the investigation of the new steel grade was to determine the mechanical resistance to heat impact under fire conditions at temperature range of 400÷600ºC. The resistance to influence of heat was quantified using the percentage ratio of yield strength value at elevated temperature to yield strength value at ambient temperature: (Re(ET)/Re(RT))·100%. Results of the research showed that the new steel with a yield strength at ambient temperature above 500 MPa has considerably higher resistance to a short time (typically 20 minutes) heat impact at high temperature till 600ºC, expressed by coefficient (Re(ET)/Re(RT))·100%, than currently used structural steels without addition of Mo in amount of minimum 0.5%.
PL
Przeprowadzono porównanie wyników modelowania właściwości hipersprężystych materiału silikonowego wykorzystywanego na linery ortopedyczne. Próbki do badań wycięto z obszaru bliższego (mezjalny) gotowego lineru ortopedycznego. Do dopasowania danych doświadczalnych uzyskanych w jednoosiowej statycznej próbie rozciągania wykorzystano hipersprężyste modele materiałowe neo-Hooke’a, Mooney-Rivlina, Ogdena, Martinsa, VerondaWestmanna oraz Yeoha. Wykonano analizę współczynników korelacji. Opisano wpływ prędkości rozciągania (5 i 30 mm/min) na wartości stałych modelowych.
EN
Comparison of modeling results of hyperelastic properties of silicone material used for orthopedic liners was carried out. The test specimens were cut from the proximal (upper) area of silicone liner. The neo-Hookean, MooneyRivlin, Ogden, Martins, Veronda-Westmann and Yeoh material models were used to match experimental data obtained in uniaxial static tensile test. Analysis of correlation coefficients was performed. The effect of deformation velocity (5 and 30 mm/min) on model constants was described.
EN
The two-component melt-spun (TCMS) Fe71.25Si9.5B14.25In5 alloy was produced from Fe75Si10B15 and Fe67.5Si9B13.5In10 alloys. The microstructure of the TCMS alloy was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A tensile test of the alloy resulted in a tensile strength of Rm = 1040 MPa, yield strength Re= 919 MPa, total plastic elongation ɛtot = 3.29%, and traces of plastic deformation on the surface of the Fe-Si-B-In TCMS sample. Microstructural analysis of the amorphous/crystalline composite and tensile sample free surface show the reason for the ductility of the sample in relation to the Fe75Si10B15 alloy.
PL
Stop Fe71,25Si9,5B14,25In5 wytworzono w wyniku odlewania z tygla dzielonego na wirujący walec miedziany dwóch stopów (metoda TCMS): Fe75Si10B15 i Fe67,5Si9B13,5In10. Mikrostrukturę stopu TCMS badano za pomocą skaningowego mikroskopu elektronowego oraz dyfraktometru rentgenowskiego. Z przeprowadzonej statycznej próby rozciągania uzyskano wytrzymałość na rozciąganie stopu Rm= 1040 MPa, granicę plastyczności Re= 919 MPa, wydłużenie całkowite εtot = 3,29 %. Na powierzchni próbki stopu Fe-Si-B-In TCMS po zerwaniu zaobserwowano także ślady odkształcenia plastycznego. Analiza mikrostruktury otrzymanego amorficzno-krystalicznego kompozytu oraz powierzchni swobodnej próbki wyjaśniają przyczynę ciągliwości próbki w stosunku do stopu Fe75Si10B15.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia dotyczące wykorzystania metody termowizyjnej podczas statycznej próby rozciągania przeprowadzonej na próbkach ze stali konstrukcyjnej. Potwierdzono ścisłą zależność pomiędzy temperaturą powierzchni próbki a poziomem naprężeń normalnych podczas rozciągania. Badanie przeprowadzono na czterech próbkach okrągłych, a w artykule zaprezentowano i omówiono wyniki jednej próbki, na podstawie których wykazano możliwości zastosowania termowizji przy detekcji miejsc krytycznych silnie obciążonych konstrukcji.
EN
The following paper discusses the usage of thermography method during the structural steel tensile tests. The high correlation between temperature on the surface of steel specimens and normal stresses during tensile tests were confirmed. Four circular specimens were tested and representative results for one specimen was presented and analysed. The obtained results confirm usefulness of thermography for early diagnostics of material behaviour and for structures monitoring in exploitation conditions.
EN
The article presents the results of comparative studies of selected mechanical properties (e.g. tensile modulus, tensile stress, notched impact, hardness) of self-extinguishing polypropylene (PPs) samples from three ventilation ducts. The samples were drawn from conduits used for a period of three years inside and outside the building (roof of the building) and, for comparison, from the new conduit. The climatic conditions on which the ventilation duct, placed on the roof, is exposed are temperate climate, group of warm climates, transitional type. Six pieces of samples were prepared for each material from each conduit to determine the mechanical properties. The results of the measurements are also compared with the catalog data provided by two manufacturers of this type of material. Based on the investigations of selected mechanical properties of self-extinguishing polypropylene derived from the operating elements of ventilation ducts, it can be stated that after three years of their use, no significant deterioration of the tested features of the material was observed. However, the impact strength and hardness assays have already shown changes in these properties for samples taken from the ducts used in comparison with the samples from the new duct. These data may indicate that the polypropylene aging process has started as a result of its operation for a period of three years both inside and outside the premises. However, comparing these results with catalog data for plastics dedicated to such applications, the stated changes in some properties do not disqualify the product for further use.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań porównawczych wybranych właściwości mechanicznych PPs (polipropylen samogasnący) dla próbek pobranych z trzech przewodów wentylacyjnych. Badaniom poddano próbki pochodzące z przewodów wentylacyjnych pracujących w różnych warunkach. Dla porównania do badań dołączono próbki pobrane z nowych przewodów. W celu wyznaczenia wybranych właściwości mechanicznych wykonywano analizy sześciu równoległych próbek. Wyniki pomiarów zestawiono z danymi katalogowymi podawanymi przez dwóch producentów tego typu elementów.
EN
Static tension test allows characterization of material strength properties. This simple test provides input data for numerical calculation of structural components made of the tested alloy. Elastic, plastic and failure behavior of the structural component in question is simulated, using, for example, the FEM package, based on parameters obtained as the result of tensile testing. When using the results of the tensile test for modeling the material failure it is important to estimate correctly plastic strain corresponding to failure. It is common practice to use elongation of the specimen gage part for the calculation of failure strain. On the other side, the most popular ductile failure criterion used by engineers performing numerical simulation of the material’s behavior relies on the equivalent plastic strain as the criterial quantity. Those two parameters can differ significantly. In order to calculate the equivalent plastic strain correctly, we have to remember about strain localization (necking) appearing during tensile tests and take into account the fact that during tensile testing we have three non-zero strain tensor components. Ignoring this fact, and using only elongation as the criterial quantity can lead to enormous simulation error. This error is analyzed in this paper for nickel based superalloy tested at elevated temperatures.
EN
Additive manufacturing is a very fast developing field of research and many parts with complicated geometry are now made using 3D printing. The injection molding, casting, milling and other processes have some limitations and low volume of production makes these processes quite expensive. 3D printing allows to fabricate parts with enough mechanical strength and without looking at the above mentioned limitations. Nowadays, designers are able to fabricate prototypes with not only optimized but also complex shape. Unfortunately, the parts made from thermoplastic materials by means of 3D technique have lower mechanical strength in comparison to the parts made by using injection molding process. The orientation of layers, thickness of a layer, porosity, and process parameters have a big influence on mechanical properties of the fabricated parts. In this paper, the experimental results from the static tensile tests, the compression tests and the dynamic three-point bending test are presented. The tests were performed for different orientations of printing specimens. It was shown that to assess the mechanical properties of printing parts (made by using selective laser sintering (SLS) technique)our own measurements need to be obtained. The available catalogue data are not sufficient for further investigations like in the finite element (FE) analyses.
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