Ograniczanie wyników
Czasopisma help
Autorzy help
Lata help
Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 26

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  swimming
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
EN
The study aim was determining gender-related differences of underwater undulatory swimming (UUS) kinematic indicators and their impact on UUS velocity. Methods: The study included 18 girls (F: age 16.71 ± 0.64 years, FINA points 551 ± 68) and 23 boys (M: age 16.79 ± 0.57 years, FINA points 533 ± 66) training swimming. After marking characteristic anatomical points, subjects performed approximately 7 meters of UUS. A filming device placed behind the underwater window registered the trial. Recordings were analysed using the SkillSpector programme. Results: Boys swam faster (F: 1.24 m/s, M: 1.35 m/s), overcame a greater distance during one cycle (F: 0.67 m, M: 0.74 m), performed movements with higher toes amplitude (F: 0.58 m, M: 0.63 m), obtained higher amplitude and frequency product (F: 1.05, M: 1.15) and smaller ankle joint range of motion (F: 64°, M: 57°). In both groups, relationships between velocity and: maximal ankle joint extension, distance covered during one cycle and backward toes shift during downward movement were found. The results were statistically significant ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: Girls and boys differed in kinematic indicator level, but UUS velocity depends on identical kinematic variables, meaning UUS technical training can be performed without gender-division.
PL
W artykule scharakteryzowano pojęcie komunikacji dydaktycznej oraz zweryfikowano przebieg procesu nauczania wybranych dyscyplin rekreacji wodnej, tj.: pływania (na poziomie techniki standardowej), manewrowania żaglówką w obrębie manewrów prostych oraz podstaw nurkowania. Jednocześnie dokonano przeglądu badań zarówno w obrębie eksperymentów prowadzonych w zakresie metod nauczania tych dyscyplin pod kątem skuteczności nauczania, jak i bezpieczeństwa i zdrowia uczestników oraz sposobów porozumiewania się w wodzie, na wodzie i pod wodą. Komunikacja dydaktyczna pomiędzy nauczycielem a uczniem w odmiennym środowisku ze względu na jego specyfikę jest utrudniona. Dodatkowo nauczanie umiejętności na wodzie, w wodzie czy pod wodą wymaga zachowania i przestrzegania restrykcyjnych zasad bezpieczeństwa. Brak gotowości ucznia do działania w odmiennym środowisku wodnym u podłoża, którego leżą lęk lub strach, może zakłócać lub nawet uniemożliwiać komunikację dydaktyczną. W konsekwencji spada skuteczność nauczania. Celem pracy jest wskazanie nowatorskich form przekazu informacji dydaktycznej, które umożliwią trwałą zmianę zachowania ucznia szczególnie podczas działania w sytuacji trudnej – na wodzie, w wodzie i pod wodą. Istnieją przesłanki by sądzić, że natychmiastowa werbalna informacja oraz uwypuklenie w niej funkcji metajęzykowej podniesie jakość i efektywność procesu nauczania czynności ruchowych w odmiennym środowisku wodnym.
EN
This paper describes the concept of didactic communication and verifies the course of teaching selected disciplines of water based recreation, i.e. swimming (at the standard technique level), handling a sailing boat whilst undertaking simple manoeuvres, and the basics of diving. At the same time, research in the area of experiments conducted in the field of teaching methods of these disciplines was reviewed in terms of teaching effectiveness, as well as the health and safety of the participants, and ways of communicating while in, on and under the water. Communication between an instructor and a student in any environment which is different from the norm, is difficult owing to its specificity. Additionally, teaching skills on, in or under water requires strict observance of safety rules. Lack of student's readiness to act in a different water environment, be that based on anxiety or fear, may interfere with or, even prevent didactic communication. Consequently, the effectiveness of teaching decreases. The aim of this work is to search for innovative forms of information transfer that will enable a permanent change in the student's behaviour, especially when acting in a difficult environment – on the water, in the water and under the water. There are premises to believe that immediate verbal instruction and emphasising the metalinguistic function in it should improve the quality and effectiveness of the process of teaching activities in various water based environments.
EN
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of shoulder isometric strength assessment using the microfet 2™ dynamometer in adolescent swimmers. Methods: Twenty-nine participants (16.2 ± 1.2 years old; 59.05 ± 6.98 kg of body mass) were tested using the microfet 2™ dynamometer. Swimmers performed an isometric strength test (IST) in two distinct occasions with 7 days apart in order to calculate the reliability. All participants were asked to perform a maximal isometric contraction from the external and internal shoulder rotators in a prone body position. Results: The external and internal shoulder rotators showed an excellent intraclass correlation coefficients for both shoulders, with more than 0.90 and a low percentage of method error variation. The external/internal ratios reliability was good in dominant (ICC 0.80) and non-dominant (ICC 0.81) shoulders. The reliability using Bland–Altman method showed that systematic errors (mean difference between test-retest) were nearly zero and the 95% limits of agreement narrow, indicating a good reliability. Conclusions: It can be concluded that microfet 2™ is a reliable apparatus for measuring the strength of the external and internal rotation of the shoulder in swimmers. Its light weight and easy portable characteristics can help swimming coaches monitoring specific dry-land strength training programs for their swimmers.
EN
Early identification of anthropological potential in swimmers is considered important to the recruitment and selection of children and adolescents to perform extensive and strenuous training. The aim of the research was a comparative analysis of the anthropometric parameters and indicators of adult, elite swimmers with people who had never trained for swimming. It was assumed that the specific characteristics of the swimmers’ somatic composition referred to the laws of swimming biomechanics. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in a group of elite male swimmers (N = 28), aged 17–24. The same set of measurements was taken in a homogeneous control group of students of physical education. An anthropometric profile significantly differentiating swimmers from the control group was constructed. Next, a linear forward stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate which indices can be used to distinguish the two groups. Results: It seems significant that a specific somatic composition trait of swimmers in the form of a relatively long shank was observed, which had not been observed in earlier studies. Additionally, indices of relatively slim hand dimension, and indices describing a “reversed triangle” shape of trunk, were the most powerful discrimination variables between the two examined groups. Conclusion: The results obtained cannot be generalised to the entire population of swimmers, however referring them to the laws of biomechanics of swimming allows for the continuation of research into identifying the prognostic traits desirable for success among young swimmers.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the study was to develop a method to measure and analyse kinematics of movement of the pelvic girdle in butterfly swimming in order to support training of technical skills. Methods: A device for recording triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocities was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of athlete. The measurements were performed in ten elite butterfly swimmers (age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body height: 187.6 ± 4.3 cm, body mass 83.4 ± 6.33 kg). The task of the athlete was to swim one length of short course pool at maximal intensity. Individual mean graphical and numerical profiles of the kinematics of the movement of the pelvic girdle was computed, within the average cycle based on five consecutive cycles. Results: Statistical analysis of numerical individual parameters of profiles of the athletes studied revealed statistically significant differences between the swimmers. Statistically significant correlations were also found between personal best times in 50 m swimming (r = –0.76, p < 0.05) and 100 m swimming (r = –0.76, p < 0.05) and duration of the part of the cycle connected with the decline in velocity from maximum translational motion velocity obtained during propulsion with the upper and lower limbs to minimum value of the velocity obtained before the beginning of propulsion only with the lower limbs. Conclusion: The proposed measurement method, presentation and analysis of the profile of the pelvic girdle motion in butterfly swimming represents a good tool for fast and effective qualitative and quantitative biomechanical evaluation of movement technique components.
EN
The information about the workload on individual muscles in the course of a specific physical activity is essential for targeted prevention, early diagnosis and suitable therapy concerning their overloading and injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperature changes in particular skin areas in the course of front crawl swimming, caused by muscle work. Methods: Thermograms were taken of 13 students of Defense University immediately and 15 minutes after swimming 1,000 m focused on 20 regions of the skin over the selected agonists and synergists in upper extremities and body. FLUKE TiR infrared hand camera was used. Results: The results indicated the significant increase in the relative temperatures in the areas of agonists of swimmers’ movement – triceps brachii: from 0.952 to 0.997 of normalized units (nu) on the right and from 0.955 to 0.986 nu on the left. At the same time, the temperature of the muscles participating in lifting the arms above the water surface and stretching them forward – deltoids – increased as well (rear part: from 1.002 to 1.015 nu on the right and from 1.002 to 1.014 nu on the left, sides: from 1.008 to 1.023 nu on the right and from 1.011 to 1.023 nu on the left). Conclusions: In conclusion, the order of the other agonists is as follows: biceps brachii, pectoralis major muscle, and latissimus dorsi. This study provides the options for objective assessment of workload on specific muscles or muscle groups during front crawl swimming.
7
Content available Physical activity in the water accompanied by music
EN
Music motivates, relaxes and stimulates action and is one factor which enhances the pleasure that people feel from a given movement. Thus, from a psychophysical point of view, listening to music is an important aspect in sport and recreation. With this in mind, the aim of the study was to determine any changes in the participants’ psychophysical sphere which resulted from listening to music while swimming. The psychophysical sphere was expressed in relation to the Borg RPE scale (Rating of Perceived Exertion) as well as the Rejeski and Gauvin Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) scale of emotional states. Material and methods: The participants in the study were not professional swimmers (n = 10). The experiment consisted of two trials in which participants performed the Swimming Cooper test. During the first trial there was no music transmitted while in the second trial specifically selected music was played as the participants swam. Results: An ANOVA variance analysis (α = 0.05) showed statistically significant differences in the RPE scale (p = 0.04) and across all sensations on the EFI scale (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Listening to music while swimming has a significant impact on the human psychophysical sphere and is expressed by a perceived exertion scale and the scale of emotional states. Respondents paid less attention to the discomfort of physical exertion associated with exercise while listening to music. The rating of their emotional states, including positive engagement, revitalization and tranquility considerably increased though the physical exhaustion measures were significantly lower.
PL
Muzyka motywuje, relaksuje, pobudza do działania. Sprawia, iż człowiek odczuwa większą przyjemność z ruchu. Zatem z punktu widzenia psychofizycznego słuchanie muzyki jest ważnym elementem w sporcie i rekreacji. Dlatego celem badań było określenie zmian w sferze psychofizycznej człowieka wynikających ze słuchania muzyki podczas pływania. Sfera psychofizyczna wyrażona była skalą postrzegania wysiłku Borg’a (RPE) oraz skalą stanów uczuciowych Gauvin’a i Rejeskie’go (EFI). Materiał i Metody: W badaniach wzięły udział nie uprawiające zawodowo pływania osoby (n=10). Eksperyment złożony był z dwóch prób, w których uczestnicy wykonywali pływacki test Coopera. W pierwszej próbie nie przekazywano muzyki podczas wykonywania testu. W drugiej próbie indywidualnie dobrana muzyka była przekazywana w trakcie płynięcia. Wyniki: Analiza wariacji ANOVA (α=0.05) wykazała istotnie statystycznie różnice w skali RPE (p=0.04) oraz we wszystkich odczuciach skali EFI (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.01, p = 0.001). Wnioski: Słuchanie muzyki podczas pływania istotnie wpływa na sferę psychofizyczną człowieka, wyrażoną skalą odczuwania wysiłku oraz skalą stanów uczuciowych. Badani zwracali mniejszą uwagę na wykonywany wysiłek i towarzyszący temu dyskomfort. Ocena stanów uczuciowych, w tym pozytywnego zaangażowania, rewitalizacji i spokoju istotnie zwiększyła się, a wyczerpania fizycznego istotnie zmniejszyła.
EN
The present elaboration describes realization of project task, entitled: „Retrieving old function in historic swimming pool, at 52 Zgorzelecka street in Bolesławiec”, it has an influence with taking into consideration the most important problem on ultimate form of rebuilding, on base of present project done by the author of article, as being producer and planner at the same time. It emphasizes architectonic questions in text, concerning forming area, however, it omits solutions of numerous engineering problems e. g. isolation and draining, etc.). Work project started at the end of 2010 and finished in February of year 2012. Object is in the course of final construction works.
PL
Niniejsze opracowanie stanowi opis realizacji zadania projektowego, pod nazwą: „Przywrócenie dawnej funkcji Zakładu Kąpielowego w Zabytkowej Pływalni w Bolesławcu, przy ul Zgorzeleckiej 52”. Uwzględniono najważniejsze problemy mające wpływ na ostateczny kształt przebudowy. W tekście uwypuklono zagadnienia architektoniczne, dotyczące kształtowania przestrzeni, pominięto natomiast rozwiązania licznych problemów technicznych. Opisano wstępne założenia projektowe, wynikające z Programu Funkcjonalno Użytkowego i ustaleń z inwestorem, przedstawiono pierwotną koncepcję oraz wersję końcową oddaną do realizacji. Opisano problemy projektowe, ze szczególnym rozwinięciem tych, które dotyczyły zagadnień konserwatorskich. Przedstawiono wnioski, w tym przede wszystkim konieczność wczesnego i pełnego rozpoznania stanu istniejącego zabytkowego budynku poddawanego renowacji.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano zagadnienie funkcjonowania logistyki w pływalniach. Opisany został obszar zadań realizowanych w organizacjach w ramach logistycznych działań na przykładzie pływalni w Chojnicach. Potraktowano obiekt wodny jako organizację w której można wyodrębnić logistykę zaopatrzenia, produkcji i dystrybucji. Wykonano analizę działań w każdym z tych obszarów biorąc pod uwagę przepływ materiałów, dokumentów, informacji oraz osób. Przykład pływalni w Chojnicach pokazuje że logistyka w tego typu organizacjach zajmuje bardzo ważne miejsce i należy szerzej i dokładniej przyjrzeć się funkcjonowaniu logistyki w innych podobnych podmiotach.
EN
The article presents the problem of the functioning of logistics in swimming pools. Area described the tasks carried out in organizations within the logistics activities for example swimming in Chojnice. Treated water facility as an organization in which you can extract the logistics of supply, production and distribution. Analysis was performed actions in each of these areas, taking into account the flow of materials, documents, information and people. Example swimming in Chojnice shows that logistics in such organizations is very important and needs to be better and closer look at the functioning of logistics in other similar entities.
PL
Celem opracowania jest próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy i w jaki sposób zachowania człowieka względem środowiska wodnego mogą wpływać na zmniejszanie zagrożeń cywilizacyjnych, a tym samym zwiększać, bezpośrednio lub pośrednio, bezpieczeństwo jednostki i społeczeństwa. Przyjmując pewien uproszczony podział można przedstawić dwa podstawowe rodzaje zagrożeń: zewnętrzne oraz wewnętrzne. Wykluczenie wymienionych zagrożeń prowadzi do zapewnienia poczucia i rzeczywistej realizacji potrzeby bezpieczeństwa. Może być realizowane poprzez czynniki niezależne od jednostki oraz bezpośrednio przez człowieka. Sądzić można, że fundamentalnym sposobem na czucie się bezpiecznym jest indywidualnie: nabycie względnie wysokiej sprawności pływackiej, umiejętności umożliwiających posługiwanie się sprzętem pływackim oraz wiedzy, w jakich warunkach środowiskowych posiadane kwalifikacje mogą ona być bezpiecznie wykorzystywane oraz społecznie: wyszkolenie odpowiednich osób (ratowników), którzy poprzez własną postawę, umiejętności i właściwe przygotowanie terenu zapewnią bezpieczeństwo na obszarach wodnych.
EN
The aim of this paper is to answer the question if and in what way human behavior with regard to water environment can influence the reduction of civilization threats and thereby directly or indirectly increase safety of an individual and society. By adopting a simplified categorization, one can present two fundamental types of threats: external and internal. Elimination of these threats results in ensuring safety and satisfies the need for safety in a real way. This can be achieved by means of factors independent from an individual and directly by humans. It can be concluded that a basic mean to feel safe individually: is developing the ability to swim and skills enabling to use swimming equipment as well as acquiring knowledge about environmental conditions in which those qualifications can be used, and socially: training appropriate people (lifeguards) who will ensure safety on water areas by means of their conduct, skills and the right preparation of those areas.
EN
This study presents the hydrodynamic characteristics of different adult male swimmer's body shape using computational fluid dynamics method. This simulation strategy is carried out by CFD fluent code with solving the 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations using the RNG k-ε turbulence closure. The water free surface is captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. A set of full body models, which is based on the anthropometrical characteristics of the most common male swimmers, is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. The analysis of CFD results revealed that swimmer’s body shape has a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamics performances. This explains why male swimmer with an inverted triangle body shape has good hydrodynamic characteristics for competitive swimming.
PL
W pracy przeprowadzono badania związane z pomiarami biomechanicznymi pływaków. Opracowano metodykę prowadzenia pomiarów oraz przeprowadzono wstępne badania, w ramach których dokonano pomiaru czasów przepłynięcia dystansu 100m stylem klasycznym wraz z międzyczasami oraz pomiarów momentów sił mięśniowych w warunkach izokinetycznych na stanowisku Biodex. Wyniki porównano i określono zależności pomiędzy wynikami osiągniętymi na basenie i podczas pomiarów w laboratorium.
EN
In these thesis did a review based on different literature sources about biomechanical research among sportsmen. After that an author did a measurement of muscle torques on a Biodex chair. The author summarized the results which the swimmers got on a 100 meters distance with the results that they got by using biomechanical devices. The comparison showed that the swimmers which got the better results have less muscle fatigue and achieve greater muscle torques for the bending and straightening of the knee.
PL
Artykuł poświęcony klimatyzacji obiektów basenowych, W jego części pierwszej omówione zostały takie zagadnienia odniesione do tego typu obiektów, jak: parametry cieplno-wilgotnościowe w halach krytych pływalni, krzywa duszności, wymagany strumień powietrza świeżego, rozdział powietrza w hali basenowej. Podjęto w nim próbę wskazania postępowania dla obniżenia kosztów eksploatacji systemu wentylacji hali basenowej bez pogorszenia jakości powietrza i komfortu uży1kowników obiektu, Autorzy podjęli również próbę udzielenia odpowiedzi na budzący wciąż wiele kontrowersji temat rozkładu ciśnień w tego typu halach, W części drugiej publikacji przedstawiony zostanie przegląd wraz z charakterystyką techniczną wybranych urządzeń basenowych znajdujących się w ofercie firmy Dantherm
EN
In the first part such problems are described like: proper temperature and humidify in swimming pool halls, stifling curve, fresh air demand and air distribution inside halls. The problem of pressure distribution in swimming pool halls is also taken into account. Methods of air conditioning system operation costs reduction are discussed. In the second part chosen Danthrm air conditioning units for indoor swimming pools will be presented
14
Content available remote Electric shock hazard limitation in water during lightning strike
EN
Swimming during a thunderstorm is one of the most dangerous things that can be done. Lightning regularly strikes water, and since water conducts electricity, a nearby lightning strike could kill or injure human being. This paper will present simulation results of scalar potential distribution in water during lightning strike with respect to water conductivity. Lightning limitation buoy will be used for electric shock hazard reduction. All calculations results were obtained by CDEGS software.
PL
Kąpiel na otwartych akwenach w trakcie burzy jest jedną z najbardziej ryzykownych czynności, która może być wykonywana. Występujące wyładowania piorunowe w powierzchnie wody mogą spowodować obrażenia a nawet śmierć osób w niej się znajdujących. W tym artykule zaprezentowano wyniki obliczeń rozkładu potencjału w wodzie podczas bezpośredniego wyładowania piorunowego w wodę, w zależności od jej rezystywności. Zaproponowano wykorzystanie „boi piorunowej” dzięki, której uzyskano znaczące zmniejszenie zagrożenia porażenia prądem elektrycznym.
15
Content available remote Była siarka! Co jest teraz?
PL
Zakończenie eksploatacji złóż siarki w Kopalni „Machów" w 1992 r. pozostawiło po sobie wyrobisko odkrywkowe o pow. ok. 600 ha i głębokości ok. 110 m. Prowadzone od 1994 r. prace likwidacyjne, a następnie rekultywacyjne, doprowadziły do powstania zbiornika wodnego o powierzchni lustra wody ok. 500 ha i głębokości 42 m, wyposażonego w infrastrukturę umożliwiającą rozwój sportów wodnych. W 2010 r. po raz pierwszy udostępniono częściowo zbiornik do celów rekreacyjnych. Uzyskany efekt ekologiczny pozwolił na stworzenie warunków dla restytucji i reintrodukcji życia biologicznego na terenach zdegradowanych górnictwem siarki. Prowadzone prace rekultywacyjne są kolejnym przykładem właściwie pojmowanej ochrony środowiska oraz wspólnego dobra.
EN
Ending of exploitation of sulphur deposit in "Machów". Mine in 1992 left an open-cast excavation which covered about 600 hectares area with 110 metres depth. Liquidation and after that restoration works, leading since 1994, conducted to creation of water basin about 500 ha of surface and 42 m deep, which was equipped with facilities to provide the development of water sports. In 2010 the water basin was opened partly to recreation the first time. Obtained ecological effect has allowed to create conditions for restitution and reintroduction of biological living among the area which was degraded by sulphur mining. Leading reclamation works is a consecutive example of properly comprehended environmental protecion as well as the common good.
16
Content available remote Re-examination of manus-only and manus-dominated sauropod trackways from Morocco
EN
Manus-only and manus-dominated trackways of sauropods previously reported from the Iouaridene Basin of Morocco are relocated and re-examined. One trackway, interpreted as a manus-only trackway, was a misinterpretation of a poorly preserved trackway of a large theropod that walked in the opposite direction to that previously inferred. Two previously described manus-dominated trackways could be underprints. One previously described manus-only trackway and a newly discovered manus-only trackway could also be underprints. However, if the true im printing surface is not identified, an "underprint origin" cannot be accepted as firm evidence that the were imprinted on land, and a swimming or submerged sauropod might have left similar underprints under the contact layer. Kinematic investigations might help to reconstruct the origin of the trackway. The two manus-only trackways from the Iouaridene tracksite apparently show alternating pace lengths which suggests semi-galloping to galloping gait patterns by the trackmakers. Such a galloping gait pattern has never been reported from regular sauropod trackways, and it is unclear as to whether such a trackway pattern repre sents rapid locomotion. A partly submerged sauropod could perhaps register such galloping gait manus-only trackway patterns as a result of swimming behavior.
EN
Bilateral diversity is one of the regularities to the human and the upper extremities perform the main role during lateralization, but high level of asymmetry could be an obstacle in the pursuit of success in sport events demanding symmetrical movement. In the case of the lack of balance you should be disqualified according to the breaststroke rules. So, the purpose of the study was to determine the upper extremities kinematical asymmetry during breaststroke swimming on the swimming ergometer and the differences between genders. Transverse asymmetry was found to dominate for both men and women.
EN
Human bilateral diversity has an unsteady influence on his life. High level of morphofunctional asymmetry is unprofitable, but dynamical lack of balance could have crucial influence on the effectiveness of physical activity. It seems that multiple repetitions of symmetrical movements should decrease obtained dynamical asymmetry. The aim of the work was to find the magnitude of dynamical asymmetry and the influence of swimming on it. No difference io studied asymmetry was found.
EN
The aim of the study is to identify the forces sagging the monofin during swimming. 14 high level swimmers first swam 50 m under water with maximal speed using a standard monofin. Next they swam anchored on the strain-gauge-equipped rope using the monofin famished with the gauges (in the middle and at the tail of its surface). The comparison of forces produced in both trials (using the dynamic statistics methods) demonstrated that the forces sagging the monofin in reaction to water resistance could be interpreted as the only source of swimmer's propulsion.
EN
Swimming can be taught from the very first months of a baby's life. The aim of the research is to characterize baby's simple locomotive movement while the baby is moving in the water. Locomotive movements were video recorded under the surface of the water, then processed with SIMI computer software. The subjects of the analysis were kinematic values: the way and the direction of the movement. Biomechanical analysis broadened by the theory of learning and teaching of motoric activities can constitute the pattern in the process of teaching swimming and conducting rehabilitation in water for babies and small children.
first rewind previous Strona / 2 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.