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EN
The aim of the conducted research was to examine the possibility of using chemical and physical methods of surface treatment of elements printed on a 3D printer. Elements were printed from polylactide (PLA) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) – materials most commonly used in fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. Roughness measurements were made to assess the quality of individual methods. The best surface smoothness results were obtained during abrasive paper processing and after applying epoxy resin. The intended effect was also obtained after processing samples from PLA in chloroform fumes, and ABS samples in acetone vapors.
PL
Zbadano możliwości wykorzystania chemicznych i fizycznych metod obróbki powierzchniowej elementów wydrukowanych za pomocą drukarki 3D. Elementy wytworzono z polilaktydu (PLA) i kopolimeru akrylonitrylo-butadieno-styrenowego (ABS) – materiałów najpowszechniej stosowanych w technologii Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). Jakość wykonania przy użyciu poszczególnych metod oceniano na podstawie chropowatości powierzchni wytworzonych elementów. Najlepszą gładkość powierzchni uzyskano w wyniku obróbki wydrukowanych elementów papierami ściernymi i nałożeniu żywicy epoksydowej. Zamierzony efekt uzyskano też w wyniku obróbki próbek z PLA w oparach chloroformu, a próbek z ABS w oparach acetonu.
EN
The physicochemical properties of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) allow to use this material for prosthetic restorations applied in implant prosthetics. So far, such attempts have been made in the technology of milling rough material solids of this polymer, but the surface quality was unsatisfactory. Therefore, the production of these materials by additive manufacturing techniques was proposed and an attempt was made to shape their surface using a laser. The possibilities of the method are determined in the paper and preliminary works related to the product surface shaping are presented. The process of making individual prosthetic restorations from the PEEK material by the additive method together with the technology of laser modification of the geometric structure of the material surface for applications in implant prosthetic treatment of patients is innovative and has not been used so far.
PL
W pracy omówiono wyniki badań możliwości wykorzystania odpadów z polipropylenu (PP), polietylenu (PE) i poliamidu (PA), uzyskanych z zakładu przetwarzania odpadów, jako wzmocnienie zapraw. Jednym z głównych problemów związanych z wykorzystywaniem odpadów z tworzyw sztucznych w kompozytach cementowych jest hydrofobowość powierzchni tworzywa sztucznego, która uniemożliwia adhezję zaczynu cementowego. W badaniach zastosowano rozcieńczony roztwór izopropanolu do obróbki powierzchniowej tworzyw sztucznych. Przy projektowaniu mieszanin uwzględniono trzy zmienne; rodzaj tworzywa sztucznego (PP, PE, PA), ich dodatek oraz ich obróbkę powierzchniową. Przeprowadzono badania wytrzymałości na zginanie i ściskanie. 1,5% dodatek PP i PE zwiększył wytrzymałość na zginanie zaprawy, natomiast obróbka powierzchniowa nie wpłynęła na tę wytrzymałość. Wraz ze zwiększaniem dodatku tworzyw sztucznych zwiększała się energia pękania zapraw z tymi tworzywami. Dla stosunku objętościowego 1,5% zwiększeniu uległa energia pękania w odniesieniu do mieszaniny wzorcowej, przy czym największy wpływ miał odpad PP. W przypadku niepoddanych obróbce powierzchniowej odpadów stwierdzono znaczne zwiększenie energii pękania, przy równoczesnym zmniejszeniu wytrzymałości na ściskanie i energii pękania przy ściskaniu, jednak ten wpływ uległ zwiększeniu po obróbce powierzchniowej odpadów. Odpadowe tworzywa sztuczne mogą być stosowane w zaprawach lub w betonach, w celu poprawy ciągliwości i udarności. Równocześnie wykorzystanie tych odpadów eliminuje zanieczyszczenie środowiska.
EN
This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using industrial waste plastics, polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polyamide (PA), obtained from recycling factory, as reinforcement for mortar. As one of the main problems of using waste plastics in cementitious composites is the hydrophobic properties of the surface of the plastics, because it prevents the formation of adequate interfacial adhesion with cement paste. Surface treatment of waste plastics was applied using diluted solution of isopropanol. Three parameters were considered when designing the mortar mixtures; type of waste plastic (PP, PE, PA), their addition ratio and surface treatment. Bending and compression tests were conducted. 1.5% volume addition of PP and PE to mortars the flexural strength was increased, however, surface treatment of waste plastics did not affected this strength. As the waste plastic volume ratio increased, the flexural toughness of mortars reinforced with PP, PE and PA plastics was also increased. For the 1.5% volume ratio, there was the increase of flexural toughness with respect to the reference mortar and the highest influence had the PP. For the untreated waste plastics, there was significant increase in flexural toughness, while reduction in the compressive strength and compressive toughness was found, however, this surface treatment enhanced the compressive strength and compressive toughness with respect to untreated plastics. Waste plastics can be used for mortars and concretes reinforcement to improve the ductility and energy absorption capacity while eliminating pollution and regaining them in the economy as a structural material.
EN
An important part in the process of adhesive bonding is played by the appropriate preparation of surfaces to be subjected to adhesive bonding. The objective of the tests discussed in the article was to identify the effect of various surface preparation methods, including cleaning, grinding, atmospheric plasma treatment and the ATOP method on the strength of adhesive-bonded joints. The tests involved the use of specimens made of aluminium alloy EN AW 5754 as well as specimens made of glass fibre-reinforced epoxy-based plastics. The specimens were subjected to overlap adhesive bonding involving the use of Araldite two-component epoxy adhesive (Huntsman). The article presents results of the static shear test (of the overlap joints) in relation to a given surface preparation method applied before the adhesive bonding process. The highest strength of the adhesive-bonded joints made in the aluminium alloy was obtained in relation to the ATOP method-based treatment. In addition, the above-named method makes it possible to properly prepare a cleaned surface by forming a protective layer ensuring proper surface preparation for several months. In turn, the highest strength of the adhesive-bonded joints made of glass fibre-reinforced plastics was obtained in relation to the surface treatment performed using atmospheric plasma.
PL
W procesie klejenia ważną rolę odgrywa odpowiednie przygotowanie powierzchni klejonych. Celem badań, przedstawionych w artykule, było sprawdzenie wpływu różnych metod przygotowania powierzchni, takich jak: oczyszczanie, szlifowanie, obróbka plazmą atmosferyczną, metoda ATOP na wytrzymałość złączy klejowych. Badania wykonano na próbkach ze stopu aluminium EN AW 5754 oraz próbkach z tworzyw sztucznych wykonanych na osnowie epoksydowej wzmacnianych włóknem szklanym. Próbki klejono na zakładkę klejem epoksydowym dwuskładnikowym - Araldite, firmy Huntsman. Przedstawiono wyniki badań statycznej próby ścinania złączy zakładkowych w zależności od zastosowanej metody przygotowania powierzchni przed klejeniem. Najwyższą wytrzymałości złączy klejowych, dla próbek wykonanych ze stopu aluminium, uzyskano przy obróbce metodą ATOP. Metoda ta pozwala także na odpowiednie zabezpieczenie oczyszczonej powierzchni poprzez wytworzenie warstwy ochronnej, zapewniając prawidłowe przygotowanie powierzchni przez okres kilku miesięcy. Natomiast przy łączeniu tworzyw sztucznych wzmacnianych włóknem szklanym najwyższą wytrzymałość uzyskano przy obróbce powierzchni przed procesem klejenia za pomocą plazmy atmosferycznej.
EN
Residual stress has a great influence on the metal, but it is difficult to measure at small area using a general method. Residual stress calculations using the Vickers indentation can solve this problem. In this paper, a numerical simulation has been made for the residual stress measurement method of metal material deformed by high-speed impact. Then, the stress-strain curve at the high-speed deformation was confirmed through actual experiments, and the residual stresses generated thereafter were calculated by the Vickers indenter method. A Vickers indentation analysis under the same conditions was performed at the position where a residual stress of about 169.39 MPa was generated. Experiments were carried out and high speed impact was applied to the specimen to generate residual stress. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to identify residual stresses in various metals with various shapes through Vickers indentation measurements, and to use them for process and quality control.
EN
This article proposes to use abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ) for deflashing, deburring and similar finishing operations in casting. The basic requirements concerning the dimensional accuracy and surface texture of cast components are not met if visible surface flaws are detected. The experiments focused on the removal of external flash from elements made of EN-GJL-150 cast iron. The method employed for finishing was abrasive waterjet cutting. The tests were carried out using an APW 2010BB waterjet cutting machine. The form profiles before and after flash removal were determined with a Taylor Hobson PGI 1200 contact profiler. A Nikon AZ100 optical microscope was applied to observe and measure the changes in the flash height and width. The casting surface after finishing was smooth, without characteristic sharp, rough edges that occur in the cutting of objects with a considerable thickness. It should be emphasized that this method does not replace precise cutting operations. Yet, it can be successfully used to finish castings for which lower surface quality is required. An undoubted advantage of waterjet cutting is no effect of high temperature as is the case with plasma, laser or conventional cutting. This process is also easy to automate; one tool is needed to perform different finishing operations in order to obtain the desired dimensions, both internal and external.
EN
The article presents the results of research on the finishing of M63 Z4 brass by vibratory machining. Brass alloy was used for the research due to the common use of ammunition elements, cartridge case and good cold forming properties on the construction. Until now, the authors have not met with the results of research to determine the impact of abrasive pastes in container processing. It was found that the additive for container abrasive treatment of abrasive paste causes larger mass losses and faster surface smoothing effects. The treatment was carried out in two stages: in the first stage, the workpieces were deburred and then polished. Considerations were given to the impact of mass of workpieces, machining time and its type on mass loss and changes in the geometric structure of the surface. The surface roughness of machining samples was measured with the Talysurf CCI Lite optical profiler. The suggestions for future research may be to carry out tests using abrasive pastes with a larger granulation of abrasive grains, and to carry out tests for longer processing times and to determine the time after which the parameters of SGP change is unnoticeable.
EN
The thermochemical treatment applied to improve the surface properties of AZ91 consisted in heating the material in contact with AlSi10Mg powder at 445 oC for 30 min. During heat treatment process the powder was held under pressure to facilitate the diffusion of the alloying elements to the substrate and, accordingly, the formation of a modified layer. Two pressures, 1 MPa and 5 MPa, were tested. The resultant layers, containing hard Mg2Si and Mg17Al12 phases, were examined using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The experimental data show that the layer microstructure was dependent on the pressure applied. A thicker, three-zone layer (about 200 μm) was obtained at 1 MPa. At the top, there were Mg2Si phase particles distributed over the Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase matrix. The next zone was a eutectic (Mg17Al12 and a solid solution of Al in Mg) with Mg2Si phase particles embedded in it. Finally, the area closest to the AZ91 substrate was a eutectic not including the Mg2Si phase particles. By contrast, the layer produced at a pressure of 5 MPa had lower thickness of approx. 150 μm and a two-zone structure. Mg2Si phase particles were present in both zones. In the upper zone, Mg2Si phase particles were regularly distributed over the Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase matrix. The lower zone, adjacent to the AZ91, was characterized by a higher volume fraction of Mg2Si phase particles distributed over the matrix composed mainly of Mg17Al12. The alloyed layers enriched with Al and Si had much higher hardness than the AZ91 substrate.
PL
Celem pracy było określenie wpływu wybranych sposobów przygotowania powierzchni na wytrzymałość połączeń klejowych blach stalowych ocynkowanych metodą zanurzeniową, wykonanych za pomocą kleju epoksydowego Epidian 53/Z-1/100:10. Przygotowanie powierzchni łączonych elementów zostało zrealizowano, w następujących wariantach: wariant A, obejmujący obróbkę mechaniczną papierami ściernymi o różnej gradacji bez odtłuszczania oraz wariant B składający się z obróbki mechanicznej i odtłuszczania rozcieńczalnikiem ekstrakcyjnym powierzchni próbek blach przeznaczonych do klejenia. Ocenę wpływu przygotowania powierzchni dokonano na podstawie badań wytrzymałościowych jednozakładowych połączeń klejowych na maszynie wytrzymałościowej Zwick/Roell 150, zgodnie z normą DIN EN 1465. W badaniach przeprowadzono także pomiary wybranych parametrów chropowatości powierzchni w celu oceny struktury geometrycznej po obróbce mechanicznej papierami ściernymi o różnej gradacji. Na podstawie wyników badań zauważono, że zastosowanie podczas przygotowywania powierzchni do klejenia odtłuszczacza, jakim był rozcieńczalnik ekstrakcyjny, wpłynęło korzystnie na wzrost wytrzymałości na ścinanie połączeń klejowych, w porównaniu do wytrzymałości połączeń, w których zastosowano jedynie obróbkę mechaniczną.
EN
The purpose of the article was to determine the influence of selected surface preparation methods on the adhesive joints strength of hot-dip zinc coated steel sheets, prepared by Epidian 53/Z-1/100:10 epoxy adhesive. The surface treatment of the adherends has been carried out in the following variants: Variant A, comprising mechanical treatment with abrasive papers of various gradation without degreasing, and Variant B consisting of mechanical treatment and degreasing with extractor diluents of the surface of the adherends samples. The assessment of the impact of surface preparation was made on the basis of strength tests of single-lap adhesive joints on the Zwick/Roell 150 testing machine, according to DIN EN 1465 standard. The tests also included measurements of selected surface roughness parameters to evaluate the geometrical structure after machining with abrasive papers of various gradations. Based on the results of the research, it was noticed that the use of a degreaser during the preparation of the degreaser surface, which was an axtractor diluents, had a positive effect on the shear strength of the adhesive joints compared to the joints strength in which only mechanical treatment was applied.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problematykę dotyczącą przygotowania powierzchni kompozytu grafitowego przed nałożeniem galwanicznej powłoki miedzianej i jej wpływ na proces lutowania miękkiego w połączeniach z materiałami metalicznymi. Na próbki z kompozytu grafitowego, którego powierzchnię przygotowano różnymi metodami, oraz w końcowej obróbce przy użyciu zimnej plazmy, wytworzonej w atmosferze argonu, naniesiono galwanicznie warstwę miedzi, a następnie wykonano badania przyczepności powłoki do podłoża. Wyniki te porównano z wcześniej przeprowadzonymi pomiarami wytrzymałościowymi złączy kompozytu z naniesioną powłoką miedzianą, lutowanych na miękko z elementami ze stopu aluminium PA38 (6060).
EN
In the article issues concerning preparing the surface of graphite composite before putting the galvanic copper layer and its influence on the soldering process were described in connections with metallic materials. To samples of graphite composite, of which the area was prepared with different methods, and in final processing using cold plasma, produced in the atmosphere of argon, galvanic a layer of copper was put, and then a research on the grip of the layer was performed to base material. The results were compared with earlier conducted endurance measurements of connectors of composite with the copper layer, soldered on softly with elements of the alloy of PA38 aluminium (6060).
11
Content available remote Compact microwave plasma device for surface treatment
EN
Currently, plasma systems for plastic, metal, glass and composite surface modifications are of high interest from industry point of view. In addition, attention is paid to the reduction of investment as well as operating costs of the process. According to this, to meet industry expectations a novel compact microwave plasma device for surface treatment was designed, built and tested. The major advantage of the device is a unique shape of the generated plasma having a form of a plasma sheet suitable for surface treatment.
PL
Wychodząc naprzeciw oczekiwaniom przemysłu zainteresowanego tanim urządzeniem do modyfikacji powierzchni tworzyw sztucznych, metali, szkła i kompozytów zaprojektowano, zbudowano i przeprowadzono testy nowego kompaktowego mikrofalowego źródła plazmy do obróbki powierzchni. Główną zaletą urządzenia jest unikalny kształt generowanej plazmy tzw. płaszczyzny plazmowej dogodny w obróbce powierzchni.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki pomiarów struktury geometrycznej powierzchni próbek wykonanych ze stali nierdzewnej, poddanych procesowi wygładzania w wygładzarce pojemnikowej. Zaprezentowano analizy efektów obróbki oraz możliwości stosowania obróbki pojemnikowej w szeroko pojętym wzornictwie przemysłowym. Badania zrealizowano na wygładzarce rotacyjno-kaskadowej z użyciem żywicznych i ceramicznych kształtek ściernych. Przeprowadzono próbę wdrożenia robota przemysłowego do intensyfikacji procesu obróbkowego z wykorzystaniem wygładzarki rotacyjnej.
EN
The measurements results of the geometric structure surface of samples made of stainless steel subjected to a smoothing process in a smoothing container machine are presented. The analysis of the effects of treatment and the possibility of using container processing in the broadly understood industrial design were presented. The research was carried out on a rotational cascade container machine using resin and ceramic shaped stones. In the work carried out a trial to implement an industrial robot to intensify the machining process using a rotary smoother.
13
Content available remote Improvement of the interfacial adhesion between fiber and matrix
EN
In this work, the influence of carbon fiber surface treatment on mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester was investigated. Two approaches have been used in the surface treatment; the first is the desizing of the carbon fiber by the release of the epoxy layer. The second is with the release of epoxy layer and etching the fibers. It was concluded that both methods give good results on adhesion between the matrix and the fibers. It is found that the treatment of carbon fibers is effcient and greatly improves the CFRP handress. The tensile strength of composite materials increases by 30% for etched carbon fibers compared to untreated carbon fibers.SEM images confirm the results obtained.
EN
In this work, a model of phase transformations during multipass weld surfaced steel casts is presented. In the temperature field calculation algorithm, the influence of the heat of overlaying beads and a self-cooling of previously overlayed beads have been taken into account. The fusion area, full and part transformation zones, by solidus, A1 and A3 and A A1 temperatures has been determined, respectively. The temperatures of the beginning and the end of the phase changes during cooling were determined on the basis of the time-temperature-transformation welding diagram. In the phase change kinetic description, the JMAK law and KM formula were used. Theoretical considerations are illustrated by example of volume share calculations of particular structural components during the weld surfaced 230-450 W steel cast. The results of computation in the graphical forms are presented: welding thermal cycle diagrams and structural share change histories at selected points, as well as temperature and the phase share distributions in cross section.
15
Content available remote Single-frequency induction hardening of structural steel
EN
Purpose: Current paper presents investigation of specimens after single frequency induction hardening process. The main aim is to compare microstructure of the material after the process conducted with different voltage on the induction coil. Moreover, two different steel grades are used for comparative reasons. As the final result it is desired to obtain sufficient parameters for the process in aim to obtain proper surface treatment of the material. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives of the research are achieved by using single-frequency induction hardening device with varying voltage. Two different steel grades were treated with change of the induction voltage from 300 to 600 V. Findings: In the outcomes of the study, the main conclusion is that there is an impact of the induction voltage in the hardening process on the microstructure of treated elements, both for 40H41Cr4 and 40HNMA36NiCrMo16 steels. Research limitations/implications: Obtained results will be used for much more complex investigation of the induction hardening process in future to introduce more exact parameters and double-frequency induction hardening process for complex geometries as gears. Originality/value: The originality of the research is based on the specific process and the materials that are being submitted to the comparative analysis. Moreover, executed research will be a basis for more complex induction hardening processes in the future.
EN
Coagulation is a process commonly used in water treatment, especially for surface water. This process aims to effectively remove organic matter [1, 2] especially precursors of oxidation and disinfection by-products [3–5], whose creation potential is related to absorption values at 254 nm (UV254) [6] Due to a very large variability in surface water composition over the course of the year and different contamination levels dependent on water source location, it is important to optimally choose coagulant type and dosage. Such optimization is difficult due to the presence of a large number of coagulants on the market. Świderska-Bróż and Rak [7] and Lee et al. [8] have shown that prehydrolyzed coagulants are less sensitive to changes in temperature and pH of the input water than classic ones. Lin et al. [9] suggest however that the effectiveness of coagulation mainly depends on the type and structure of organic matters present in waters, and to a much lesser degree on pH and temperature.
PL
Docierania i szlifowanie należy do podstawowych metod obróbki wykończeniowej. Technologie te stosowane są obecnie zarówno w obróbce elementów metalowych, jak i niemetalowych. Przeanalizowano czas, jaki jest potrzebny do wykonania tych operacji.
EN
Lapping and grinding are classified as a basic finishing operation. This technology can be used on metallic parts, as well as on non-metallic machine elements. Times required to finalize operation are calculated and analyzed in this paper.
EN
Hydrophobic surgical forceps of end-effectors for laparoscopic operations or minimally invasive surgery were developed through powder injection molding (PIM) and surface treatment. Processing conditions for mixing, debinding, and sintering were investigated to produce defect-free components. An optimum solid loading was determined by torque rheometry experiments. The optimized processing conditions for debinding and sintering were designed through the measurement of weight loss and shrinkage behavior by thermogravimetric analysis and dilatometry experiments. After producing the surgical forceps based on the optimized processing conditions via PIM, surface treatment was carried out to generate the hydrophobic structure on the surface.
EN
The bead blasting process is widespread in both the automotive and aerospace industry and is performed in order to improve the fatigue strength of various components. Bead blasting is a cold plastic forming process during which the surface of the material processed is hit by small, hard particles consisting of steel pellets, bearing balls or glass beads. It increases the hardness of the outer layer and establishes compression stresses inside it, which is why this processing is often used to improve fatigue strength. Contrary to other peening methods, bead blasting does not result in a reduction in the height of the processed surface’s unevenness in most cases. Shot peening changes the residual tensile stresses into residual compression stresses, thanks to which, the lifetime of the parts processed is extended and their carrying capacity is increased. The double shot peening process proposed by the authors consists in a two-stage bead blasting process. The first stage consists in blasting with round cast steel pellets, pellets cut from wire or cast iron pellets. During the second stage the same samples underwent glass bead blasting. The tests conducted on the RSA-501 aluminum alloy indicate that as a result of the processing medium’s impact in the form of glass beads or pellets of different diameter and shape, a permanent plastic deformation of the material surface occurs. On the basis of the obtained results it is possible to infer that the choice of parameters of both conventional shot peening and the double shot peening determine the impact thereof on the material’s mechanical properties. Thanks to the application of the double shot peening process there is a noticeable decrease in value of the Ra parameter, by about 40% on average. When analyzing the compressive stress results it is possible to state that after the first blasting process the value of stress was increasing when moving deeply into the sample from its surface, while after the glass bead blasting the value of compressive stress was significantly higher already near the surface. Double shot peening results in an increase in the value of compressive stresses by 40-50% when compared to conventional blasting.
20
Content available remote Właściwości ceramiki litowo-silikatowej po obróbce jej powierzchni
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badania struktury powierzchni ceramiki krzemianu litu wzmocnionej tlenkiem cyrkonu oraz zmian składu chemicznego jej powierzchni po zastosowaniu obróbki strumieniowo-ściernej korundem szlachetnym o wielkości ziaren 50 μm, trawienia kwasem fluorowodorowym oraz kombinacji tych metod. Zastosowane metody znacząco wpłynęły na strukturę powierzchni ceramiki oraz wytrzymałość jej połączenia z materiałem kompozytowym. Wydłużenie czasu trawienia nie wpłynęło znacząco na rozwinięcie badanej powierzchni. Największą wytrzymałość połączenia ceramika-kompozyt uzyskano po piaskowaniu i trawieniu jej powierzchni 9-proc. kwasem fluorowodorowym przez 60 s.
EN
ZrO₂-reinforced Li silicate ceramic surface was treated by sandblasting with air-borne 50 μm Al₂O₃ particles, etching with 9% HF, and by combination of both methods. All treatments resulted in increasing bond strength to composite material. Prolonged HF etching did not change significantly surface morphol. The highest bond strength was achieved after sandblasting with Al₂O₃ and 60 s long HF etching of ceramic surface.
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