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We investigated ground response for Baku (Azerbaijan) from two earthquakes of magnitude M6.3 occurred in Caspian Sea (characterized as a near event) and M7.5 in Shamakhi (characterized as a remote extreme event). S-wave velocity with the average shear wave velocity over the topmost 30 m of soil is obtained by experimental method from the VP values measured for the soils. The downtown part of Baku city is characterized by low VS30 values (< 250 m/s), related to sand, water-saturated sand, gravel-pebble, and limestone with clay. High surface PGA of 240 gal for the M7.5 event and of about 190 gal for the M6.3 event, and hence a high ground motion amplification, is observed in the shoreline area, through downtown, in the north-west, and in the east parts of Baku city with soft clays, loamy sands, gravel, sediments.
This paper presents the implementation of point shear dislocation source into 2D parsimonious finite-difference computational grid for simulation of strong ground motion (SGM) characteristics. The procedure used for computing dislocations on the fault plane is identical to both well known kinematic and dynamic models, since dislocation on the fault was computed by solving the equation of motion taking into account the stress drop and the shear strength of the fault. Parsimonious scheme was adopted instead of standard staggered grid scheme since it requires lesser computational memory. The computed numerical radiation patterns of strike-slip, dip-slip and explosive type sources are in good agreement with the respective analytical radiation patterns. The effects of source parameters were studied and the results are in concordance with the existing empirical relations. The simulated results show that impedance decrease, resonance, thickness and geometry of the basin control amplitude amplification and signal duration. The responses for different basin geometry revealed that focusing effect caused by narrow and deep basin causes tremendous increase of amplitude and duration.
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