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1
Content available remote Implementation of skateboard for arm movement rehabilitation of stroke patients
EN
The objectives of this research were (1) to design and implement a skateboard for arm movement rehabilitation, (2) to apply a skateboard in stroke patients who need constant restoration of arm movements, (3) to produce cost-effective rehabilitation tools, (4) to provide guidelines for the development of medical applications with a skateboard for arm movement rehabilitation which can work in all four modes in the direction of the arm movements. The first mode consisted of the movement in the left-right direction, the second mode was the movement in the forward-backward direction, the third mode moved in the circular direction, and the fourth mode moved in number 8-shapaed direction (clockwise and counterclockwise).The developed skateboard could adjust the speed of the movement of three levels including LOW, MEDIUM and HIGH to meet the patients’ needs. The number of physical therapy sessions can also be set as needed. There was also an LCD display for ease of use. It could be concluded that skateboard could properly rehabilitate arm movement at the desired direction and speed. The skateboard could be able to meet the basic needs of the weak arm exercise. Moreover, there was also a display making it easy for users to quickly access information, reducing the duration of patient treatment. It also could excellently reduce the workload of physical therapists.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wykorzystanie deskorolki do rehabilitacji pacjentów z niedowładem ręki po wylewie. Odpowiedni układ steruje ruchem kół napędzanych silnikiem prądu stałego. Możliwy jest ruch w dowolnym kierunku i z dowolną prędkością.
EN
Stroke is one of the major reasons which affect the human hand functionality and lead to disability. Different repetitive exercises are used to regain the hand functionality which involves robotic exoskeleton. Soft pneumatic actuators are one of the good alternatives to rigid and fixed exoskeletons for rehabilitation. This paper presents soft robotic gloves fabricated with two different lowcost silicones which can be used in daily living activities and rehabilitation purpose. Soft robotic gloves are light weight and compact. These robotic gloves utilize the pneumatic pressure to flex and extend the human hand. Soft robotic gloves were tested on a healthy object for grasping and rehabilitation ability. Results showed that robotic glove was able to grasping and do the Kapandji test. This work presents an important step toward low cost efficient soft robotic devices for rehabilitation of stroke patients.
3
Content available remote Modelowanie wielowarstwowych osłon balistycznych minimalizujących skutki udaru
PL
Głównym celem przedstawionej rozprawy doktorskiej była analiza efektywności balistycznej wielowarstwowych tekstylnych osłon złożonych z tkanin dwuosiowych i trójosiowych oraz ocena skutków udaru balistycznego po niepenetrującym uderzeniu pocisku. Badania efektywności balistycznej wielowarstwowych osłon balistycznych z tkanin dwuosiowych i trójosiowych podanych ostrzałowi pociskiem Parabellum 9 x 19 mm FMJ przeprowadzono w oparciu o symulacje komputerowe w programie LS-Dyna oraz eksperymentalnie w Laboratorium Badań Balistycznych na Politechnice Łódzkiej. Tkaniny dwuosiowa i trójosiowa były wykonane z tej samej przędzy, posiadały porównywalną masę powierzchniową, natomiast różniły się jedynie typem splotu. W badaniach numerycznych modele przeplatane tkanin opracowano w oparciu o rzeczywiste wymiary tkaniny dwuosiowej i trójosiowej Kevlar 29. Model 3D tkaniny dwuosiowej i trójosiowej opracowano w programie Ansys ICEM CFD. Badania numeryczne przeprowadzono dla modeli przeplatanych warstw tkanin dwuosiowych oraz trójosiowych. Dla wyselekcjonowanych wielowarstwowych pakietów przeprowadzono symulacje centralnego uderzenia pocisku z prędkością początkową 406 m/s, co oznacza, że badania prowadzono w klasie kuloodporności II pakietów balistycznych zgodnie z normą NIJ Standard (2008). Realizacja badań numerycznych dla pakietów wielowarstwowych z tkanin dwuosiowych oraz trójosiowych Kevlar 29 pokazała skalę problemu związanego z czasochłonnością wykonywania analiz numerycz-nych. Dlatego też zdecydowano się na kolejny etap badań numerycznych polegający na zastąpieniu przeplatanego modelu geometrycznego tkaniny modelem 2D o strukturze zhomogenizowanej. Badania numeryczne oceny efektywności balistycznej zhomgenizowanych wielowarstwowych powłok 2D dla pakietów z tkanin dwu- i trójosiowych umożliwiły wyznaczenie wymaganej liczby warstw spełniającej pierwsze i drugie kryterium bezpie-czeństwa. Efektywność balistyczna miękkich pakietów formowanych z płaskich wyrobów włókienniczych ma istotny wpływ na skalę udaru balistycznego powstającego podczas niepenetrującego uderzenia pocisku (ang. BABT – Behind Armor Blunt Trauma). W celu określenia efektywności balistycznej pakietów balistycznych z tkanin dwuosiowych i trójosiowych przeprowadzono eksperymentalną analizę traumy balistycznej z użyciem podłoża z plasteliny balistycznej i żelu balistycznego. W dalszej kolejności opracowano numeryczny model korpusu ciała człowieka na podstawie sekwencji obrazów z tomografu komputerowego. Weryfikacja wyników badań numerycznych wiązała się z przygotowaniem fizycznego modelu ciała człowieka o rzeczywistych wymiarach klatki piersiowej mężczyzny. Uzyskane rezultaty pozwoliły na przeprowadzenie szczegółowej analizy fizjologicznych skutków udaru balistycznego po niepenetrującym uderzeniu pocisku. Eksperymentalna i numeryczna analiza uderzenia pocisku w model ciała człowieka wykazała, że ciśnienia oraz głębokość deformacji wywierane na określone organy są zawsze mniejsze w przypadku ochrony ciała pakietem balistycznym złożonym z tkanin trójosiowych.
EN
Soft ballistic packages are the main element of ballistic shields and are a vital protective layer protecting against fire from the firearms. Multilayer soft ballistic packages used in bulletproof vests provide protection against loss of health or even save lives of representatives of the social groups whose job is to ensure the lasting national security, maintain public order in the country and provide a sense of physical safety and security of property of the citizens. All representatives of these groups deserve the specialized and most innovative personal protection. The main aim of the foregoing doctoral thesis was to obtain an optimal textile structure of a ballistic shield minimizing the physiological effects of an impact. The thesis looks closer at the triaxial and biaxial structures adopting the two-step research methodology: numerical analysis, using Finite Element Method (FEM), and experimental verification in Ballistic Research Laboratory. First of all, numerical research – hitting 9x19 mm Parabellum FMJ bullet into the multilayered ballistic package was performed. This part resulted in the numerical analysis of the conception of replacing the fabric-structured 3D object by the homogenized 2D shell using different material models. The results of numerical research were verified experimentally in the ballistic tunnel. Packages consisted of 6, 12, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 30 layers of biaxial and triaxial KEVLAR 29 fabric. On the basis of the complete research results, it was found that the proposed conception of replacing the biaxial and triaxial fabric layer by the 2D shell will fully realize the established research plan. Particularly it was proved, that through the use of different material models for the researched textile structures it is possible to obtain similar ballistic effectiveness as in the case of real textile ballistic packages. In its further part the following paper describes the methodology of the research of soft ballistic packages using standard Roma No.1 substrate in accordance with the NIJ Standard 0101.06 and the proposed substrate Clear Ballistics Gel with characteristics similar to the tissues of the human body. There were significant differences in the maximum deformation cone for the package of 30 layers of woven biaxial and triaxial KEVLAR 29, depending on the ballistic substrate applied. The vast difference in the volume of deformation of the package depending on the ballistic substrate illustrates the problem of the currently used not updated research methodology of personal protection. The use of ballistic gel as a professional ballistic substrate is reliably closer to the real conditions in which vests are used. Based on the results, it was found that if diversified ballistic substrate was applied there is a tendency for the triaxial fabric ballistic package to achieve less than the maximum deformation cone. The value is low compared to the biaxial fabric package as a result of the influence of the isotropic properties of the fabric. Medical consultations of the analyzed research problem allowed to state that the assessment of the potential effects of a ballistic trauma depends primarily on defining the anatomic location of the bullet hits. Depending on where the deformation takes place in may result in breaking of ribs, lung contusion, pleural parenchyma and in extreme cases can lead to pneumothorax or bleeding into the pleural cavity. For the package with lower deformation values the scale of internal injuries is reduced and may lead to health changes only. The last stage of the research was to determine the scale of physiological effects of a stroke during non-penetrative bullet hitting in ballistic shield. For this purpose, numerical research was conducted using the discrete model in the form of "human body – a package of ballistic – projectile" It was also a challenge to make a physical model of the human body having the most important internal organs: heart and lungs. As a result of numerical analysis and experiments, it was found that the structure of the triaxial textile enables to minimize the maximum deformation cone, and consequently reduces the physiological effects of the stroke. The ballistic package of the biaxial fabric, which is an anisotropic material, significant damage in the place of direct impact in the shock wave was observed. On the other hand, the ballistic package made of triaxial fabric shows the influence of isotropic properties meaning that the deformation may be spread over a larger area ensuring less serious deformation of the internal organs. On the basis of medical opinion it was concluded that the triaxial fabric ballistic package can minimize the occurrence of rupture of liver capsule and the emergence subcapsular hematoma and there is little likelihood of intestine or colon perforation. In the case of the analysis of the damage to the thoracic cavity it has been found that the multiaxial fabric package will help to minimize the occurrence of pneumothorax and the occurrence of the extensive hemorrhage of the lung along the ribs.
EN
The Gait Variability Index (GVI) summarizes overall gait quality, taking into account spatiotemporal parameters from a 3-dimensional gait analysis. However, there are no studies evaluating changes in gait patterns after stroke, based on the GVI. The study was designed to assess usefulness of the GVI for evaluation of gait pathology in subjects with stroke, compared to healthy individuals. Methods: Spatiotemporal gait parameters were examined in a group of 50 subjects at a chronic stage post-stroke and in 50 healthy controls. The GVI was calculated based on the 9 spatiotemporal data. Results: The findings show statistically significant differences between the values of the GVI for paretic and non-paretic limbs ( p < 0.001). Higher values of the index were identified in the case of non-paretic limb: 80.74 vs. 76.32. The GVI scores were decreased for both paretic and non-paretic limbs, compared to the controls – p < 0.001. Conclusions: The GDI score seems to be a viable tool for quantifying changes in gait pattern during evaluation of subjects with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Further studies should be conducted to validate the use of GVI in the post-stroke population.
EN
Upper limb impairment in the early phase of brain stroke is one of the key problems in rehabilitation. An estimation of muscle force can be a helpful factor for functional improvement after a stroke. The primary goals of this study were to determine the muscles with the lowest force in the affected (A) and non-affected (non-A) upper limb. Moreover, the differences between men and women were compared and these values were correlated with age. Methods: One hundred (n = 35 female, n = 65 male) post-stroke patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the study participants was 66.1 years. Muscle force for external and internal rotators of shoulder was measured with handheld dynamometer. Moreover, the correlation coefficients for differences in muscular force with the patient’s age were estimated. Results: Our study reports that the force of the (A) side in relation to the (non-A) was by 37% weaker. We observed about a 40% decrease in the force of the shoulder’s external rotation (female – 42%; male – 41%) and shoulder’s flexion (by 38% – female; 40% – male). Significant correlations between the muscle force and the age of post-stroke patients were also found. It was concluded that about 4 weeks after the first stroke in the patient’s life, the external rotators are the most affected group of shoulder muscles. Conclusions: Neither sex nor the side of the ischemic brain injury influence the muscle force, whereas age determines both muscle force and muscle force deficits. Older post-stroke patients demonstrate fewer deficits in muscle strength than younger ones.
EN
Neurological disorders are diseases of the brain, spine and the nerves that connect them. There are more than 600 diseases of the nervous system, such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, brain tumors, and stroke as well as less familiar ones such as multiple sclerosis or frontotemporal dementia. The increasing capabilities of neurotechnologies are generating massive volumes of complex data at a rapid pace. Evaluating and diagnosing disorders of the nervous system is a complicated and complex task. Many of the same or similar symptoms happen in different combinations among the different disorders. This paper provides a survey of developed selected data mining methods in the area of neurological diseases diagnosis. This review will help experts to gain an understanding of how data mining techniques can assist them in neurological diseases diagnosis and patients treatment.
PL
Niniejsza praca dotyczy metod komputerowego wspomagania mających na celu zwiększenie skuteczność rozpoznania słabo widocznych objawów udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu na podstawie przetwarzania i analizy obrazów tomografii komputerowej. Efekty przetwarzania były ocenione i porównywane przy wykorzystaniu obiektywizowanej miary obliczeniowej. Ponadto przedstawiono algorytm automatycznej detekcji i rozpoznania podejrzanych zmian chorobowych na podstawie obrazów oraz z uwzględnieniem danych klinicznych.
EN
Presented work was aimed for developing methods supporting effective diagnosis of early ischemic stroke based on the processing and analysis of computer tomography images. The proposed algorithms were designed to improved recognition of hidden symptoms of early stroke, and automatic detection of suspected lesions with respect to clinical data. Image processing results were evaluated and compared by proposed objectified measures.
EN
To model and analyse stroke care and assistance provision in the Portuguese context from the network perspective. We used the network theory as a theoretical foundation for the study. The model proposed by Frey et al. (2006) was used to elicit and comprehend possible interactions and relations between organisations expected to be involved in the provision of care and assistance to stroke patients in their pathway to rehabilitation. Providers were identified and contacted to evaluate the nature and intensity of relationships. Network analysis was performed with the NodeXL software package. Analysis of 509 entities based on about 260 000 entries indicates that stroke care provision in the evaluated context is best captured in the coalition-collaboration setting, which appears to best demonstrate the character of the network. Information from analysis of the collaboration stage was not sufficient to determine the network dynamics. Application of the network theory to understand interorganisational dynamics of the complex health care context. Empirical validation of the model proposed by Frey et al. (2006) in terms of its operationalisation and the way it actually reflects the practical context. Examination and analysis of interorganisational relationships and its contribution to management of compound health care context involving actors from various sectors.
EN
Stroke is one of the major causes behind the increased mortality rate throughout the world and disability among the survivors. Such disabilities include several grasp and grip related impairment in daily activities like holding a glass of water, counting currency notes, producing correct signature in bank, etc., that seek serious attention. Present therapeutic facilities, being expensive and time-consuming, fail to cater the poverty stricken rural class of the society. In this paper, on the basis of an investigation, we developed a smart data glove based diagnostic device for better treatment of such patients by providing timely estimation of their grasp quality. Data collected from a VMG30 motion capture glove for six patients who survived stroke and two other healthy subjects was fused with suitable hypothesis obtained from a domain expert to reflect the required outcome on a Bayesian network. The end result could be made available to a doctor at a remote location through a smart phone for further advice or treatment. Results obtained clearly distinguished a patient from a healthy subject along with supporting estimates to study and compare different grasping gestures. The improvement in mobility could be assessed after physiotherapeutic treatments using the proposed method.
EN
Purpose: Subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis frequently present with asymmetric gait patterns. Symmetry, reflecting similarities in temporospatial, kinematic parameters, is an important measure of gait assessment. The study was designed to examine the relationships between asymmetry of temporal, spatial and kinematic gait parameters and walking velocity and distance. Methods: Temporospatial and kinematic gait parameters were examined in a group of 50 chronic post-stroke subjects and in a group of 25 healthy controls. Symmetry ratio was calculated for all the parameters. Gait velocity was measured during 10-metre test, the walking distance during 2-Minute Walk Test, and balance during Up&Go Test. Results: The relationship between stance phase duration symmetry and gait speed was at a moderate level (r = –0.43, p = 0.0173). There was a moderate relationship between swing phase symmetry and walking velocity and distance. The findings did not show a significant correlation between step length symmetry versus gait speed and distance. Conclusions: There is a mild relationship between self-selected gait velocity and walking distance versus temporal parameters symmetry. The findings do not confirm a relationship between self-selected gait velocity and walking distance versus spatial and kinematic parameters as well as balance. Likewise, no evidence confirms that asymmetry of temporal, spatial, kinematic gait parameters changes with the age of post-stroke subjects or is related to the length of time from stroke onset. Given the above, gait symmetry may be recognized as an important indicator of the level of gait control in post-stroke patients because it enables unique gait assessment, independent from other parameters.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the muscles with the lowest strength in nonaffected (non-A) and affected upper limb (A), to assess differences between men and women and to correlate these values with age in patients after stroke. Methods: Sixty hospitalized in Neurorehabilitation Ward patients (40 male, 20 female), 1-2 weeks after stroke, were enrolled to the study. Their age ranged from 50 to 80 years with a mean (sd) of 65,5 (18,7) years. Muscle force values from upper limb muscles were measured using the MicroFet 2 hand-held dynamometer. The results are displayed in newtons [N], mean values of muscular force, effect sizes and confidence intervals displayed as Cohen’s d and 95% CI were determined. Moreover, we made the coefficients correlation for differences in muscular force versus the Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) arm section. Results: Strength of (A) upper limb in comparison to (non-A) was 39% weaker. The severely affected muscle groups were the shoulder flexion 41% (women) versus 46% (men); elbow flexion 39% (women) versus 31% (men); wrist extension 36% (women) versus 42% (men). No significant correlations were found between muscle strength results and RMA or age. Conclusions: Muscle force of (A) upper limb after stroke demonstrates 39% decrease. Men show more significant decrease than women (40% vs 35%). Functional assessment in RMA values show the better results in women (4,9 ± 4,1) than men (3,4 ± 3,2).
EN
The study objective was to evaluate the impact of a ten-day rehabilitation process on the change of the distribution of body mass and the load on the lower limbs, using the tandem balance test and the modified tandem balance test in a sitting position in stroke patients. The distribution of load on the lower limbs found its expression in the index, referred to as the Kwolek index, which was developed. It was calculated as the quotient of the greater value to the lesser one, both obtained in the tandem balance test; the normal limits ranged from 1.00 to 1.15. Material and methods. The test group comprised of 60 stroke patients. 30 people were qualified to the control group. The basis for the analysis was the measurements of the distribution of body mass and load on the lower limbs in the tandem balance test and in the modified tandem balance test. The distribution of body mass test was carried out on the first and last day of rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of ischaemic stroke patients involved comprehensive physiotherapy. Results. When analyzing the distribution of body mass symmetry before and after the therapy in both the control group and the test group, an increase in the number of people was observed in the groups with a lower Kwolek index, whereas a decrease was present in the number of people in groups with a higher Kwolek index. Conclusions. Comprehensive rehabilitation affects the improvement of the distribution of body mass.
PL
Celem badań była ocena wpływu dziesięciodniowej rehabilitacji na zmianę rozkładu masy ciała oraz obciążenie kończyn dolnych przy użyciu testu dwóch wag oraz zmodyfikowanego testu dwóch wag w pozycji siedzącej u pacjentów po udarze mózgu. Wykorzystano do tego między innymi indeks Kwolka, który obrazuje rozkład masy ciała w teście dwóch wag. Indeks Kwolka wyrażany jest jako iloraz wartości większej do mniejszej uzyskanej w standardowym lub zmodyfikowanym teście dwóch wag. Materiał i metoda. Badaniom zostało poddane 96 osób. Grupę badaną stanowiło 60 pacjentów po udarze mózgu. Do grupy kontrolnej zakwalifikowano 30 osób. Podstawą analizy były pomiary rozkładu masy ciała i obciążenia kończyn dolnych w teście dwóch wag oraz zmodyfikowanym teście dwóch wag (w pozycji siedzącej). Badanie rozkładu masy ciała wykonano w pierwszym oraz ostatnim dniu rehabilitacji. Rehabilitacja pacjentów po niedokrwiennym udarze mózgu polegała na kompleksowej fizjoterapii. Wyniki. Analizując rozkład symetryczności masy ciała przed oraz po terapii zarówno w grupie kontrolnej jak i badawczej zaobserwowano tendencję do wzrostu liczby osób w grupach o niższym wskaźniku Kwolka, a zmniejszeniu się liczebności grup o wyższym wskaźniku Kwolka. Wnioski. Kompleksowa rehabilitacja ma wpływ na poprawę rozkładu masy ciała.
EN
Acoustocerebrography (ACG) is a set of techniques designed to capture states of human brain tissue, and its changes. It is based on noninvasive measurements of various parameters obtained by analyzing an ultrasound pulse emitted through the human’s skull. ACG and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results were compared in a clinical study assessment of focal white-matter-lesions (WML) in the brains of patients with asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AAF). The clinical study included 55 patients (age 66.1 ± 6.7 years). According to MRI data, the patients were assigned into four groups depending on the number of lesions: L0 - 0 to 4 lesions, L5 - 5 to 9 lesions, L10 - 10 to 29 lesions, and L30 - 30 or more lesions. As a result, it has been concluded that the ACG method could clearly differentiate the groups L0 (with 0 ÷ 4 lesions) and L30 (with more than 30 lesions) of WML patients. Fisher’s Exact Test shows that this correlation is highly significant (p < 0.001). ACG seems to be a new, effective, method for detecting WML for patients with AAF and can become increasingly useful in both diagnosing, and in stratifying, them. This, in turn, can be helpful in individualizing their treatment, so that the risk of strokes may become essentially reduced.
EN
In this paper we present the results of a two-year study aimed at developing a full-fledged computer environment supporting post-stroke rehabilitation. The system was designed by a team of computer scientists, psychologists and physiotherapists. It adopts a holistic approach to rehabilitation. In order to extend the rehabilitation process, the applied methods include a remote rehabilitation stage which can be carried out of at the patient’s home. The paper presents a distributed system architecture as well as results achieved by patients prior to and following a three-month therapy based on the presented system.
EN
In this paper, we present a new brain diagnostic method based on a computer aided multispectral ultrasound diagnostics method (CAMUD). We explored the standard values of the relative time of flight (RIT), as well as the attenuation, ATN, of multispectral longitudinal ultrasound waves propagated non-invasively through the brains of a standard Caucasian volunteer population across different ages and genders. For the interpretation of the volunteers health questionnaire and ultrasound data we explored various clustering and classification algorithms, such as PCA and ANOVA. We showed that the RIT and ATN values provide very good estimators of possible physiological changes in the brain tissue and can differentiate the possible high-risk groups obtained by other groups and methods (Russo et al. [1]; Lloyd-Jones et al. [2]; Medscape [3]). Special attention should be given to the subgroup which included almost 39% of the volunteers. Respondents in this group have a significantly increased minimum ATN value (see Classification Trees). These values are strongly correlated with the identified risk of stroke factors being: age, increased alcohol consumption, cases of heart disease and stroke in the family as already shown by Rusco and as incorporated into Lloyd-Jones et al., ‘‘Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2009 Update’’, by the American Heart Association (AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA), as updated recently in the 2015 ‘‘Stroke Prevention Guidelines’’.
EN
Purpose: Telerehabilitation is one of the newest branches of telemedicine which has been developed because patients need regular trainings outside the medical institution but still under specialist supervision. It helps maintain regularity of exercises and reduces costs. The professional and advanced systems for telerehabilitation are presented in papers however, there is still lack of development of minor systems which provide therapeutic values and are more accessible to people. Therefore we focus on a solution for hand telerehabilitation of post-stroke patients, based solely on a personal computer and camera. Methods: We focused on the manipulative hand (fingers, metacarpus, wrist) movements trainings for patients with cerebral palsy. The contact between patient and physiotherapist is provided by using web cameras and web service. Additionally the camera can be used to monitor the effectiveness of performed exercises. Computer vision system keeps track of the patient’s hand movement. The digital image processing is used to detect if the patient performs exercises correctly. Results: We created web service and software application TeleReh that provides therapeutic values for the hand impaired people. The created system was evaluated by three physiotherapists, one doctor and a cerebral palsy patient. Conclusions Our solution applies to all patients who have undergone basic rehabilitation in hospital and need to continue hand rehabilitation at home. The main advantages are: easily adaptation to the individual needs and abilities, monitoring the progress by using automatically generated reports after each training session. It is worth noticing, that discussion between IT specialists, rehabilitants and patients was necessary to achieve good results.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of objective evaluation of speech quality. As an example, the recovering process after stroke for patients with vascular lesion of a central nervous system has been taken into account. Application of neural networks gives possibility for objective evaluation of speech quality of patient suffering from disorder of speech motor.
PL
Udar mózgu jest jedną z najpoważniejszych chorób stanowiących trzecią z najczęstszych przyczyn zgonów. W oparciu o badania siły ścisku dłoni z wykorzystaniem dynamometru elektronicznego firmy Vernier, podjęto próbę oceny zdolności siłowych dłoni pacjentów po przebytym udarze, a także przedstawiono znaczenie wdrażania nowoczesnych technologii, pomocnych przy analizach postępów rehabilitacji. To właśnie w dziedzinie techniki można upatrywać największego potencjału rozwojowego w metodach leczenia udarowców na nadchodzące lata.
EN
Stroke is one of the most severe diseases which is the third of the most frequent cause leading to death. Based on studies on hand grip force using electronic dynamometer made by Vernier company, some attempts were taken to assess hand force capability of patients with neurological disorders. Also the importance of the implementation of modern technologies to assist in the analysis of the progress of rehabilitation was presented. The field of technology has the biggest potential for development in methods for treating patients after stoke in the coming years.
PL
Rezonans magnetyczny (RM) z obrazowaniem dyfuzyjnym (DWI) jest badaniem o bardzo wysokiej czułości i swoistości w rozpoznawaniu wczesnych zmian niedokrwiennych/obrazowaniu obrzęku cytotoksycznego. W ostatnich kilku latach wzrosło zainteresowanie wykorzystaniem tensora dyfuzji do oceny dynamiki wczesnych zmian w przebiegu udaru niedokrwiennego mózgu.
20
Content available remote Magnetic-mechanical accumulator of kinetic energy
EN
The paper focuses on the process of non-contacting kinetic energy accumulation at the dead-end positions of a reciprocating rectilinear motion with a variable stroke. It describes the development of a magnetic-mechanical accumulator that absorbs energy while the moving part is decelerating towards the dead-end position and releases the energy back to the system while it is accelerating from the dead-end position. At the same time, it enables stroke modification of a certain level with a minimal impact on the maximum force of the accumulator. With respect to the magneto-static analysis of components, the preload of the mechanical element has been set accordingly. The dynamic analysis of the system has been carried out and the prototype produced and tested on the testing rig.
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