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EN
The subsurface groundwater potential was calculated through the Geographic Information System (GIS) tool in district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan; research was carried out in the vulnerable and arid climatic regions of the study area, which experienced unpredictable droughts and extreme foods. The primary recharging source of the aquifer is rainfall only in monsoon season from July to September. The current situation of water resources is critical in the region; in the present research work, two principal groundwater aquifers were encountered present in lithology of Laki formation mostly in sand and gravel lithology, which are shallow and deep aquifers. The GIS has been employed as a preservative tool to estimate groundwater potential. The estimated groundwater potential was 29,330.22 million cubic meter (MCM) under the monitoring area of 3207.25 square kilometers (km²); thus, the volume of groundwater was 9.14 MCM/km² in the selected cluster zone of the study area. It is realized that using a GIS tool combats the susceptible situation and shows authenticated results of groundwater potential.
EN
During the late Oligocene to early Miocene the residual Magura Basin was located along the front of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). This basin was supplied with clastic material derived from a south-eastern direction. In the Małe (Little) Pieniny Mts. in Poland, the late Oligocene/early Miocene Kremna Fm. of the Magura Nappe (Krynica subunit) occurs both in front of the PKB as well as in the tectonic windows within the PKB. Lenses of exotic conglomerates in the Kremna Fm. contain frequent clasts of Mesozoic limestones (e.g. limestones with “filaments” microfacies and Urgonian limestones) and Eocene shallow-water limestones. Fragments of crystalline and volcanic rocks occur subordinately. The provenance of these exotic rocks could be probably connected with Eocene exhumation and erosion of the SE part of the Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units.
EN
Detailed study of all the ammonite collections gathered by the authors in the Staffin Bay sections has resulted in minor changes in the distribution of ammonite taxa, and slight modification of the position of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary. Most significant is the discovery of Pictonia (Triozites) cf. seminudata which results in the placing of the stage boundary 0.16 m below the level formerly proposed. This study discusses the evolution of the Subboreal family Aulacostephanidae, and the Boreal family Cardioceratidae, indicating changes in the patterns of individual development in the evolution of both families in terms of heterochrony. The Oxfordian/ Kimmeridgian boundary interval shows major morphological changes in both ammonite families which were released from phylogenetic constraints by heterochrony, closely related to changes in environmental conditions.
EN
The present study revolves around the identification of the stratigraphical boundary between Pleistocene formations that formed prior to the first advance of the Scandinavian ice sheet (Early Pleistocene, i.e., the so-called preglacial) and the overlying, glacially derived deposits (Middle Pleistocene). In particular, it focuses on variation in heavy mineral assemblages, which are an important tool for stratigraphers. The Neogene basement, described here, was most often the source of material that was redeposited by Early Pleistocene rivers. The geological structure and Early Pleistocene palaeogeographical scenarios for various Polish regions are discussed. Moreover, comparisons with other European preglacial formations are carried out. The mineral spectrum of Lower Pleistocene deposits is largely dependent of rocks of the Neogene and Mesozoic basement. If the incision of ancient catchments was into terrigenous rocks, the stratigraphical boundary between preglacial and glacial formations is easily determined with the help of a heavy mineral analysis. As a rule, this coincides with a noticeable change from resistant to non-resistant mineral associations. Such cases are noted for successions in central Poland and eastern England. On the other hand, outcrops of igneous or metamorphic rocks exist within preglacial river catchments in most parts of Europe. They were the local sources of non-resistant heavy minerals long before their glacial supply from the Baltic Shield. In these cases, mineralogical analysis fails in the search for the Early/Middle Pleistocene transition.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problemy związane z należącym do procesu badań powierzchni architektonicznych odsłanianiem malowideł ściennych. Omówiono też sposób przygotowywania w przeszłości wtórnych powłok przed nanoszeniem kolejnych dekoracji oraz podstawowe zasady postępowania konserwatorskiego. Warstwy stratygraficzne malarstwa ściennego stanowią: murowane podłoże, tynki, pobiały i warstwy barwne. Nie zawsze zdejmowane są wszystkie wtórne nawarstwienia z całej powierzchni oryginalnej dekoracji, czasami wykonuje się jedynie niewielkie odkrywki. Zdejmowanie przemalowań jest prowadzone w ramach prac konserwatorskich, dlatego duża część rozstrzygnięć należy do specjalistów z tej dziedziny. W przeszłości konserwatorzy odsłaniali zwykle w całości zachowaną warstwę najstarszą; późniejsze były po prostu tracone. Dziś istnieje wiele metod konserwacji i sposobów ekspozycji, aby ocalić malowidła pochodzące z kilku okresów historycznych, stworzone na tej samej ścianie. Różne sposoby i formy ich ekspozycji pokazano w artykule na fotografiach. Należy podkreślić, że jednoczesna prezentacja malowideł pochodzących z kilku okresów to głównie kwestia estetyczna. Nie wolno też zapominać, że dekoracja malarska nie tylko jest dziełem sztuki, ale stanowi dokument losów historycznej budowli.
EN
The article presents problems of revealing of mural paintings which is an integral part of architectural surfaces investigation. The paper also describes different kinds of preparatory layers used in the past as a support for new decorations and general rules of its conservation proceedings. The stratigraphic layers of mural painting are the following: the wall, plasters and renderings, strata of whitewash and polychromes. In some cases only limited parts of authentic paint are presented without removing of all layers added later on the whole decorated surface. Overpaintings are removed in conservation treatment, that is why the conservator is the one to make the most important decisions. In the past conservators used to reveal the oldest existing paint layer; overlapping layers were simply lost. Today there are many solutions and methods of conservation allowing to preserve and expose paintings created on the same wall in different historical periods. The photographs included in the article illustrate different systems and forms of presentation. It should be stressed that parallel presentation of paintings coming from several periods is mainly an aesthetical problem. One should also remember that painted decoration is not only a work of art but also a document of history of the building.
EN
The Upper Greensand Formation, mostly capped by the Chalk, crops out on the edges of a broad, dissected plateau in Devon, west Dorset and south Somerset and has an almost continuous outcrop that runs from the Isle of Purbeck to the Vale of Wardour in south Wiltshire. The Formation is well exposed in cliffs in east Devon and the Isle of Purbeck, but is poorly exposed inland. It comprises sandstones and calcarenites with laterally and stratigraphically variable amounts of carbonate cement, glauconite and chert. The sedimentology and palaeontology indicate deposition in marginal marine-shelf environments that were at times subject to strong tidal and wave-generated currents. The formation of the Upper Greensand successions in the region was influenced by penecontemporaneous movements on major fault zones, some of which are sited over E-W trending Variscan thrusts in the basement rocks and, locally, on minor faults. Comparison of the principal sedimentary breaks in the succession with the sequence boundaries derived from world-wide sea-level curves suggests that local tectonic events mask the effects of any eustatic changes in sea level. The preserved fauna is unevenly distributed, both laterally and stratigraphically. Bivalves, gastropods and echinoids are common at some horizons but are not age-diagnostic. Ammonites are common at a few stratigraphically narrowly defined horizons, but are rare or absent throughout most of the succession. As a result, the age of parts of the succession is still poorly known.
EN
The major goal of the project “The evolution of terrestrial environments of the Upper Silesian Keuper as biotopes of vertebrates”, granted for Grzegorz Racki by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (2009-2013), was an exhaustive, integrated study of the bone-enriched middle Keuper interval in terms of stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry. The new website “Bone-bearing Keuper of the Upper Silesia, southern Poland” (http://www.ing.pan.pl/Keuper/Bone-bearing_Keuper-1.htm)presents in English the results of this project. The significant achievements are only a starting point to a comprehensive presentation of the complex Keuper themes, jointly with an extensive repository of regional literature (above 420 full-texted publications since 1790). In addition, the main results of the grant, as well as diversity of their implications for future studies are summarized herein, with emphasis on controversial geochronological aspects in vertebrate paleontology (how many bone-rich levels?), and in a broad historical context.
8
Content available remote Analiza przyczyn powstania liniowej deformacji nieciągłej
PL
W artykule przedstawiony został przykład wystąpienia na powierzchni liniowej deformacji nieciągłej powyżej przecznic polowych, jednej z kopalń GZW. Przeprowadzona została analiza warunków geologiczno-górniczych wraz z obliczeniami deformacji powierzchni wywołanymi dokonaną eksploatacją.
EN
The article presents an example of the occurrence of a discontinuous deformation on the surface above the field cross-cuts, in one of the mines of Upper Silesian Coalbasin. The analysis of geological and mining conditions was carried out along with calculations of surface deformations caused by the performed mining operations
EN
At its maximum development in the type area on the Devon coast, the Upper Greensand Formation comprises up to 55 m of sandstones and calcarenites with laterally and stratigraphically variable amounts of carbonate cement, glauconite and chert that were deposited in fully marine, shallow-water environments. The formation is divided into three members, in ascending order the Foxmould, Whitecliff Chert and Bindon Sandstone, each of which is bounded by a prominent erosion surface that can be recognised throughout the western part of the Wessex Basin. The full thickness of the formation, up to 60 m, was formerly well exposed in cliffs in the Isle of Purbeck in the steeply dipping limb of the Purbeck Monocline. The upper part of the succession is highly condensed in comparison with the Devon succession and exhibits lateral variations over distances of hundreds of metres that are probably related to penecontemporaneous fault movements. Much of the fauna is not age-diagnostic with the result that the ages of parts of the succession are still poorly known. However, the Isle of Purbeck sections contain diverse ammonite faunas at a few stratigraphically well-defined levels that enable the succession to be correlated with that of east Devon and west Dorset.
EN
Radiolarian assemblages from the uppermost Oxfordian (Hypselum Zone) deposits of two sections (Katarowa Góra and Bobrowniki) in the Wieluń Upland (central Poland) are studied for the first time. The overall composition of the assemblages is characterized by low taxonomic diversity, with many individuals of spherical morphotypes, with dominance of the family Williriedellidae and Gongylothoracidae, among the nassellarians. The radiolarians show features mostly of the Northern Tethyan fauna. Additionally, more cosmopolitan forms consisting of spumellarians and of cold water representatives of the family Parvicingulidae appear in the middle and upper parts of the Hypselum Zone. This change in the character of the radiolarian assemblages suggests Boreal influences into the Submediterranean basin related to activity of sea currents, which have been stimulated by climatic changes during the latest Oxfordian.
EN
The Tithonian ammonite succession at the Owadów–Brzezinki quarry, central Poland shows the presence of Subboreal ammonites of both NE European (“Volgian”) and NW European (“Bolonian–Portlandian”) affinity, making possible the correlation between the relevant ammonite subdivisions. The former are represented by Zaraiskites – Z. regularis Kutek and Z. zarajskensis (Michalski) as well as an early form of Virgatites – V. gerassimovi Mitta which enable the recognition of the upper part of the Scythicus Zone (the Zaraj¬skensis Subzone) and the lower part of the Virgatus Zone (the Gerassimovi Subzone) of the “Middle Volgian”. The latter are represented by Virgatopavlovia, which enables the correlation with the Fittoni Zone of the uppermost “Bolonian”, and by still younger assemblage of small-sized virgatitids – such as V. pusillus (Michalski), showing similarity to Progalbanites albani (Arkell) of the Albani Zone of the lowermost “Portlandian”. The new species established include: Zaraiskites lewinskii sp. nov. which represents a new member of the virgatitid lineage linking an older Z. pommerania (Arkell) with younger small-sized Virgatites, as well as two species of the genus Virgatopavlovia – V. janeki sp. nov. and V. dembowskae sp. nov. The appearance of ammonites of NW and NE European affinity in central Poland resulted from the opening of the new sea routes possibly related with tectonic activity in northern European areas at the transition from Early to Late Tithonian.
PL
Otwór badawczo-eksploatacyjny M-35 jest zlokalizowany w południowo-wschodniej części wysadu solnego Mogilno (Ryc. 2). Został odwiercony do głębokości 1755 metrów. Otwór nawierca ewaporaty późnego permu (cechsztynu). W analizowanym rdzeniu wydzielono 13 ogniw cechsztyńskiej serii solnej cyklotemów PZ2, PZ3 i PZ4. Złoże solne w rejonie otworu M-35 jest uformowane tektonicznie. W wyniku procesów halokinetycznych i halotektonicznych warstwy solne zostały silnie sfałdowane i zalegają bardzo stromo. Upad warstw waha się od 35 do 90°. Najczęściej jednak wynosi 70-80°. W wyniku częstych zmian kąta upadu i przefałdowań otwór przewierca kilkakrotnie te same ogniwa. Ponadto wiele wydzieleń jest zredukowanych lub całkowicie wyklinowanych. W profilu nie stwierdzono warstw stropowych cyklotemu PZ4 i ewaporatów starszych niż ogniwo starszej soli kamiennej (Na2).
EN
The M-35 exploratory borehole and operating well is located in the south-eastern part of the Mogilno Salt Dome (Fig. 2). It was drilled down to the depth of 1,755 m penetrating the Upper Permian (Zechstein) evaporates. Its core section enabled to distinguish 13 lithostratigraphic members of the Zechstein salt series, represented cyclothems PZ2, PZ3, and PZ4. The observed salt units had been tectonically extremely folded and steeply arranged. The layers dip varies from 35° to 90°, mostly 70-80° and the same salt units repetated several times in the section. Also many of them were reduced in thickness or completely wedged out. The uppermost units of PZ4 cycle or evaporates older than the Older Halite (Na2) unit, were not found in the studied profile.
EN
The lower part of the Frasnian succession in the Radlin Syncline (Kielce–Łagów Synclinorium, southern region of the Holy Cross Mountains), in the two studied successions: Józefka at Górno and (for the first time) Radlin, consists of the rhythmic marly Szydłówek Beds, the fossil-rich limestones of the Wietrznia Beds (locally) and the atypically developed, calcareous Kostomłoty Beds. The carbon isotope chemostratigraphic pattern overall corresponds well to the global Early–Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbation, even if the major punctata positive excursion is only fragmentarily recorded in the Kostomłoty intrashelf basin. Two brachiopod assemblages are abundantly represented in both sections: the Phlogoiderhynchus polonicus Assemblage, typical of the Szydłówek Beds, and the Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage, limited to the middle part of the Wietrznia Beds. Both are highly dominated by the index species. Twenty nine lower Frasnian brachiopod species (Craniida – 1 species, Strophomenida – 1, Productida – 2, Protorthida – 1, Orthida – 5, Pentamerida – 1, Rhynchonellida – 4, Atrypida – 4, Athyridida – 3, Spiriferida – 4, Spiriferinida – 3) are described from the Szydłówek and Wietrznia Beds. Seven new species are introduced: Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov., Biernatium minus Baliński sp. nov., Monelasmina montisjosephi Baliński sp. nov., Atryparia (Costatrypa) agricolae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov., Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov., Leptathyris gornensis Baliński sp. nov., and Echinocoelia parva Baliński sp. nov. Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov. is intermediate between Davidsonia Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1849 and Rugodavidsonia Copper, 1996 and is the youngest known representative of the suborder Davidsonioidea Copper, 1996. Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov. is the last representative of the genus. Statistical investigation of a large sample of Spinatrypina (Exatrypa) explanata did not confirm the existence of two dimorphic forms, coarse- and fine-ribbed. The high-diversity Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage is quite dissimilar to coeval brachiopod assemblages described heretofore from the Holy Cross Mountains region. It is interpreted as consisting of mostly parautochthonous dwellers of deep-slope muddy habitats and a local, occasionally storm-agitated, intra-basin brachiopod-crinoid-coral shoal. The fauna was adapted probably to cooler and nutrient-poor waters during an initial phase of the severe carbon cycle perturbation.
EN
The Oxfordian to Tithonian sediments deposited along the southern Tethyan margin exhibit very diverse sedimentary facies. The Jaisalmer Basin, situated along the northwestern margin of the Indian peninsula, is a good example of those preserving these sediments (Baisakhi Formation). The scattered nature of the outcrops, due to peneplanation and desert sand cover, and the diversity in sedimentary facies, have led earlier workers to employ a confusing lithostratigraphy and lithostratigraphic correlations. New records of ammonites, more detailed facies description and the application of the sequence stratigraphic method helped to sort out the stratigraphical problems of these isolated outcrops. The complexity of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sediments present in the Jaisalmer Basin, as evidenced by ammonite finds can be traced along an onshore – offshore transect. Within the Oxfordian-Tithonian strata of the Baisakhi Formation, Jaisalmer Basin, 35 parasequences grouped into three depositional sequences (TST-HST/FSST) have been recognized. In at least two cases, the maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) are superimposed on the transgressive surfaces within very condensed sections. The parasequences belong to a continuous succession representing shoreface (deepest part of the basin) to foreshore (shallowest part of the basin). During deposition of the Tithonian succession the southern part of the basin witnessed shallow, nearshore, or foreshore to fluvial depositional environments and, consequently, contains several depositional gaps and less distinct parasequences. The chronological order of the parasequences has been established on the basis of ammonites: Oxfordian – Perisphinctes (Dichotomosphinctes) sp. and P. (Dichotomoceras) sp.; Kimmeridgian – Torquatisphinctes alterniplicatus (Waagen) and Pachysphinctes aff. major Spath; Tithonian – Aulacosphinctoides sp., Virgatosphinctinae and other zonal ammonites recorded by earlier workers. The most logical facies correlation in conformity with Walther’s law was also used. Unfortunately, no marker beds have been recognized; however, the record of at least two brackish-water phases helped in the understanding of depositional settings along the onshore-offshore transects during these time intervals. In general, the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian part of Baisakhi Formation exhibits a general coarsening-upward trend and a change from lower shoreface zone to fluvial environments. The three sequence cycles interpreted within the Oxfordian-Tithonian sediments in the Jaisalmer Basin correspond to second-order sequence cycles.
PL
Celem przeprowadzonych prac było rozpoznanie i zbadanie profilu osadów paleogenu i neogenu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem młodszego neogenu, w miejscowości Łęczyce koło Lęborka, gdzie w odsłonięciu w skarpie pradoliny Redy-Łeby stwierdzono występowanie utworów neogeńskich. Posadowiony u podstawy odsłonięcia otwór wiertniczy Łęczyce-Tr osiągnął głębokość 110,0 m p.p.t. i został zatrzymany w utworach formacji mosińskiej dolnej z dolnego oligocenu. Próbki pobrane z odsłonięcia i z rdzenia wiertniczego wykorzystano do badań laboratoryjnych składu ziarnowego (133 analizy), węglanowości osadów (122 analizy), składu minerałów ciężkich (41 próbek) i badań zespołów sporowo-pyłkowych i fitoplanktonu (39 próbek). W profilu otworu wiertniczego rozpoznano osady dolnego oligocenu i miocenu odpowiadające formacjom: mosińskiej dolnej, czempińskiej i mosińskiej górnej (dolny oligocen), gorzowskiej i krajeńskiej (dolny/ środkowy miocen) oraz adamowskiej (środkowy miocen). Stwierdzone w profilu odsłonięcia osady plioceńskie uznano za ekwiwalenty formacji poznańskiej i gozdnickiej. Przeprowadzono korelację stratygraficzną rozpoznanej sukcesji z profilami z obszarów sąsiadujących na terenie północno-wschodniej Polski oraz z Półwyspu Sambijskiego. Wyniki badań umożliwiły odtworzenie warunków sedymentacji osadów, prześledzenie następstwa zbiorowisk roślinnych i implikujących je zmian klimatu. Ze względu na zachowanie pełnego profilu osadów kenozoicznych i stwierdzenie występowania osadów plioceńskich (jedyne stanowisko w tym rejonie), profil z Łęczyc uznano za referencyjny dla Pomorza Wschodniego.
EN
The reported study focused on a complex analysis of Paleogene–Neogene section located at Łęczyce near Lębork (Eastern Pomerania). The lower part of the section is represented by Lower Oligocene to Miocene deposits, drilled by the Łęczyce-Tr well to the depth of 110 m. Its upper part consists of the Late Neogene succession exposed in the slope of the Reda–Łeba palaeovalley just above the drill top. Both core and outcrop sections were sampled for analyses of grain size and composition (133 samples), carbonate content (122 samples), heavy mineral composition (41 samples), and spore-pollen and phytoplankton assemblages (39 samples). For the first time in the Eastern Pomerania, a succession of the standard Lower Oligocene to Pliocene formations has been identified in this section including the Oligocene to Miocene deposits represented by the Lower Mosina Fm., Czempin Fm., Upper Mosina Fm. (Lower Oligocene), Gorzów Fm. and Krajenka Fm. (Lower/ Middle Miocene) and Adamów Fm. (Middle Miocene). Outcrop of the Pliocene deposits (unique in the area), being an equivalent of the Poznań Fm., were described. All the distinguished units were correlated with corresponding sections from the north-eastern Poland and the Sambia Peninsula. The study results have enabled to reconstruct the sedimentary conditions and depositional environments, as well as the succession of floral communities that record the paleoclimatic changes. The Łęczyce section, comprising the Lower Oligocene to Pliocene deposits, is a representative section of the Paleogene–Neogene succession for the whole area of Eastern Pomerania.
PL
Na podstawie wyników szczegółowej analizy zespołów nanoplanktonu wapiennego występującego w profilach badawczych otworów wiertniczych wykonanych w rejonie Buska, w północnej części zapadliska przedkarpackiego, określono pozycję stratygraficzną przewierconych sekwencji osadowych. W profilu otworu wiertniczego Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 iły margliste górnej części formacji skawińskiej zaliczono do poziomu nanoplanktonowego NN5 Sphenolithus heteromorphus odpowiadającego środkowemu badenowi Paratetydy i górnemu langowi/ dolnemu serrawalowi w prowincji medyterańskiej. Serie z ewaporatami (przeławicenia gipsów i iłów), wyróżnione jako formacja krzyżanowicka, oraz osady ilaste formacji z Machowa reprezentują poziom nanoplanktonowy NN6 Discoaster exilis. Przez analogię do innych basenów Paratetydy Środkowej granicę pięter badeńskiego i sarmackiego w profilu tego otworu wskazano bezpośrednio poniżej 20-metrowej miąższości sekwencji zawierającej skały bogate w okrzemki. W zespołach nanoplanktonu wapiennego dolny sarmat wyznacza pojawienie się gatunków Rhabdosphaera poculi Bóna et Kernerne i Rhabdosphaera procera Martini. W profilu otworu wiertniczego Kazimierza Wielka (Donosy) PIG-1, w osadach formacji z Machowa, wyróżniono poziom nanoplanktonowy NN6 Discoaster exilis. Masowy rozwój okrzemek udokumentowany w profilu otworu wiertniczego Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 świadczy o położeniu tego obszaru w pobliżu ujścia większej rzeki dostarczającej związki azotu, fosforu oraz krzemionkę. Zachowanie delikatnych frustul okrzemek było możliwe dzięki szybkiej sedymentacji osadów klastycznych w nadkładzie skał bogatych w okrzemki.
EN
The results of detailed analysis of calcareous nannoplankton in Miocene deposits from the northern part of the Carpathian Foredeep enabled stratigraphic conclusions. Marly clays of the uppermost part of the Skawina Formation in the Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 borehole section are correlated with the NN5 Sphenolithus heteromorphus Zone that corresponds with the Middle Badenian in the Paratethys and the upper Langhian/ Lower Serravalian in the Mediterranean region. The Krzyżanowice Formation, which includes evaporites (gypsum and clay intercalations), and the Machów Formation represent the NN6 Discoaster exilis Zone. By a comparison with other Paratethyan basins, the Badenian/ Sarmatian boundary is proposed just below a 20-metres thick set of diatomaceous siltstone layers. Among the calcareous nannofossil species, the appearance of Rhabdosphaera poculi Bóna et Kernerne and Rhabdosphaera procera Martini may point to the Lower Sarmatian transgression. Clayey sequences of the Machów Formation in the Kazimierza Wielka (Donosy) PIG-1 borehole correspond with the NN6 Discoaster exilis Zone. Abundance of diatom floras observed in the Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 borehole suggests a proximity of a river mouth that supplied water with nitrates, phosphates and silica. Preservation of delicate siliceous diatom frustules was possible due to rapid deposition of clastic sediments above diatomaceous siltstone.
PL
Do badań faunistycznych wykorzystano próbki utworów pobrane z rdzeni z otworów wiertniczych wykonanych w 2010 r. w zachodniej części zapadliska przedkarpackiego. W tej części zapadliska, gdzie miąższość osadów zalegających powyżej utworów gipsowych nie przekracza 200 m, przeważają osady drobnoziarniste, mułowce i iłowce należące do formacji z Machowa. Przeanalizowano 56 próbek: 32 próbki z rdzenia z otworu Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 o długości 200 m oraz 24 próbki z rdzenia z otworu Kazimierza Wielka (Donosy) PIG-1 o długości 191 m. Zidentyfikowano 12 gatunków małżów: Nucula (Nucula) nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Lentipecten corneus denudatus (Reuss, 1867), Delectopecten vitreus (Gmelin, 1791), Inaequicostata cf. politioanei (Jekelius, 1944), Obsoletiforma vindobonensis (Laskarew, 1903), Plicatiforma pseudoplicata (Friedberg, 1934), Ervilia podolica (Eichwald, 1830), Ervilia trigonula Sokolov, 1899, Abra (Syndosmya) reflexa (Eichwald, 1830), Macoma (Psammacoma) elliptica (Brocchi, 1814), Corbula (Varicorbula) cf. gibba (Olivi, 1792) i Cuspidaria rostrata (Spengler, 1793). W artykule podano zasięgi stratygraficzne znalezionych gatunków i opisy rzadkich bądź ważnych stratygraficznie gatunków. Wyznaczona na podstawie zespołów małżowych granica baden/ sarmat przebiega w utworach z głębokości 109,10–127,70 m w otworze wiertniczym Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 i 150,80–162,80 m w otworze wiertniczym Kazimierza Wielka (Donosy) PIG-1. Gatunkiem umożliwiającym datowanie spągowej części formacji z Machowa na późny baden jest przegrzebek Delectopecten vitreus (Gmelin, 1791), podczas gdy znaleziska Abra (Syndosmya) reflexa (Eichwald, 1830) pozwalają określić wiek stropowej części tej formacji na wczesny sarmat.
EN
The study is based on the fossil material derived from cores drilled in 2010 in the western part of the Carpathian Foredeep Basin. The deposits overlying the gypsum level, represented mainly by mudstones and clays of the Machów Fm., are less than 200 m thick in this part of the Carpathian Foredeep. In total, 56 samples were investigated: 32 samples from the Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 drilling core 200 m long; and 24 samples from the Kazimierza Wielka (Donosy) PIG-1 drilling core, 191 m long. Twelve bivalve species have been identified, namely: Nucula (Nucula) nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Lentipecten corneus denudatus (Reuss, 1867), Delectopecten vitreus (Gmelin, 1791), Inaequicostata cf. politioanei (Jekelius, 1944), Obsoletiforma vindobonensis (Laskarew, 1903), Plicatiforma pseudoplicata (Friedberg, 1934), Ervilia podolica (Eichwald, 1830), Ervilia trigonula Sokolov, 1899, Abra (Syndosmya) reflexa (Eichwald, 1830), Macoma (Psammacoma) elliptica (Brocchi, 1814), Corbula (Varicorbula) cf. gibba (Olivi, 1792) and Cuspidaria rostrata (Spengler, 1793). Stratigraphic ranges of bivalve species as well as descriptions of rare or stratigraphically important species have been presented. The bivalves define the Badenian/ Sarmatian boundary within the depth range 109.10–127.70 m in the Busko (Młyny) PIG-1 borehole, and within the depth range 150.80–162.80 m in the Kazimierza Wielka (Donosy) PIG-1 borehole. Specifically, the scallop Delectopecten vitreus (Gmelin, 1791) defines the base of the Machów Fm. as the Late Badenian, while the species Abra (Syndosmya) reflexa (Eichwald, 1830) enables to specify the age of the uppermost part of the Machów Fm. as the Early Sarmatian.
EN
A previously unrecorded ammonite assemblage, comprising Lepthoplites sp., Callihoplites tetragonus (Seeley, 1865), C. cf. tetragonus, Arrhaphoceras cf. substuderi Spath, 1923, Cantabrigites sp., Stoliczkaiella (Stoliczkaiella) sp., Hamites cf. duplicatus Pictet and Campiche, 1861, H. cf. subvirgulatus Spath, 1941, and H. cf. venetzianus Pictet, 1847, is described from the mid-Cretaceous condensed succession at Annopol, Poland. These specimens are preserved as pale phosphates or sandstone moulds in a bed of reworked phosphatic nodules near the top of the Albian. This assemblage has many species in common with the late late Albian faunas from condensed deposits of England, Switzerland, and France. The presence of Callihoplites tetragonus indicates the lowermost upper upper Albian Mortoniceras fallax Zone. The ammonites studied are the youngest elements in the phosphate bed, which also contains taxa as old as the middle Albian Hoplites dentatus Zone. This bed originated through condensation and reworking of nodules and fossils in a period of low net sedimentation rate, being probably a reflection of a sea-level drop at the boundary between the classic ammonite zones of Mortoniceras inflatum and Stoliczkaiella dispar.
EN
The ammonite succession in the stratigraphical interval from the Bifurcatus Zone, through the Hypselum Zone, up to the lower part of the Bimammatum Zone corresponding to a large part of the Submediterranean Upper Oxfordian is studied in several sections of the Polish Jura in central Poland. The sections have yielded numerous ammonites of Submediterranean–Mediterranean affinity, but also, some of Boreal and Subboreal character. The co-occurrence of ammonites of different bioprovinces makes possible the correlation between the different zonal schemes – especially between the Subboreal/Boreal zonations and the Submediterranean/Mediterranean zonation. The correlation shows that the boundary of the Pseudocordata and Baylei zones (Subboreal) and its equivalent – the boundary of the Rosenkrantzi and Bauhini zones (Boreal), currently proposed as the primary standard of the Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian boundary within its GSSP at Staffin Bay (Isle of Skye, Scotland), runs in the Submediterranean/Mediterranean Upper Oxfordian near the base of the Bimammatum Zone. This discovery removes the main obstacle against the formal recognition of the Staffin Bay section as representing the uniform base of the Kimmeridgian Stage in the World and its GSSP. The ammonite taxa recognized are commented on and/or described, and suggestions on their taxonomical and phylogenetical relations are given in the palaeontological part of the study. A new taxon is established: Microbiplices anglicus vieluniensis subsp. nov.
20
Content available remote Muszloraczkowa stratygrafia pogranicza permu i triasu : rzeczywistość czy mit?
EN
In the last years, the conchostracan stratigraphy has become a popular method for distingushing the Permian/Triassic boundary in intracontinental settings. This paper provides a background of chronostratigraphic interpretation of the new method. Several problems are reported, from which the most important are: 1 – lack of consequent documentation of the index species, 2 – indirect correlation with the conodont stratigraphy through the sporomorph spectra, 3 – lack of definition and documentation of supporting palynologic zones, 4 – difficulties in taxonomic determinations of conchostracan. Revision of the method by several independent research teams is suggested.
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