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EN
The subsurface groundwater potential was calculated through the Geographic Information System (GIS) tool in district Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan; research was carried out in the vulnerable and arid climatic regions of the study area, which experienced unpredictable droughts and extreme foods. The primary recharging source of the aquifer is rainfall only in monsoon season from July to September. The current situation of water resources is critical in the region; in the present research work, two principal groundwater aquifers were encountered present in lithology of Laki formation mostly in sand and gravel lithology, which are shallow and deep aquifers. The GIS has been employed as a preservative tool to estimate groundwater potential. The estimated groundwater potential was 29,330.22 million cubic meter (MCM) under the monitoring area of 3207.25 square kilometers (km²); thus, the volume of groundwater was 9.14 MCM/km² in the selected cluster zone of the study area. It is realized that using a GIS tool combats the susceptible situation and shows authenticated results of groundwater potential.
EN
During the late Oligocene to early Miocene the residual Magura Basin was located along the front of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). This basin was supplied with clastic material derived from a south-eastern direction. In the Małe (Little) Pieniny Mts. in Poland, the late Oligocene/early Miocene Kremna Fm. of the Magura Nappe (Krynica subunit) occurs both in front of the PKB as well as in the tectonic windows within the PKB. Lenses of exotic conglomerates in the Kremna Fm. contain frequent clasts of Mesozoic limestones (e.g. limestones with “filaments” microfacies and Urgonian limestones) and Eocene shallow-water limestones. Fragments of crystalline and volcanic rocks occur subordinately. The provenance of these exotic rocks could be probably connected with Eocene exhumation and erosion of the SE part of the Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units.
EN
Detailed study of all the ammonite collections gathered by the authors in the Staffin Bay sections has resulted in minor changes in the distribution of ammonite taxa, and slight modification of the position of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary. Most significant is the discovery of Pictonia (Triozites) cf. seminudata which results in the placing of the stage boundary 0.16 m below the level formerly proposed. This study discusses the evolution of the Subboreal family Aulacostephanidae, and the Boreal family Cardioceratidae, indicating changes in the patterns of individual development in the evolution of both families in terms of heterochrony. The Oxfordian/ Kimmeridgian boundary interval shows major morphological changes in both ammonite families which were released from phylogenetic constraints by heterochrony, closely related to changes in environmental conditions.
EN
The present study revolves around the identification of the stratigraphical boundary between Pleistocene formations that formed prior to the first advance of the Scandinavian ice sheet (Early Pleistocene, i.e., the so-called preglacial) and the overlying, glacially derived deposits (Middle Pleistocene). In particular, it focuses on variation in heavy mineral assemblages, which are an important tool for stratigraphers. The Neogene basement, described here, was most often the source of material that was redeposited by Early Pleistocene rivers. The geological structure and Early Pleistocene palaeogeographical scenarios for various Polish regions are discussed. Moreover, comparisons with other European preglacial formations are carried out. The mineral spectrum of Lower Pleistocene deposits is largely dependent of rocks of the Neogene and Mesozoic basement. If the incision of ancient catchments was into terrigenous rocks, the stratigraphical boundary between preglacial and glacial formations is easily determined with the help of a heavy mineral analysis. As a rule, this coincides with a noticeable change from resistant to non-resistant mineral associations. Such cases are noted for successions in central Poland and eastern England. On the other hand, outcrops of igneous or metamorphic rocks exist within preglacial river catchments in most parts of Europe. They were the local sources of non-resistant heavy minerals long before their glacial supply from the Baltic Shield. In these cases, mineralogical analysis fails in the search for the Early/Middle Pleistocene transition.
EN
The study was carried out in the wall of a cliff that formed as a result of erosional cutting in the western foreland of a moraine landform from the Pomeranian and Gardno phases (Upper Plenivistulian, Rowy-Ustka clifs; northern Poland). Individual lithostratigraphic units have been documented: glaciofluvial delta deposlts, Poddąbie Till, lacustrine-glacial Wytowno Formation (consisting of three facies: deltaic, lower diamicton, and upper diamicton), lacustrine deposits of the Orzechowo Formation with a thick peat layer, and aeolian series at the cliff crest. The Wytowno Formation deposits include the following lithologies: medium-grained sands, fine-grained sands, muddy sands, muds, silty clays, clays, varved clays, fine-grained multi-fraction deposits, and tills (Dębina Till). Very high inclination of the strata is the result of glaciodynamic deformation. The deposits were accumulated in a proglacial lake. They are characterized by mud and clay as well as sand and sand-muddy lithofacies. The vastness of the water body is evidenced by a considerable size of the delta, and by massive structures of the clay layers.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono problemy związane z należącym do procesu badań powierzchni architektonicznych odsłanianiem malowideł ściennych. Omówiono też sposób przygotowywania w przeszłości wtórnych powłok przed nanoszeniem kolejnych dekoracji oraz podstawowe zasady postępowania konserwatorskiego. Warstwy stratygraficzne malarstwa ściennego stanowią: murowane podłoże, tynki, pobiały i warstwy barwne. Nie zawsze zdejmowane są wszystkie wtórne nawarstwienia z całej powierzchni oryginalnej dekoracji, czasami wykonuje się jedynie niewielkie odkrywki. Zdejmowanie przemalowań jest prowadzone w ramach prac konserwatorskich, dlatego duża część rozstrzygnięć należy do specjalistów z tej dziedziny. W przeszłości konserwatorzy odsłaniali zwykle w całości zachowaną warstwę najstarszą; późniejsze były po prostu tracone. Dziś istnieje wiele metod konserwacji i sposobów ekspozycji, aby ocalić malowidła pochodzące z kilku okresów historycznych, stworzone na tej samej ścianie. Różne sposoby i formy ich ekspozycji pokazano w artykule na fotografiach. Należy podkreślić, że jednoczesna prezentacja malowideł pochodzących z kilku okresów to głównie kwestia estetyczna. Nie wolno też zapominać, że dekoracja malarska nie tylko jest dziełem sztuki, ale stanowi dokument losów historycznej budowli.
EN
The article presents problems of revealing of mural paintings which is an integral part of architectural surfaces investigation. The paper also describes different kinds of preparatory layers used in the past as a support for new decorations and general rules of its conservation proceedings. The stratigraphic layers of mural painting are the following: the wall, plasters and renderings, strata of whitewash and polychromes. In some cases only limited parts of authentic paint are presented without removing of all layers added later on the whole decorated surface. Overpaintings are removed in conservation treatment, that is why the conservator is the one to make the most important decisions. In the past conservators used to reveal the oldest existing paint layer; overlapping layers were simply lost. Today there are many solutions and methods of conservation allowing to preserve and expose paintings created on the same wall in different historical periods. The photographs included in the article illustrate different systems and forms of presentation. It should be stressed that parallel presentation of paintings coming from several periods is mainly an aesthetical problem. One should also remember that painted decoration is not only a work of art but also a document of history of the building.
EN
The Upper Greensand Formation, mostly capped by the Chalk, crops out on the edges of a broad, dissected plateau in Devon, west Dorset and south Somerset and has an almost continuous outcrop that runs from the Isle of Purbeck to the Vale of Wardour in south Wiltshire. The Formation is well exposed in cliffs in east Devon and the Isle of Purbeck, but is poorly exposed inland. It comprises sandstones and calcarenites with laterally and stratigraphically variable amounts of carbonate cement, glauconite and chert. The sedimentology and palaeontology indicate deposition in marginal marine-shelf environments that were at times subject to strong tidal and wave-generated currents. The formation of the Upper Greensand successions in the region was influenced by penecontemporaneous movements on major fault zones, some of which are sited over E-W trending Variscan thrusts in the basement rocks and, locally, on minor faults. Comparison of the principal sedimentary breaks in the succession with the sequence boundaries derived from world-wide sea-level curves suggests that local tectonic events mask the effects of any eustatic changes in sea level. The preserved fauna is unevenly distributed, both laterally and stratigraphically. Bivalves, gastropods and echinoids are common at some horizons but are not age-diagnostic. Ammonites are common at a few stratigraphically narrowly defined horizons, but are rare or absent throughout most of the succession. As a result, the age of parts of the succession is still poorly known.
EN
The sedimentological and lithostratigraphic record from north-central Bir Tarfawi documents the presence of Pleistocene basin-fill deposits. Three topographic basins were created as a result of deflation during climate episodes associated with lowering of the local groundwater table. In each case, the three deflational basins or topographic depressions were subsequently filled with sediments; these basin aggradations coincided with changes from arid climate conditions to wetter conditions and a rise in the groundwater table. The oldest and highest sedimentary remnant is associated with Acheulian artifacts and may reflect spring-fed pond and marsh conditions during a Middle Pleistocene wet climate episode. Lithofacies for a lower stratigraphic sequence (the “White Lake”) documents deposition in a perennial lake that varied in extent and depth and is associated with Middle Paleolithic artifacts. A third episode of deflation created a topographic low that has been filled with Late Pleistocene sediments that are associated with Middle Paleolithic artifacts and fossil remains. Lateral and vertical variations in the lithofacies of this basin-fill sequence and the sediments of the “grey-green” lake phases provide a record of changing hydrologic conditions. These hydrologic conditions appear to reflect variations in water-table levels related to groundwater recharge and, at times, local rains.
EN
The major goal of the project “The evolution of terrestrial environments of the Upper Silesian Keuper as biotopes of vertebrates”, granted for Grzegorz Racki by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (2009-2013), was an exhaustive, integrated study of the bone-enriched middle Keuper interval in terms of stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry. The new website “Bone-bearing Keuper of the Upper Silesia, southern Poland” (http://www.ing.pan.pl/Keuper/Bone-bearing_Keuper-1.htm)presents in English the results of this project. The significant achievements are only a starting point to a comprehensive presentation of the complex Keuper themes, jointly with an extensive repository of regional literature (above 420 full-texted publications since 1790). In addition, the main results of the grant, as well as diversity of their implications for future studies are summarized herein, with emphasis on controversial geochronological aspects in vertebrate paleontology (how many bone-rich levels?), and in a broad historical context.
10
EN
The Crimean Mountains (CM) are regarded as part of the Alpine-Himalaya orogenic belt related to the collision of the Eurasian and African plates. Our research in the CM has allowed confirming the existence of at least two flysch formations of different ages: the Taurida Flysch Formation (Upper Triassic/Lower–? Middle Jurassic) and the Sudak Formation (uppermost Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) in the western and eastern sectors of the CM, respectively. After the Middle Jurassic volcanism, the freshwater claystones with coal-bearing intercalations, as well as local alluvial fan conglomerates were deposited. Then, following the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian marine transgression, three separated Tithonian/Berriasian carbonate platforms developed: Baydarska, Chatyr-Dag and Demerji/Karabi. At the turn of the Late Jurassic, the deep-water Sudak Basin (eastern sector of the CM) began to develop in the eastern periphery of the Demerji/Karabi carbonate platform. This basin, dominated by turbiditic deposition, was probably connected with the Great Caucasus sedimentary system. Finally, distal flysch sedimentation in the Sudak Basin was followed by debris-flow deposits, with huge blocks of Upper Jurassic limestones. These blocks were derived from destruction of the Karabi carbonate platform. During the Berriasian/Valanginian, the eastern sector of the CM began to subside. As a result, both carbonate platforms (western CM) and the debris flow fans of the Sudak Basin (eastern CM) were overlain by marly shales and/or distal turbidites. This type of deposition lasted until the Aptian/Albian. In the post-Albian period, the Alushta-Salgir tectonic zone was transformed into a SE-dipping thrust fault with at least 10 km amplitude of overthrusting.
EN
Pseudothurmanniid ammonites within Upper Hauterivian calcareous deposits are present in quarries on Polomec Hill near the village of Lietavská Lúčka, Slovakia. These deposits belong to the Mráznica Formation of the Krížna Nappe that is a part of the Fatricum Unit in the Central Western Carpathians. Nine ammonite species are described in detail, one of which, Binellicerasmichalíki, is new. The species identified indicate the Upper Hauterivian Balearis and Ohmi ammonite zones. The zone of the uppermost Hauterivian, Catulloi Zone, is not documented as far as pseudothurmanniid ammonites are concerned. The lackof developmentally younger representatives of the pseudothurmanniid ammonites neitherin the studied locali ty, nor in other Slovak locali ties, is explained by marked changes in the northern Tethyan margin in Europe duri ng the latest Hauterivian.
EN
A concise stratigraphic synthesis of the Grajcarek Succession of the Pieniny Klippen Belt (West Carpathians,Poland) is presented. This succession consists of 12 lithostratigraphic units with the rank of formation, and two with the rank of member, spanning the geological time from middle Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) to Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) and mid Paleocene. The stratigraphical column starts with deep-water flysch (the Szlachtowa Fm; Toarcian–Aalenian through Bajocian–?lower Bathonian), followed by dysoxic shales, marls and limestones (the Opaleniec Fm; Bajocian–Bathonian). The previously distinguished Krzonowe and Stembrow formations, are downgraded to members. Late Bathonian–Oxfordian times were characterized by the widely occurring deposition of abyssal radiolarites and shales, which is represented by the Sokolica Radiolarite Fm and the Czajakowa Radiolarite Fm, common to both the Grajcarek and Klippen successions. Red nodular limestones and aptychus marls (the Czorsztyn Limestone Fm; Kimmeridgian–lower Tithonian) overlie the radiolarites. Above, pelagic cherty limestones occur (the Pieniny Limestone Fm; Tithonian–Aptian). These are followed by Lower Cretaceous predominantly dark shales and marls (the Kapuśnica Fm; Aptian–Albian, the Wronine Fm; Albian, and the Hulina Fm; Albian–Cenomanian), succeeded by abyssal, red shales (the Malinowa Shale Fm; upper Cenomanian–Campanian), and these in turn by grey, marly, flyschoid strata (the Hałuszowa Fm; ?Campanian). The Grajcarek Succession terminates with the Jarmuta Fm (Maastrichtian–mid Paleocene). It consists of sedimentary breccias, often with large olistoliths of Jurassic–Cretaceous rocks, and conglomerates and sandstones in a southern zone, giving way to proximal flysch and distal flysch facies further north. This was the time of orogenic Laramian folding events, associated with subaerial and submarine erosion. A sedimentary hiatus separates the Jarmuta Fm flysch (Maastrichtian) from the Szczawnica Fm (Upper Paleocene–Eocene) in both the Klippen and Grajcarek successions. This hiatus seems to diminish and finally close in a northward direction, in the Magura Nappe succession.
EN
Five brachiopod species are reported from two middle to upper Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) outcrops, situated in the Saïda and Frenda mountains (Tlemcenian Domain, north-western Algeria) and belonging to the heterochronous (Callovian to Oxfordian, locally to the Kimmeridgian) Argiles de Saïda Formation (Saïda Clay Formation). The upper Oxfordian (probably Dichotomoceras bifurcatus Zone) outcrop A yielded Dictyothyris kurri and Loboidothyridoidea indet. The middle Oxfordian (Liosphinctes plicatilis Zone, Cardioceras vertebrale Subzone) outcrop B yielded Monticlarella rollieri, Karadagithyris boullierae sp. n., and Zittelina sp.; this is the first report of the last-mentioned genus from Africa. Karadagithyris boullierae sp. n. is a link between previously known Bajocian to Bathonian (Callovian?) Karadagithyris s.s. and Tithonian to Lower Cretaceous species, formerly segregated as Svaljavithyris; the latter is considered herein as synonym of Karadagithyris. It is characterised by a plano-uniplicate anterior commissure and a suberect beak. The adult loop of Zittelina is confirmed as bilacunar (kingeniform) and not diploform (campagiform). The bulk of the assemblages comprises small and either smooth or finely ornamented species and thus represents a low-energy environment. The lack of modern revisions of the reported species in their type areas is the reason why only Dictyothyris kurri may be used as an index species for the middle to late Oxfordian.
EN
At its maximum development in the type area on the Devon coast, the Upper Greensand Formation comprises up to 55 m of sandstones and calcarenites with laterally and stratigraphically variable amounts of carbonate cement, glauconite and chert that were deposited in fully marine, shallow-water environments. The formation is divided into three members, in ascending order the Foxmould, Whitecliff Chert and Bindon Sandstone, each of which is bounded by a prominent erosion surface that can be recognised throughout the western part of the Wessex Basin. The full thickness of the formation, up to 60 m, was formerly well exposed in cliffs in the Isle of Purbeck in the steeply dipping limb of the Purbeck Monocline. The upper part of the succession is highly condensed in comparison with the Devon succession and exhibits lateral variations over distances of hundreds of metres that are probably related to penecontemporaneous fault movements. Much of the fauna is not age-diagnostic with the result that the ages of parts of the succession are still poorly known. However, the Isle of Purbeck sections contain diverse ammonite faunas at a few stratigraphically well-defined levels that enable the succession to be correlated with that of east Devon and west Dorset.
EN
Radiolarian assemblages from the uppermost Oxfordian (Hypselum Zone) deposits of two sections (Katarowa Góra and Bobrowniki) in the Wieluń Upland (central Poland) are studied for the first time. The overall composition of the assemblages is characterized by low taxonomic diversity, with many individuals of spherical morphotypes, with dominance of the family Williriedellidae and Gongylothoracidae, among the nassellarians. The radiolarians show features mostly of the Northern Tethyan fauna. Additionally, more cosmopolitan forms consisting of spumellarians and of cold water representatives of the family Parvicingulidae appear in the middle and upper parts of the Hypselum Zone. This change in the character of the radiolarian assemblages suggests Boreal influences into the Submediterranean basin related to activity of sea currents, which have been stimulated by climatic changes during the latest Oxfordian.
EN
The Tithonian ammonite succession at the Owadów–Brzezinki quarry, central Poland shows the presence of Subboreal ammonites of both NE European (“Volgian”) and NW European (“Bolonian–Portlandian”) affinity, making possible the correlation between the relevant ammonite subdivisions. The former are represented by Zaraiskites – Z. regularis Kutek and Z. zarajskensis (Michalski) as well as an early form of Virgatites – V. gerassimovi Mitta which enable the recognition of the upper part of the Scythicus Zone (the Zaraj¬skensis Subzone) and the lower part of the Virgatus Zone (the Gerassimovi Subzone) of the “Middle Volgian”. The latter are represented by Virgatopavlovia, which enables the correlation with the Fittoni Zone of the uppermost “Bolonian”, and by still younger assemblage of small-sized virgatitids – such as V. pusillus (Michalski), showing similarity to Progalbanites albani (Arkell) of the Albani Zone of the lowermost “Portlandian”. The new species established include: Zaraiskites lewinskii sp. nov. which represents a new member of the virgatitid lineage linking an older Z. pommerania (Arkell) with younger small-sized Virgatites, as well as two species of the genus Virgatopavlovia – V. janeki sp. nov. and V. dembowskae sp. nov. The appearance of ammonites of NW and NE European affinity in central Poland resulted from the opening of the new sea routes possibly related with tectonic activity in northern European areas at the transition from Early to Late Tithonian.
PL
Otwór badawczo-eksploatacyjny M-35 jest zlokalizowany w południowo-wschodniej części wysadu solnego Mogilno (Ryc. 2). Został odwiercony do głębokości 1755 metrów. Otwór nawierca ewaporaty późnego permu (cechsztynu). W analizowanym rdzeniu wydzielono 13 ogniw cechsztyńskiej serii solnej cyklotemów PZ2, PZ3 i PZ4. Złoże solne w rejonie otworu M-35 jest uformowane tektonicznie. W wyniku procesów halokinetycznych i halotektonicznych warstwy solne zostały silnie sfałdowane i zalegają bardzo stromo. Upad warstw waha się od 35 do 90°. Najczęściej jednak wynosi 70-80°. W wyniku częstych zmian kąta upadu i przefałdowań otwór przewierca kilkakrotnie te same ogniwa. Ponadto wiele wydzieleń jest zredukowanych lub całkowicie wyklinowanych. W profilu nie stwierdzono warstw stropowych cyklotemu PZ4 i ewaporatów starszych niż ogniwo starszej soli kamiennej (Na2).
EN
The M-35 exploratory borehole and operating well is located in the south-eastern part of the Mogilno Salt Dome (Fig. 2). It was drilled down to the depth of 1,755 m penetrating the Upper Permian (Zechstein) evaporates. Its core section enabled to distinguish 13 lithostratigraphic members of the Zechstein salt series, represented cyclothems PZ2, PZ3, and PZ4. The observed salt units had been tectonically extremely folded and steeply arranged. The layers dip varies from 35° to 90°, mostly 70-80° and the same salt units repetated several times in the section. Also many of them were reduced in thickness or completely wedged out. The uppermost units of PZ4 cycle or evaporates older than the Older Halite (Na2) unit, were not found in the studied profile.
EN
Sedimentological, stratigraphical and geophysical studies across a new Triassic-Jurassic transition section in the Holy Cross Mts., Poland have revealed a large sedimentary hiatus embracing the entire latest Triassic–Early Jurassic – earliest Middle Jurassic time interval and yielded new data on the Triassic fluvial system and on Middle Jurassic shallow marine sedimentation. The presence of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts allowed a precise age assignment of the black clay facies. Regional discussions and comparisons may be made with other areas with a similar depositional environment in Poland. For the first time a counterpart of the “Kościeliskie Beds” lithostratigraphic unit is proposed to exist in the Holy Cross Mts. area.
EN
The lower part of the Frasnian succession in the Radlin Syncline (Kielce–Łagów Synclinorium, southern region of the Holy Cross Mountains), in the two studied successions: Józefka at Górno and (for the first time) Radlin, consists of the rhythmic marly Szydłówek Beds, the fossil-rich limestones of the Wietrznia Beds (locally) and the atypically developed, calcareous Kostomłoty Beds. The carbon isotope chemostratigraphic pattern overall corresponds well to the global Early–Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbation, even if the major punctata positive excursion is only fragmentarily recorded in the Kostomłoty intrashelf basin. Two brachiopod assemblages are abundantly represented in both sections: the Phlogoiderhynchus polonicus Assemblage, typical of the Szydłówek Beds, and the Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage, limited to the middle part of the Wietrznia Beds. Both are highly dominated by the index species. Twenty nine lower Frasnian brachiopod species (Craniida – 1 species, Strophomenida – 1, Productida – 2, Protorthida – 1, Orthida – 5, Pentamerida – 1, Rhynchonellida – 4, Atrypida – 4, Athyridida – 3, Spiriferida – 4, Spiriferinida – 3) are described from the Szydłówek and Wietrznia Beds. Seven new species are introduced: Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov., Biernatium minus Baliński sp. nov., Monelasmina montisjosephi Baliński sp. nov., Atryparia (Costatrypa) agricolae Halamski and Baliński sp. nov., Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov., Leptathyris gornensis Baliński sp. nov., and Echinocoelia parva Baliński sp. nov. Davidsonia enmerkaris Halamski sp. nov. is intermediate between Davidsonia Bouchard-Chantereaux, 1849 and Rugodavidsonia Copper, 1996 and is the youngest known representative of the suborder Davidsonioidea Copper, 1996. Skenidioides cretus Halamski sp. nov. is the last representative of the genus. Statistical investigation of a large sample of Spinatrypina (Exatrypa) explanata did not confirm the existence of two dimorphic forms, coarse- and fine-ribbed. The high-diversity Biernatella lentiformis Assemblage is quite dissimilar to coeval brachiopod assemblages described heretofore from the Holy Cross Mountains region. It is interpreted as consisting of mostly parautochthonous dwellers of deep-slope muddy habitats and a local, occasionally storm-agitated, intra-basin brachiopod-crinoid-coral shoal. The fauna was adapted probably to cooler and nutrient-poor waters during an initial phase of the severe carbon cycle perturbation.
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