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EN
In order to solve the problem for temperature electrical resistance furnace. Characterized by their large inertia, nonlinear, long time delay and time-varying property it is rather difficult to obtain satisfactory control results with Performances of conventional PI control cannot achieve good control effect. In this paper a neural network-based adaptive control approach (ACNN) for electrical furnace is developed .using RBF NN to estimate the unknown functions by neural networks and from good choice of the law of adaptation. Based on the resolution of the lyapunov equation. Taking account of all possible parameter variations the adaptive control is designed so that it has the ability to improve the performance of the closed loop system, producing the control signal by using the information from the system. In this case we use a coping mechanism that observes the signal to control and adjust the synaptic weights of neural networks when system parameters change over time. Result shows that the proposed algorithm (ACNN) performs very well when furnace parameter varies the latter allow the neural model to be identified online and, if necessary its parameters to be stabilized and it is very easy to program it online.
PL
Piec elektryczny charakteryzuje się nieliniowością, dużym czasem opóźnienia co utrudnia sterowanie nime. W pracy zaproponowano system sterowania piecem z wykorzystaniem sieci neuronowej System jest zaprojektowany tak, że uwzględnia zmiany parametrów.
EN
The paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for an asymmetric quadcopter. For determining the control algorithm, the identification was made, and an identification algorithm is presented in the form of a recursive method. The control method is realized using inverse dynamics, full state feedback and finally adaptive control method. The algorithms for the off-line and on-line identification of quadcopter model parameters are also presented. The paper shows the effectiveness of the selected algorithm on the example of the movement along a given trajectory. Finally, recommendations of the application of these different methods are made.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono algorytm sterowania adaptacyjnego dla asymetrycznego quadrocoptera. W celu określenia sterowania zrealizowano identyfikację parametrów i przedstawiono algorytm identyfikacji w formie metody rekurencyjnej. Metoda sterowania realizowana jest z wykorzystaniem dynamiki odwrotnej, przesuwania biegunów oraz sterowania adaptacyjnego. Zaprezentowano algorytmy identyfikacji parametrów modelu quadrocoptera w trybie off-line i on-line. W artykule przedstawiono skuteczność wybranych algorytmów na przykładzie ruchu wzdłuż podanej trajektorii. Na zakończenie artykułu przedstawiono zalecenia dotyczące stosowania różnych metod sterowania.
EN
We introduce a novel fractional order adaptive control design based on the tube model reference adaptive control (TMRAC) scheme for a class of fractional order linear systems. By considering an adaptive state feedback control configuration, the main idea is to replace the classical reference model with a single predetermined trajectory by a fractional order performance tube guidance model allowing a set of admissible trajectories. Besides, an optimization problem is formulated to compute an on-line correction control signal within specified bounds in order to update the system performance while minimizing a control cost criterion. The asymptotic stability of the closed loop fractional order control system is demonstrated using an extension of the Lyapunov direct method. The dynamical performance of the fractional order tube model reference adaptive control (FOTMRAC) is compared with the standard fractional order model reference adaptive control (FOMRAC) strategy, and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
EN
Stabilization of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the waste gas is a common technical problem in many industrial plants. Stabilization can be performed continuously by regulating the fuel input or by regulating the exhaust gas draught. This paper proposes an adaptive control system for CO stabilization in waste gases based on a discrete controller. Heuristic adaptation of a discrete controller is based on continuous optimization of controller parameters. The advantage of this solution is that the control system does not need to perform the identification of the controlled system repeatedly. The parameters of the controller are dynamically optimized during the production process. By regulating the under-pressure, we change the amount of air supplied to the combustion chambers, which affects the combustion of gaseous fuel and also the concentration of CO in the waste flue gas. The control algorithm was verified for the combustion process in coke making. The proposed control achieved good stabilization quality when verified in simulation and also in an industry operation. The CO level at which the waste gas temperature was highest was selected as the setpoint. It was found that the stabilization of CO in waste gas to lower values is possible to achieve higher waste gas temperature and by that, higher temperatures in heating chambers.
EN
This paper presents a method of behaviour model control (BMC) combined with fuzzy logic and a seven-level six-phase inverter to achieve mainly a high performance and to increase the robustness of the vector control and to keep its performances despite the presence of perturbations (parameters variations, abrupt load variations, etc.) of a series-connected two motor six phase drive system with single inverter supply. The idea of the proposed control is to induce adding supplementary control inputs, which yield the process to follow the model. The best of feature of this control design is that it achieves the same performances as the Field Oriented Control without the need for heavy and expensive gain tuning. The effectiveness of the proposed behaviour model control in conjunction with the fuzzy logic is confirmed through the application of different load torques for wide speed range operation. Comparison between fuzzy behaviour model control, fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and conventional controller (PI) of the proposed two-motor drive is provided. The simulation results confirm also that, the validity and effectiveness of the control strategy proposed in both terms of performance and robustness (rotor inertia variations J1=5J1nominal) of the provision of such an adaptive control for electrical drives with the two machines of the system.
PL
W artykule opisano wykorzstanie metody BMC (behaviour model control) wspartej logiką romytą w siedmiopoziomowym sześciofazowym przekształtniku w celu osiągnięcia dobrych parametrów I zwiększenia odpoeności w obecności zakłóceń. Osiągnioęto podobne parametry co w przypadku stosowania metody FOC (field oriented control) bez koniczności stosowania dopasowania wzmocnienia.
EN
We introduce a control strategy to solve the regulation control problem, from the perspective of trajectory planning, for an uncertain 3D overhead crane. The proposed solution was developed based on an adaptive control approach that takes advantage of the passivity properties found in this kind of systems. We use a trajectory planning approach to preserve the accelerations and velocities inside of realistic ranges, to maintaining the payload movements as close as possible to the origin. To this end, we carefully chose a suitable S-curve based on the Bezier spline, which allows us to efficiently handle the load translation problem, considerably reducing the load oscillations. To perform the convergence analysis, we applied the traditional Lyapunov theory, together with Barbalat’s lemma. We assess the effectiveness of our control strategy with convincing numerical simulations.
EN
Torsional vibrations induced in drilling systems are detrimental to the condition of the machine and to the effectiveness of the engineering process. The cause of vibrations is a nonlinear and unknown friction between a drill string and the environment, containing jumps in its characteristics. Nonlinear behaviour of the friction coefficient results in self-excited vibration and causes undesirable stick-slip oscillations. The aim of this paper is to present a novel adaptive technique of controlling vibrating systems. The scheme is based on the linear quadratic regulator and uses direct measurements of the friction torque to synthesize its linear dynamic approximation. This approach allows generating a control law that takes into account the impact of the friction on the system dynamics and optimally steers the system to the desired trajectory. The controller’s performance is examined via numerical simulations of the stabilization of the drilling system. The proposed solution outperforms the comparative LQG regulator in terms of the minimization of the assumed cost functional and the overall stability of the control system under the nonlinear disturbance.
EN
The paper describes an adaptive control system of the waves, implemented in the Ship Design and Research Centre, CTO S.A. The purpose of generating the waves in the towing tank is the modelling of the environmental conditions during hydrodynamic model tests. The tests are performed on scale models of towed or free running ships, anchored structures like oil rigs or bottommounted structures, e.g. wind turbines. In the towing tank of CTO S.A., the waves are generated using a flap-type wavemaker with hydraulic drive. The adaptive control system includes gain scheduling and Black-Box model. It has been developed and implemented using the 32-bit embedded system and computer application (C#.NET). The Black-Box model was proposed as a simple solution allowing compensating the hydromechanical phenomena affecting the generated waves, i.e. disintegration, reflection, damping and nonlinear energy transfer. The solution proved to be sufficient to generate required wave spectra with expected accuracy in a user-friendly manner.
PL
Artykuł opisuje adaptacyjny system sterowania falami basenowymi, który został wdrożony w Centrum Techniki Okrętowej (CTO) S.A. Fale są generowane w głębokowodnym basenie holowniczym podczas testów modelowych w celu odwzorowania warunków oddziaływania środowiska morskiego. Testy są przeprowadzane na modelach holowanych lub pływających swobodnie (statki), zakotwiczonych (platformy) lub przymocowanych trwale do dna (turbiny wiatrowe). W głębokowodnym basenie holowniczym CTO S.A., fale generowane są przez płytowy wywoływacz fal z płytą mocowaną powyżej dna basenu i z napędem hydraulicznym. Adaptacyjne sterowanie falą basenową obejmuje harmonogramowanie wzmocnienia i model typu Black-Box. Opracowany system sterowania został implementowany w 32-bitowym systemie wbudowanym i aplikacji komputerowej w języku C# w środowisku .NET. Wprowadzony model typu Black-Box uwzględnia efekty hydromechanicznych procesów i zjawisk – m. in. rozpadu, odbicia, tłumienia i nieliniowego transferu energii – które mają wpływ na generowane fale. Przedstawione rozwiązanie pozwala w prosty sposób i z oczekiwaną dokładnością modelować zadane widma fal basenowych.
PL
W artykule dokonano przeglądu rozwiązań systemów wizyjnych na stanowiskach zrobotyzowanych. Zaprezentowano urządzenia wchodzące w skład takiego systemu. Dokonano klasyfikacji systemów wizyjnych ze względu na rodzaj rejestrowanego obrazu oraz ze względu na rozmieszczenie kamery lub kamer na stanowisku roboczym. Omówiono możliwości systemów wizyjnych w zależności od konfiguracji sprzętowej. Przedstawiono przebieg procesu wizyjnego rozpoczynając od akwizycji obrazu. Omówiono stosowane metody przetwarzania i analizy obrazu pochodzącego z kamer systemu wizyjnego. Pokazano także przykładowe aplikacje zrealizowane z wykorzystaniem systemów wizyjnych.
EN
The article presents an issue related to the use of vision systems at robotic stands. Devices included in such a system have been presented. The classification of vision systems was made due to the type of image being recorded and due to the location of the camera or cameras at the workstation. The capabilities of vision systems are discussed depending on the hardware configuration. The course of the video process was presented starting from image acquisition. The methods of image processing and analysis originating from video camera cameras are discussed. Also shown are examples of applications implemented using vision systems.
PL
W artykule opisano sterowanie układem napędowym z połączeniem sprężystym, pętla regulacji prędkości została zaprojektowana w oparciu o dwa modele neuronowe. Jeden z nich stanowi główny regulator, natomiast drugi jest modelem odniesienia wykorzystywanym w trakcie obliczeń. Adaptacja wag sieci neuronowych jest realizowana on-line. Artykuł zawiera opis teoretyczny zaimplementowanej struktury, a także badania symulacyjne oraz eksperymentalne zrealizowane z wykorzystaniem procesora sygnałowego karty dSPACE1103.
EN
Paper presents control system applied for electrical drive with elastic connections. Speed control loop of the whole structure is based on two neural models. One of them is applied as the main controller, the second is the internal model of the plant used for calculations of control signal. Adaptation of weights in neural networks is done in on-line mode. Article contains theoretical description of implemented control structure, simulation tests as well as experimental tests using digital signal processor of dSPACE1103.
11
Content available remote Adaptive control of two-mass drive system with nonlinear stiffness
EN
The paper describes a nonlinear controller design technique for a servo drive in the presence of nonlinear friction together with a flexible shaft connecting the motor and the load. The shaft is characterized by the nonlinear stiffness curve. Two different type of the nonlinear stiffness curve are considered. The proposed controller is based on adaptive backstepping, modified by the use of command filtering. The proposed approach allows to accomplish the rigorous proof of the closed-loop system stability. Several experiments prove the control effectiveness.
PL
Opisano problem sterowania prędkością układu napędowego z nieliniowym tarciem, połączeniem sprężystym i nieznanymi parametrami. Elastyczne połączenie jest opisane przy pomocy nieliniowej funkcji sztywności. Rozważane są dwa typy nieliniowej funkcji sztywności: wypukła i wklęsła. Układy regulacji są projektowane przy pomocy metod „adaptive backstepping” z filtracją wartości zadanych. Opisano szereg eksperymentów, które ilustrują charakterystyczne właściwości układu regulacji.
EN
The problem of practical synchronization of an uncertain Duffing oscillator with a higher order chaotic system is considered. Adaptive control techniques are used to obtain chaos synchronization in the presence of unknown parameters and bounded, unstructured, external disturbances. The features of the proposed controllers are compared by solving Duffing–Arneodo and Duffing–Chua synchronization problems.
EN
In this paper, for multiple different chaotic systems with fully unknown parameters, a novel synchronization scheme called ‘modified function projective multi-lag generalized compound synchronization’ is put forward. As an advantage of the new method, not only the addition and subtraction, but also the multiplication of multiple chaotic systems are taken into consideration. This makes the signal hidden channels more abundant and the signal hidden methods more flexible. By virtue of finite-time stability theory and an adaptive control technique, a finite-time adaptive control scheme is established to realize the finite-time synchronization and to properly evaluate the unknown parameters. A detailed theoretical derivation and a specific numerical simulation demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the advanced scheme.
EN
The main impedance control schemes in the task space require accurate knowledge of the kinematics and dynamics of the robotic system to be controlled. In order to eliminate this dependence and preserve the structure of this kind of algorithms, this paper presents an adaptive impedance control approach to robot manipulators with kinematic and dynamic parametric uncertainty. The proposed scheme is an inverse dynamics control law that leads to the closed-loop system having a PD structure whose equilibrium point converges asymptotically to zero according to the formal stability analysis in the Lyapunov sense. In addition, the general structure of the scheme is composed of continuous functions and includes the modeling of most of the physical phenomena present in the dynamics of the robotic system. The main feature of this control scheme is that it allows precise path tracking in both free and constrained spaces (if the robot is in contact with the environment). The proper behavior of the closed-loop system is validated using a two degree-of-freedom robotic arm. For this benchmark good results were obtained and the control objective was achieved despite neglecting non modeled dynamics, such as viscous and Coulomb friction.
EN
This paper presents a fault tolerant position tracking controller for a hexarotor system. The proposed controller has a cascaded structure composed of a position and an attitude control loop. The nominal controller is augmented by an adaptive control allocation which compensates for faults and failures within the propulsion system without reconfiguration of the controller. Simultaneously, it is able to implement a degraded control strategy which prioritizes specific control directions in the case of extreme degradation. The main contribution is a controller that is a step closer to application scenarios by including outdoor GPS-based flight tests, onboard computation and the handling of unknown degradation and failure of any rotor.
EN
Designing a tracking control system for an over-actuated dynamic positioning marine vessel in the case of insufficient information on environmental disturbances, hydrodynamic damping, Coriolis forces and vessel inertia characteristics is considered. The designed adaptive MIMO backstepping control law with control allocation is based on Lyapunov control theory for cascaded systems to guarantee stabilization of the marine vessel position and heading. Forces and torque computed from the adaptive control law are allocated to individual thrusters by employing the quadratic programming method in combination with the cascaded generalized inverse algorithm, the weighted least squares algorithm and the minimal least squares algorithm. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated by simulations involving a redundant set of actuators. The evaluation criteria include energy consumption, robustness, as well accuracy of tracking during typical vessel operation.
EN
An affine nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model is derived from the neural network (NN) based general NARMA model in this paper, by using Taylor series expansion. The predictive error of this affine NARMA model will be quite acceptable, at least for the control purpose, if the amplitude of control input is properly limited. Therefore, an adaptive control scheme based on this model is proposed and applied to the design of adaptive power system stabilizer (APSS) since the amplitude of PSS output is usually well limited. The feature of this control scheme is that the control input can be online analytically obtained. Thus, comparing to the traditional NN based APSS (TAPSS), the affine NARMA model based APSS (AAPSS) does not need the training of a NN as neuro-controller, which may be a troublesome and time consuming step during the design. Moreover, the AAPSS can generally perform better than the TAPSS. Simulation studies on a single machine infinite bus system and a multi-machine system show that the AAPSSs can consistently well perform to damp electromechanical oscillations in the systems over a wide range of operating conditions.
18
Content available remote Metody zapisu algorytmów sterowania ruchem drogowym
PL
Artykuł opisuje problematykę zapisu algorytmów sterowania ruchem drogowym. Przedstawiono ewolucję sposobu zapisu algorytmów, następnie opisano sposoby zapisu algorytmów stosowane w różnych dziedzinach techniki. Przeanalizowano projekty drogowej sygnalizacji świetlnej i porównano stosowany w nich zapis z opisanymi wcześniej metodami. Następnie opisano problematykę zapisu algorytmów sterowania ruchem w sterownikach sygnalizacji świetlnej.
EN
The article describes the problem of description traffic control algorithms. The evolution of algorithms recording method has been presented, then the methods of algorithms recording applied in various fields of technology have been described. The traffic light-signalling designs were analysed and compared with the previously described methods. The problems of recording traffic control algorithms in the traffic light controllers were then described.
19
Content available remote Zastosowanie systemu Omative w obróbce łopatki turbiny ze stopu Inconel 718
PL
W pracy przedstawiono zastosowanie układu sterowania adaptacyjnego Omative do monitorowania stanu narzędzia podczas obróbki łopatki turbiny ze stopu Inconel 718.
EN
This paper presents a research focusing on adopting adapting control system Omative for tool condition monitoring during milling of Inconel 718 turbine blade.
20
Content available remote Adaptive motion control with state constraints using barrier Lyapunov functions
EN
A servo control with unknown system parameters and the constraints imposed on the maximal position and velocity is considered. The barrier Lyapunov functions approach is applied to assure the preservation of bounds in any conditions. The system performance is compared for three cases of the controller design: based on quadratic Lyapunov functions, based on barrier Lyapunov functions if only position constraints are imposed and based on barrier Lyapunov functions if both position and velocity bounds are present. The tuning rules are discussed and several numerical experiments demonstrating features of the proposed control and the influence of the parameters are presented.
PL
Opisano problem sterowania napędowym układem nadążnym z nieznanymi parametrami i ograniczeniami nałożonymi na maksymalne wartości położenia i prędkości. Porównano właściwości trzech układów regulacji: ze sterowaniem zaprojektowanym na podstawie kwadratowych funkcji Lapunowa, ze sterowaniem zaprojektowanym na podstawie barierowych funkcji Lapunowa i ograniczeniem na położenie, oraz ze sterowaniem zaprojektowanym na podstawie barierowych funkcji Lapunowa przy ograniczeniach na położenie i prędkość. Opisano szereg eksperymentów, które ilustrują charakterystyczne właściwości układu regulacji i dostarczają wniosków co do wyboru parametrów algorytmu sterowania.
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