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EN
In a small-scale field experiment, we estimated the contribution of aboveground litter to the energy budget of different collembolan and earthworm species. In a 50-year-old spruce plantation, the natural spruce litter was replaced by an equivalent amount of maize litter. The natural difference in the isotopic composition of carbon (C) between the spruce and maize allowed us to estimate the proportions of different carbon sources in the tissues of soil animals. The dependence on litter-derived C was least pronounced in Collembola having low δ15N values, indicating the feeding on non-vascular plants. In contrast, collembolans having high δ15N values belonged to the food chains based on fresh plant residuals. These results suggest that different species of litter-dwelling collembolans may regulate substantially different energy channels. Some species of endogeic earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. caliginosa) utilize aboveground plant residues, though soil organic matter and other belowground sources of carbon prevail in the energy budget of their populations.
EN
The A sulfur mine is located in the Iwate Prefecture of Japan. This mine has both surface and underground parts and was operated from the late 1800s to the late 1900s. Since the early 1900s, acid mine drainage (AMD) has been reported in this mine, and the waste water has been neutralized in a treatment plant since the mine was closed. Recently, reducing the AMD volume by decreasing water inflow to the underground mine has been considered as a way to reduce the AMD treatment cost. The first step in such an approach is to understand in detail the groundwater flow around the mine. However, part of the study area is covered by lava and comprises crystalline rocks with complicated structures, making it difficult to understand the groundwater flow. Therefore, the present study investigated the groundwater flow around this mine by focusing on water quality, such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC), stable isotopes (i.e. δ18O and δD) and 3H in the surface and ground water. The spatial distributions of pH, Stiff diagrams, and δ18O and δD values in the surface and ground water indicated that the groundwater flow system was divided into three basins in the study area, as predicted from geomorphological information. Moreover, the spatial distribution of δ18O and δD in the surface and ground water suggested that the groundwater recharged at the highest altitudes in the B mountain in the northwest of the mine might flow in the underground mine. Furthermore, the 3H values in the waste water discharged from the underground part of mine implied that the groundwater age was no more than approximately 60 years old.
PL
Kopalnia siarki znajduje się w prefekturze Iwate w Japonii. Kopalnia ma zarówno części naziemne, jak i podziemne i działała od końca 1800 roku do końca XX wieku. Od początku XX wieku odnotowano w tej kopalni kwaśny drenaż kopalniany (AMD), a ścieki były zneutralizowane w oczyszczalni do czasu zamknięcia kopalni. Ostatnio uznano, że zmniejszenie objętości AMD przez zmniejszenie dopływu wody do podziemnej kopalni jest dobrym sposobem na zmniejszenie kosztów neutralizacji AMD. Pierwszym krokiem w takim podejściu jest szczegółowa analiza przepływu wód gruntowych wokół kopalni. Jednak część obszaru objętego badaniem jest pokryta lawą i obejmuje skały krystaliczne o skomplikowanych strukturach, co utrudnia zrozumienie przepływu wód gruntowych. Dlatego w niniejszych badaniach określono przepływ wód podziemnych wokół tej kopalni, koncentrując się na jakości wody, określono parametry takie jak pH i przewodność elektryczna (EC), stabilne izotopy (tj. Δ18O i δD) oraz 3H w wodzie powierzchniowej i gruntowej. Przestrzenne rozkłady odczynu pH, wartości δ18O i δD w wodzie powierzchniowej i gruntowej wskazały, że system przepływu wód podziemnych został podzielony na trzy baseny na badanym obszarze, zgodnie z przewidywaniami z informacji geomorfologicznej. Ponadto rozkład przestrzenny δ18O i δD w wodach powierzchniowych i gruntowych sugerował, że wody gruntowe dopływające na najwyższych wysokościach w północno-zachodniej części kopalni mogą płynąć do części podziemnej kopalni. Co więcej, wartości 3H w ściekach odprowadzanych z podziemnej części kopalni sugerowały, że wiek wód podziemnych wynosił nie więcej niż około 60 lat.
EN
Mixing of two water components and simultaneous contact with geogenic carbon dioxide are the characteristic features of waterfrom the Franciszek borehole in the Wysowa-Zdrój. During the last 45 years a systematic, slow decrease of water mineralization of this borehole has been observed. This may be due to several reasons: i) increased contribution of the infiltration component in the total inflow to the well, ii) gradual decrease of mineralization of diagenetic water or, iii) local changes of gaseous, geogenic carbon dioxide within the reservoir. Results of chemical and stable isotope measurements from the timespan of 42 years are discussed in the paper. The PHREEQC code was used in the analysis of chemical data and in the numerical simulation ofpossible processes leading to the observed changes in the water mineralization. Results of chemical calculations and stable isotope data are consistent and prove that decrease of water mineralization in the Franciszek borehole is caused by increased contribution of water of infiltration origin.
4
Content available remote Skład izotopowy azotanów w wodach podziemnych Polski
EN
The level of nitrate concentration in groundwater is a measure of the degree of contamination of the environment. However, it says little about the origin of nitrates. Stable isotopes of N and O (δ15 N and δ18 O) can differentiate between manure and chemicalfertilizers. This is the reason for undertaking a study on groundwater with high concentration of nitrates in the national monitoring network to recognize the origin of nitrates. Contrary to expectations, the results suggest that nitrates are derived mostly from manures and less from chemical fertilizers. Further studies are urgently needed.
EN
We present the results of isotope measurements (δ18O, δ D, δ13CDIC and 14C) and chemical analyses (TDS, TOC, HCO3–, SO42–, Cl–, NO3–, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ Na+ and K+) conducted on groundwater samples collected from deep Cenozoic aquifers. These aquifers are the basic source of drinking water at numerous localities within the study area in northern Poland. Most of the δ18O determinations are characterised by low variability (i.e., > 70 per cent of δ18O are between –9.5‰ and –9.2‰). In most cases tritium activity was not detected or its content slightly exceeded the uncertainty of measurement (from ±0.3 T.U. to ± 0.5 T.U.). On average, 14C activity is twice higher than that under similar conditions and in hydrogeological systems. The δ13CDIC values fall within the –13.6‰ to –12.8‰ range. A slight variability is observed when considering all isotope and chemical data within the study area and under these hydrogeological conditions. In general, the results of isotope and chemical analyses seem to be homogeneous, indicating the presence of closely similar groundwaters in the system, irrespective of geological formation. It is likely that there is a significant hydraulic connection between shallow and deep aquifers in the Gwda catchment, which indicates the potential for seepage of pollutants from shallow Pleistocene to deep Miocene aquifers. This can endanger the latter by e.g., high concentrations of NO3–, SO42– and Cl– ions from shallow aquifers within the Gwda catchment.
PL
Zbiornik zaporowy Rzeszów na rzece Wisłok w południowo-wschodniej Polsce, został zbudowany w 1973 roku. W trakcie jego eksploatacji, niektóre strefy zbiornika zostały zamulone i zalądowione, przez co jego powierzchnia i głębokość istotnie się zmniejszyły. Pomimo kilkukrotnych rekultywacji, zbiornik jest nadal silnie zamulony i jego funkcje użytkowe są mocno ograniczone. Celem pracy jest analiza zanieczyszczeń i możliwość wykorzystania rolniczego urobku wydobytego ze zbiornika. W pracy dokonano analizy ilościowej zarówno substancji potencjalnie toksycznych jak i biogennych w próbkach osadów pobranych w ciągu ostatnich pięciu lat ze stanowisk zlokalizowanych wzdłuż osi zbiornika. Ponadto, zostało oszacowane pochodzenie materii organicznej zawartej w tych osadach. W tym celu wykorzystano analizy zawartości stabilnych izotopów N i C jak również stosunków elementarnych tych pierwiastków. Krzemionka była dominującym składnikiem osadu (około 67% suchej masy osadu), zaś materia organiczna (OM) stanowiła około 10% s.m.o. Stężenia związków biogennych: OWO, azotu ogólnego i fosforu ogólnego wynosiły średnio odpowiednio 2,31%, 0,21% i 0,031% s.m.o. Pochodzenie osadów dennych zbiornika Rzeszów jest mieszane. Niespodziewanie wysoki udział materii autochtonicznej może być wynikiem intensywnej eutrofizacji wód zbiornika. Zawartości WWA były stosunkowo niskie. Najwyższe zauważone stężenie wynosiło 0,164 ppm w przypadku benzo(k)fluorantenu. Zawartość benzo(a)pirenu była niższa od 0,14 ppm. Poziomy stężeń wybranych kongenerów PCB mieściły się w przedziale od 0,0006 do 0,003 ppm i były poniżej wartości normatywnych. Badane osady były umiarkowanie zanieczyszczone metalami ciężkimi (Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb). Średnie stężenia wszystkich metali przekraczały sporadycznie tło geochemiczne i poziom TEC, ale wartość PEC nie została przekroczona w żadnej z analizowanych próbek. Charakter badanych osadów wskazuje, że nie są one odpowiednie do stosowania w rolnictwie ze względu na zanieczyszczenie i brak żyzności. Jednak mogą one być wykorzystywane do rekultywacji gruntów nierolniczych. Istnieją metody umożliwiające usunięcie z wydobytego materiału z tych zanieczyszczeń, głównie metali ciężkich, ale z uwagi na znaczne ilości urobku proces może okazać się nieopłacalny.
EN
Time series of investigations of selected mineral waters in the Piwniczna Spa prove the occurrence of progressive negative changes indicated by results of tritium concentration and chemical composition measurements. In some boreholes a systematic decrease of mineralization in time is observed – sometime taking the form of a drastic disappearance. According to available data this is caused by the opening of new migration paths for gaseous geogenic CO2 and, increased inflow of modern (tritium containing) waters to several wells. The latter possibility is especially visible in a case of P-5 and P-6 boreholes. Based on analytical results the necessity of regular observations of selected boreholes is postulated.
EN
The points of the national network of groundwater monitoring comprise a stable benchmarks in quality and quantity monitoring. The obtained data (tritium and δ18O) are important for understanding the groundwater cycling and are indirect indicators of aquifer vulnerability to anthropogenic pollution. The goal of this paper is to present the relation of the tritium content and delta value of stable isotopes of oxygen against the groundwater sampling depth in 2004–2012. It is demonstrated that the remains of “nuclear” tritium concentration is still present in groundwater as a tritium peak at depths around 30 m. Determination of dynamics of recharge in groundwater bodies, based on national network observation points is associated to the estimation of the groundwater residence time in aquifers and remains one the vital problem of hydrogeology.
9
EN
The paper presents new results of stable isotope ratios (18O16O, 2H/1H and 37Cl/35Cl) in a few representative mineral waters of the Subcarpathian area. The observed temporal variability of 18O/16O and 2H/1H in waters has thrown a new light onto the origin of these waters. Analysis of 37Cl/35Cl in chlorine ion is indicative of its origin, at least it was possible to exclude a contamination by chloro-organic compounds. The possibility of tracing of migration of this pollution type by simultaneous analysis of chlorine and carbon isotopes is discussed. The results are discussed on the background of geological structures of the aquifers and their hydrogeological conditions.
10
Content available remote Nmr studies of human cystatin C - stable isotope labeling of human cystatin C
EN
The objective of this study was to obtain a double and triple labeled hu man cystatin C (h CC ). Another objective was to record sets of 2D and 3D NMR spectra of the h CC dimer (in a solution) using a 700MHz spectrometer. The data obtained durin g attempts to determine the NMR structure should provide useful information about chemical shifts of amino acid residues. They will certainly accelerate solving the human cys tatin C NMR structure. In this paper the main focus is put on triple isotopic labeling, protein overproduction and NMR analysis of h CC . The first two processes lead to obtaining h CC labeled with stable isotopes of carbon ( 13 C), nitrogen ( 15 N) and hydrogen ( 2 H) (double labeled h CC was obtained with a similar method). The obtained protein was later used for the purp ose of NMR spectra.
EN
The stable isotope technique has been widely used to infer the dietary ecology of a range of animal species. The δ13C technique provides a valuable tool for researchers when designing pastures for dual environmental and production purposes. Tibetan antelope, Pantholops hodgsoni (chiru), is endemic species to the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of western China – Kekexili Nature Reserve area. The aim of this study was to identify the food diet of Tibetan antelope among plants with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Faeces and plant samples were collected at the Kekexili Nature Reserve (KNR, 34°19’ ~ 36°16’N, 89°25’ ~94°05’E) in Qinghai Province, China. Stable isotope values of carbon and nitrogen of faeces and plant samples were measured under EAMS (element-analysis meter and spectrometer) conditions. Enrichment and food content ratio were calculated according to previous research methods to determine the relative importance of plant sources in the food diet of Tibetan antelopes. The results indicate that faecal samples provided the most convenient and uninjurious sources to predict the food diet and that C3 plants were selected as the food by chiru. Dualisotope multiple-source mixing model suggested that the food content of antelope is including Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Cruciferae. An understanding of what chiru selects allows for development of appropriate grazing and protecting strategies, especially in fragile ecosystem. According to our knowledge, this is the first essay to reveal the food diet of chiru with stable isotope analysis method.
PL
Celem pracy była analiza znaczenia zarówno naturalnych jak i antropogenicznych źródeł materii organicznej (OM) zawartej w osadach dennych zalewu Maziarnia. Obserwowane wartości wskaźników izotopowych i elementarnych sugerują mieszane pochodzenie OM ze źródeł allo- i autochtonicznych w całym zbiorniku. Wykorzystanie modelu mieszanych źródeł w oparciu o wskaźniki 5I5N i C:N wskazują na przewagę materii autochtonicznej (50-80%).
EN
The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of both natural and anthropogenic sources of organic matter (OM) in bottom sediments of the Maziarnia reservoir, Poland. Isotopic and elemental data, within the reservoir, was consistent with relatively efficient mixing of allo- and autochthonic matter. Calculations using the end-member mixing model based on 515N and C:N values shows advantage of autochthonous OM (50-80%).
EN
Stable isotope composition ([delta^18]O and [delta^13]C) of biogenic carbonates derived from the Lake Lednica sediments at Rybitwy, western Poland, was applied to obtain data on climatic changes during the Late Glacial and early Holocene. A wide range of carbonates occurring in the sediments was analysed for [delta^18]O and [delta^13]C records, including shells of several gastropod species, the bivalve genus Pisidium and carapaces of ostracods belonging to the subfamily Candoninae. The [delta^18]O and [delta^13]C records reveal changes commonly observed for the Late Glacial and early Holocene with the exception of the low oxygen isotope values of the Bolling and Allerod Interstadials. The latter is interpreted as a consequence of [^18]O-depletion of the lake water resulting from gradual melting of the dead ice that still filled the deepest parts of the Lake Lednica valley during the period described. The Younger Dryas Stadial begins with the isotopically lightest values in the sequence; however, due to the [^18]O-depleted values of the Allerod Interstadial the Allerod/Younger Dryas boundary is poorly marked. The Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition is documented by a significant shift in [delta^18]O values of about 2-3[per mil], resulting from an increase in the mean annual temperature. The [delta^13]C record reflects the productivity level in the lake, with [^13]C-enriched carbonates during the Bolling and Allerod Interstadials, and the Preboreal and Boreal, when photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton and macrophytes was the most intensive. Differences in [delta^18]O and [delta^13]C values between mollusc shells and ostracod carapaces reflect the specific season and subhabitat of each carbonate secretion.
PL
Dwa tradycyjne regionalne sery: włoski Montasio i polski Oscypek zostały scharakteryzowane poprzez zastosowanie Spektrometrii Masowej Stosunków Stabilnych Izotopów. Analizy zawartości cięższego izotopu węgla, azotu i tlenu w kazeinie i glicerynie, wyodrębnionych z próbek serów oraz/lub mleka, pozwoliły na ustalenie profili izotopowych badanych serów. Rezultaty odzwierciedlają geograficzne i klimatyczne warunki terenów, z których pochodzą badane sery, jak również wpływ diety zwierząt, których mleko użyto do produkcji. Bardzo dobre rozróżnienie pomiędzy badanymi serami uzyskano w wyniku analizy węgla 13C, podczas gdy analizy tlenu 18O i azotu 15N dały gorsze rozróżnienie. Prawdopodobnie jest to spowodowane nakładającym się wpływem czynników produkcji.
EN
Two traditional regional cheeses: Italian Montasio and Polish Oscypek have been characterized by the use of Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry. Analyses of the content of the heavier isotope of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in casein and glycerol isolated from cheese and/or milk samples allowed to establish the cheeses' isotopic profiles. The results reflect the geographical and climatic conditions of the regions of the cheeses' origin, as well as, the diet of animals which milk has been used for production. Very good differentiation between the examined cheeses was obtained in case of the carbon 13C analyses, while the oxygen 18O and nitrogen 15N analyses gave worse distinguish. This was probably due to overlapping production factors.
16
Content available remote Radiocarbon in freshwater carbonates as tool of Late Quaternary studies
EN
Different methods of radiometric dating (14C, U/Th, TL) and stable isotopes composition (13C and 18O) in freshwater carbonates are used for analysis of sedimentologic process and reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions as well as for stratigraphic purposes. Calcareous tufa and speleothems deposited in karst areas seem to be rightly significant indicators of the past changes because of their direct relation to the environment of deposition. Some important methodical and interpretation problems for Quaternary research in Poland were solved during the last ca. 20 years in Gliwice Radiocarbon Laboratory. Synthetic approach to 14C dating of calcareous tufa from Southern Poland, based on statistical analysis of correlation between lithologic type of tufaceous sediment, carbon isotope composition and apparent age was done. Results of measurements of 8lsO and 8I3C in tufa samples dated with 14C method are used to reconstruct Holocene climatic changes in southern and Eastern Poland. The stable isotope composition was used to estimate the mean annual temperatures in the interval 9500-2000 yr BP. On the basis of statistical analysis of several hundred 14C dates for speleothems from Kraków-Wieluń Upland caves warm and cold climate periods were indicated during the last 50,000 years BP. Distribution of the dates indicate that growth of speleothems between 30 and 20 ka BP may be interpreted as reflecting changes of paleoclimatic conditions. Comparison of measured 14C activities in carbonate fractions of lake marl from Gościąż Lake with their varve ages allowed for accurate determination of secular changes of 14C dilution factor of total dissolved inorganic carbon. Basing on the geochemical model developed by Broecker and Walton it was possible to reconstruct mean lake level during the Late Glacial and Holocene. Basing on 14C dates of lithological boundaries in the cores from Gościąż lake basin the changes of lake level during the last 12 ka BP were reconstructed. Paleokarst forms known as “pipes” from Southwest England and South Wales were dated by 14C, U/Th and TL methods. 14C ages were obtained from carbonate cements within sandrock and on the pipe walls. Statistical analysis of dates and geochemical considerations indicate on periods of pipes pipes and pipes infillings.
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