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EN
The analysis of underground (spring) waters concerned 6 springs located in the eastern part of the Sanok District on the border of the Eastern and Western Carpathians (analysis of bioelements). There have been detected „natural mineral waters with sodium chloride content” with chemical admixtures such as: boron (HBO2 >10 mg·dm-3) strontium (Sr > 10 mg·dm-3), barium (Ba > 3 mg·dm-3), Lithium (Li > 1 mg·dm-3), in a potential perspective of economic importance. The above-mentioned water from Tyrawa Solna, has a historical aspect, connected with salt-works, as signified by the name of the village. The publicly availablespring of Chopin from the Sanok park is characterized by „natural mineral water with calcium content” at the same time it is „low-sodium water” with a sodium content (< 3 mg·dm-3). The spring from Bykowce near Sanok, has "specific healing iron water" with iron (II) content above 10 mg·dm-3, while the spring on the Olchowce-Liszna route called „Nad Wodospadem” („At the Waterfall”) (Nature Monument) is rich in "specific healing sulphide water" with a divalent sulphur content of 3.8 mg·dm-3 (characteristic odour). The criterion of „specific boric therapeutic water” with HBO2 metaboric acid concentration higher than 5 mg·dm-3 (pharmacodynamic factors) (Regulation of the Minister of Health) meets the already mentioned water from Tyrawa Solna. This water also contains large amounts of sodium potassium, calcium and magnesium, and its mineralization exceeded 3500 mg·dm-3 (highly mineralized brine). On the border of the Eastern and Western Carpathians, moving south towards Slovakia, two sources were found in the Bieszczady Mountains (Mików, Radoszyce). Water from „Cudowne Źródełko” („The Miraculous Spring”) in Radoszyce (surroundings) belongs to soft waters (hardness = 10 German degrees) and to low mineralized ones (mineralization < 500 mg·dm-3). Bioelements that are found in trace amounts in spring waters i.e. iodine < 0.3 and fluorine < 0.1 [mg·dm-3] and selenium and vanadium < 20, zinc and copper < 10, chromium and nickel < 5, molybdenum < 1 [μg·dm-3] were also determined. Chemical analyses were performed using the following methods: AAS, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, IC, potentiometry (pH), conductometry (EC), ORP potential, turbidimetry, argentometry and acid-base titration. The influence on the functioning of the human body and some bioelements is described.
PL
Analiza wód podziemnych (źródlanych) dotyczyła 6 źródeł zlokalizowanych we wschodniej części Powiatu Sanok na granicy Karpat Wschodnich i Zachodnich (analiza biopierwiastków). Wykryto „naturalne wody mineralne z zawartością chlorku sodu” z chemicznymi domieszkami: boru (HBO2 > 10 mg · dm-3) strontu (Sr > 10 mg · dm-3), baru (Ba > 3 mg · dm-3), litu (Li > 1 mg·dm-3), w ewentualnej perspektywie o znaczeniu gospodarczym. Wymieniona woda z Tyrawy Solnej, posiada aspekt historyczny, związany z warzelnictwem soli, o czym świadczy również nazwa miejscowości. Ogólnodostępne źródło Chopina z parku sanockiego cechuje „naturalna woda mineralna z zawartością wapnia” jednocześnie jest to „woda niskosodowa” o zawartości sodu (< 3 mg · dm-3). Źródło z Bykowiec niedaleko Sanoka, posiada „wodę swoistą leczniczą żelazistą” o zawartości żelaza (II) powyżej 10 mg · dm-3, natomiast źródło na drodze Olchowce-Liszna „Nad Wodospadem” (Pomnik Przyrody) jest bogate w „wodę swoistą leczniczą siarczkową” o zawartości siarki dwuwartościowej 3,8 mg · dm-3 (charakterystyczny zapach). Kryterium „wody swoistej leczniczej borowej” o stężeniu kwasu metaborowego HBO2 wyższym od 5 mg · dm-3 (współczynniki farmakodynamiczne) (Rozporządzenie Ministra Zdrowia) spełnia już wspomniana woda z Tyrawy Solnej. Woda ta zawiera również duże ilości sodu potasu, wapnia i magnezu, a jej mineralizacja przekroczyła 3500 mg · dm-3 (wysokozmineralizowana solanka). Na granicy Karpat Wschodnich i Zachodnich przemieszczając się na południe w kierunku Słowacji znaleziono w Bieszczadach dwa źródła (Mików, Radoszyce). Woda z „Cudownego Źródełka” w Radoszycach (okolice) należy do wód miękkich (twardość = 10 stopni niemieckich) oraz niskozmineralizowanych (mineralizacja < 500 mg · dm-3). Oznaczono również biopierwiastki, które występują w wodach źródlanych w ilościach śladowych tj. jod < 0,3 i fluor < 0,1 [mg · dm-3] oraz selen i wanad < 20, cynk i miedź < 10, chrom i nikiel < 5, molibden < 1 [μg · dm-3]. Analizy chemiczne wykonano następującymi metodami: ASA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, IC, potencjometria (pH), konduktometria (EC), potencjał ORP, turbidymetria, argentometria, alkacymetria. Opisano wpływ na funkcjonowanie organizmu człowieka, niektórych biopierwiastków.
EN
Chamaepinnularia thermophila is a small and poorly known diatom species. After the first description from a hot spring in Guadalupe in 1952, its presence appeared to be limited to a few other springs of the French Antilles. The objective of this study is to report new information on aspects of taxonomy, distribution and ecology of this species. Accurate analysis under light and scanning electron microscope of the material collected on different substrates (cobbles, macrophytes and fine sediments) from a thermo-mineral spring of Sardinia (Italy) allowed us to document the first record of the species in the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, the comparison with Navicula tongatensis from Hustedt's original material, carried out because of their similarity, revealed identical morphological characteristics suggesting their consequent synonymy. Based on the information available in the literature and our data, C. thermophila is a rare species present mainly in tropical areas, in thermal springs with alkaline pH, medium to high conductivity and low to moderate nutrient content. The occurrence of the species at sites with very different environmental characteristics seems unusual, but it could indicate a broader ecological range. This study contributes to the standardization of the nomenclature used for this species so far and provides the first framework on its global geographic distribution and ecology.
3
Content available remote Propozycja wstępnej waloryzacji źródeł w aspekcie ich ochrony prawnej
PL
W pracy przedstawiono i scharakteryzowano form ochrony źródeł w Polsce oraz zaproponowano wstępną waloryzację źródeł na potrzeby ustanawiania form ochrony prawnej. Na podstawie danych Generalnej Dyrekcji Ochrony Środowiska ochroną prawną, zgodnie z ustawą o ochronie przyrody, objętych jest w Polsce 266 źródeł (źródlisk) lub zespołów źródeł. Przeważającą formą ochrony źródeł są pomniki przyrody (48,5%), następnie rezerwaty (30,4%), użytki ekologiczne (13,9%), zespoły przyrodniczo-krajobrazowe (5,2%) i stanowiska dokumentacyjne (1,9%). Zwrócono uwagę na różne podejścia przy podejmowaniu decyzji o wyborze form ochrony źródeł. Stąd w celu wyeliminowania niepewności interpretacyjnych przedstawiono propozycję selekcji wypływów na podstawie zaproponowanego algorytmu. Wstępny algorytm postępowania pozwala podjąć decyzję, które ze źródeł powinno być objęte ochroną prawną i w jakiej formie.
EN
The aim of the paper is to present and characterize springs covered by nature conservation in Poland. Based on data from the General Directorate for Environmental Protection, legal conservation covered 266 springs (wetlands) or spring groups in accordance with the Nature Conservation Act. The predominant forms of spring conservation are natural monuments (48.5%), nature reserves (30.4%), ecological areas (13.9%), landscape-nature complexes (5.2%) and documentation sites (1.9%). In order to eliminate interpretation uncertainties, a suggestion for selection is also presented. The preliminary valorization algorithm allows deciding which spring should be covered by nature conservation and in which form.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki oznaczeń trytu w wodach z czterech źródeł usytuowanych na terenie Pienińskiego Par¬ku Narodowego. Za pomocą programu FLOWPC podjęto próbę oszacowania trytowego wieku wód w systemie hydrogeologicznym, tj. czasu wymiany wody w zbiornikach drenowanych przez źródła. Z uwagi na skomplikowany porowo-szczelinowy system krążenia wód i niewielkie obszary zasilania najbardziej prawdopodobne wyniki uzyskuje się dla modeli dyspersyjnych i eksponencjalno-tłokowych. Uzyskane wyniki szacowania wieku wód, niezależnie od przyjętego modelu i jego parametrów, potwierdzają stosunkowo młody wiek wód, nieprzekraczający najprawdopodobniej 30 lat, i świadczą o drenowaniu przez badane źródła wód współczesnego zasilania infiltracyjnego.
EN
The paper presents the results of tritium determinations in four springs located within the Pieniny National Park. The attempt of assessing the age of groundwater, i.e. the groundwater tritium turnover time in the drained reservoirs was made using the FLOWPC computer code application. Due to the complex fissure-pore groundwater circulation system as well as relatively small recharge areas, the most reliable results were obtained for dispersion and exponential-piston flow models. The obtained groundwater age estimations, regar¬dless of the assumed model and its parameters, corroborated the relatively young age of studied waters, presumably not exceeding 30 years. This proves that the studied springs in the Pieniny National Park are recharged mainly by modern infiltration.
EN
Springs are a vital source of water supply in Quaternary volcanic environments, such as Rinjani Volcano on Lombok Island, and yet little is known about their emergence and recharge areas. Knowledge of spring recharge area can substantially support further spring analysis and management. This study was performed in two spring zones on the southern flank of Rinjani Volcano. It combined the available morphological, lithological, and hydrological datasets to build a conceptual model of the spring recharge areas. According to the analysis results, the conceptual model allowed to describe the flow medium, the aquifer type, and the characteristics of the flow system. The local morphology controlled the direction and gradient of groundwater flow to the springs. The analysis also revealed that the spring water in the study area was meteoric water, which mainly came from rainwater infiltration. Therefore, the boundaries of the spring recharge areas were represented by the morphological divides.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the content of the PIG-PIB databases in terms of information on discharges of springs in Poland. In general, the information covers about 87 springs. They are compiled in two databases: the Quantitative Monitoring Database (MSI) and the Central Hydrogeological Data Bank (CBDH). The measurement series concerns the period 1973-2016, and there are 41 springs still monitored. Most of the observed objects are small springs (class VI) with the average discharge of only 0.33 dm3s-1. Unfortunately, the biggest problem is the lack of series synchronization. Their length ranges from a few months to almost 40 years, but 39 outflows is observable for less than a decade. Most of the springs (57) represent Paleogene Carpathian flysch sediments, 27 Sudetic rocks, 2 karst springs are in the Cracow- Częstochowa Upland, and only one is located in Pomerania. The lack of data synchronization makes it difficult to conduct some analyses, but does not exclude the use of other quantitative characteristics of springs, e.g. in the research of seasonal and long-term discharge variability. The variety of selection of objects can also help in an evaluation of the impact of environmental factors on the spring outflow.
EN
The concentration of radon in groundwater is mainly governed by the radium content in the rocks of the aquifer. The internal exposure to high levels of radon in water is directly associated with the radiological risk to members of public. In this work, radon concentrations were measured in groundwater of Garhwal Himalaya, India, using scintillation detector-based RnDuo and silicon detector-based RAD7 monitors. An inter-comparison exercise was carried out between RnDuo and RAD7 techniques for a few samples to validate the results. The radiation doses associated with the exposure to radon in water were estimated from measured values of activity concentrations. An attempt has been made to see the effect of geology, geohydrology and different types of sources on radon levels in Himalayan groundwater. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail.
EN
The paper presents the results of precipitation influence on the discharge regime changes of 6 springs located in south-western Poland and draining a variety of rocks differing in lithology and age. Calculations for the very wet (2010) and the extremely dry years (2015) have shown that the low spring discharges experienced the greatest variations, with the coefficient ofvariation falling between 3-141%. The coefficient of variation for the maximum and average discharges generally does not exceed 90%. The obtained values of the regression coefficient from 0.0016 to 0.1 d-1 and the coefficient of variation (0-33%) indicate a relatively low variability of groundwater resources and the low transmissivity and high storage capacity of the weathering cover. The spring discharge analysis indicates also the drainage of groundwater bodies of various capacity. The maximum values of the storage capacity are several hundred thousand cubic meters, whereas in the lowest spring resources it does not exceed several thousand cubic meters. Three springs have shown a low variability of the storage capacity (Cv = 4-32%), two have indicated a moderate variability (66 and 70%) and one has shown a large variability (135%). The large storage capacity and high hydraulic resistance of the weathering cover does not guarantee the spring recharge during longer periods (summer-autumn) without rain.
EN
CO2-reach springs are the natural treasure of the Polish Carpathians, including the research region (ca. 11.5 km2) of the Muszynka River basin, located in the areas of Tylicz-Spa and Krynica-Spa with developed mineral water industry. Previous investigations suggest that springs arepar- tially vanishing or their hydrochemical and hydrodynamic regime is disturbed. To clear this problem, the authors analyzed periodical or stationary measurements made in the course of documenting, water producer operation, and own observations within a period of good data availability (1973-2014) for CO2-rich springs. The springs investigated in the Tylicz region are characterized by a variable and strongly time-dependent CO2 content (rangingfrom 352 mg/dm3 to 3 g/dm3). The discharge is relatively low and rarely exceeds 0.05 dm3/s. The research results show disappearance of two springs (T-10 and T-15) within the period of interest. Massive floods (in 1997, 1998, 2002-2004, 2010) are indicated as the probable main reason. In another three springs (T-13, T-14, T-17) the CO2 content dropped below 250 mg/dm3. The stationary measurements of two springs (Zdrój Główny and Bradowiec in Tylicz) allow concluding about poor correlation between investigated parameters (temperature, pH, CO2 content, electrical conductivity) and apparent influence ofmeteorological agents. Potential anthropogenic agents (borehole discharge, digging works) probably do not influence the CO2-rich spring regime or it has not been detected yet.
EN
Considerations of the relationships between the groundwater systems and neotectonics in the Roztocze region have been first undertaken by J. Malinowski in the 1970s. Until now, no research results have supported or challenged the hypothesis proposed by this author. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to present the results of a detailed analysis of the relationships between the distribution of springs characterised by the highest discharge rates and neotectonics. The study area covered the Roztocze part of the Biała Łada catchment, which has been subjected to detailed hydrogeological and hydrological investigations since the 1960s. The study was based on spatial data concerning the distribution of springs and information about the discharge rates of the largest springs. The data were juxtaposed with the relatively active tectonic zones distinguished in the catchment based on the relative tectonic activity index (Iat). The index was calculated using ArcGIS software, based on DEM, and with the use of the ArcNEO tool. The investigations indicated that springs with the highest discharge rates are located in the intersection zone of the main Biała Łada dislocation with accompanying faults. Additionally, the springs are located in the mouth sections of dry, asymmetric valleys and at the foot of their steep slopes following isostatically elevated hanging walls. The results support the hypothesis put forward by J. Malinowski (1993), who suggested that the distribution of springs with the highest discharge rates is determined by tectonics of the rock massif, in particular the distribution of the main dislocations and the accompanying subordinate discontinuous tectonic structures.
EN
The paper presents the results of the hydrogeochemical analysis of sulphurous waters in the southern part of Poland in the Nida Basin region for a time span of 2014-2016. In this area occur four chemical types of natural outflows of sulphurous waters. These are: water of the SO4-(HCO3)-Ca, S type (spring Piestrzec and Senislawice), Cl-SO4-HCO3-Na, S (s. Owczary); Cl-SO4-Na, S (s. Gadawa); Cl-Na, S, I (s. Szczerbaków). Water mineralization of varies from 2.4 to 50.6 g/dm3. Geochemical modeling with Phreeqc allowed to determine the saturation state of the water solution relative to the mineral phases of the rock medium.
12
Content available remote Reżim wydajności wybranych źródeł Austrii, Czech, Niemiec i Polski
EN
The long-term characteristics of the discharge regime in European springs are not well known yet. In presenting the springs, stress should be laid on their discharge variability and seasonality. The paper presents mean monthly discharges in 86 springs from four countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Poland, measured over a period of several years. The analyses were based on discharge variability coefficients (V R, CV) and Markham's seasonality parameters: seasonality index and time of concentration. The results were interpreted with reference to three basic types of hydrogeological outflows: in karst, fissure and porous springs. The regime of most investigated springs is complex (57% of all springs), and nival supply clearly dominates over precipitation supply (49% vs.8 %). Nival supply dominates also among the springs with simple regimes, as a culmination of the discharge in 35% of these outflows was observed in the spring months. In the karst spring, characterized by higher seasonal discharge, it occurs on average about three weeks later than in the fissure springs. The seasonality index of the porous outflows is several times lower, and the discharge concentration time occurs at the beginning of May. Seasonal spring discharge wasfound to be correlated with the spring elevation; the discharge of springs located at higher elevations is characterized by greater seasonal variability and later concentration date.
EN
The composition of water bug communities from 32 springs located in the central part of Montenegro was investigated. Twenty five species were identified, including 13 reported as new to Montenegro. The most common species were Hydrometra stagnorum and Velia sp. (Gerromorpha). Our study in the central part of Montenegro revealed that environmental and faunistic classification of karstic springs based on water bug communities may not correspond with each other. According to environmental characteristics, springs were divided into three groups indicating anthropogenic impact on the spring habitats. Water bug communities divided springs into four groups. There are differences in species richness between these four types of water bug assemblages and among the studied spring types. Results of CCA analysis revealed spring size as the main driver of biotic diversity of aquatic bugs in springs. Our study showed that community groups of water bugs specified in the biotic classification of spring habitats are much better defined than assemblages distinguished in the environmental site classification.
14
Content available remote Elementy sprężyste fazowników samoczynnych
PL
Przedstawiono wymagania, możliwości i uwarunkowania techniczne zastosowania różnych rodzajów sprężyn w fazownikach samoczynnych. Podano zalecenia do doboru sprężyn dla różnych rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych narzędzi.
EN
The paper presents requirements, opportunities and technical conditions to use different types of springs in self-acting beveling tools. They were given instructions to the selection of springs for various tools design solutions.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę hydrograficzno-hydrochemiczną źródeł z wytraceniami martwic wapiennych położonych na obszarze Beskidu Małego. Źródła tego typu wraz z charakterystycznymi zbiorowiskami Cratoneurion commutati zaliczone zostały do siedlisk przyrodniczych o znaczeniu priorytetowym (kod Natura 2000: 7220). Wykazano, że depozycja martwic wapiennych zachodzi w źródłach o zróżnicowanej mineralizacji wód. Ma ona również charakter okresowy, przypada głównie na lato.
EN
The paper presents hydrological-hydrochemical characteristics of springs with limestones precipitations situated in the area of the Beskid Mały Mts. These springs with characteristic plant communities Cratoneurion commutati were included to priority NATURA 2000 habitat (code 7220). It was revealed that precipitation of limestone occurs in spring with diversified mineralization of waters. It is a periodic phenomenon with the maximum of the occurrence in summer.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono próbę oceny wpływu stanu sprężyn tłumika drgań skrętnych na pracę samochodowego sprzęgła ciernego. Szczególnie uwagę poświęcono określeniu związku zwiotczenia sprężyn na ich współczynnik tłumienia czy czas relaksacji.
EN
The article presents an attempt to assess the impact of the state of spring torsional vibration damper on the work of automotive friction clutch. Particular attention was paid to determining the relationship between flaccidity springs and damping coefficient or relaxation time.
EN
The article presents results of investigations carried out in the central, most elevated part of the Kashubian Lake District, in the area of the Szymbarskie Hills and the Ostrzyckie Lake. The occurrence of groundwater outflows is very diverse here; wide areas of young glacial elevations are free from springs, while large concentration of groundwater outflows is observed in the vicinity of trough lakes. Investigations of the outflows discharge and of the water chemical composition were carried out in the period of three years. Most of the analyzed springs are perennial, only a few of them are of periodic character. Comparison of the obtained results with the results of the research performed 40 years ago shows little diversity, without a clear trend to development or disappearance of groundwater outflows.
EN
Studies of spring waters, especially in mountainous areas, where there are no well boreholes, provide valuable information on the dynamics and chemistry of groundwater. The results of one and a half year monitoring of five selected springs located in the Inner Carpathians were presented in the article. All the springs drain cool, slightly alkaline waters with a low mineralization, which classifies them into acratopegae. In the ionic composition of studied waters bicarbonates, calcium, and magnesium are dominated. In particular, attention was drawn to changes in temperature, since their analysis allowed a relative assessment of the depth of water circulation drained by the springs
19
Content available remote Monitoringowe badania źródeł Wyżyny Lubelskiej i Roztocza
EN
Next to the Tatra Mountains, the Lublin Upland and Roztocze Region are areas featuring the occurrence of the most efficient springs in Poland. They are particularly fed from the Cretaceous aquifer, only in the north-western part of the region also by waters circulating in the sediments of the Palaeocene, and in the boundary zone of Roztocze and Lublin Upland – Neogene. The earlier determination of occurrence of springs commenced in 1998, involving systematic measurements of approximately 70 selected springs. Monitoring measurements covered springs distributed in all of the physico-geographic regions with yield of more than 10 dm3/s. Measurements of the yield and physicochemical properties of water were performed annually in late spring. Data concerning 60 springs were compared for the period 1998–2014. The collected hydrometric materials permit the comparison of the dynamics of the yield and properties of water quality in both temporal and spatial terms. The mean spring yield amounted to 81.2 dm3/s. The mean value from the minimum yield decreased to 59.2 dm3/s, and from maximum increased to 132.7 dm3/s. The coefficient of yield irregularity varied from 1.6 to 5.9 for 90% of the analysed springs. Spring waters were distinguished by moderate mineralisation, reaction approximate to neutral, dominance of HCO3–Ca ions, and very high quality.
20
Content available remote Chemizm wód źródeł w zlewni Markowego Potoku, Babiogórski Park Narodowy
EN
The purpose of this paper is to describe the variability of the chemical characteristics of springwater in the Marków Potok catchment. Five springs were selected for research purposes. The research was performed in spring and summer 2013 and 2014. Ca was found as the most common cation, HCO3 was the most common anion and NO3 was dominated in the biogenic compounds in the analysed springwater. Comparing the period of spring and summer the highest values of most of the chemical characteristics of water occurred in the summer, the lowest in the spring. It was found that chemical properies of water springs were shaped by the diverse geological structure of the catchment area, climatic conditions, the process of dilution and the biological activity of the basin.
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