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1
EN
Football stadiums are among the most recognisable buildings within cities. Contemporary urban planning concepts do not diminish their historical significance and purpose, yet proposals of placing stadiums within city commercial districts grant them the status of service and entertainment complexes. In a process of evolution, they have been given the rank of central points of new commercial districts. What distinguishes their contemporary architecture? What factors affect their vision and the shaping of their surroundings? The author makes an attempt at answering these questions while referring to a broader spectrum of the design of the spatial structure and urban composition of cities and the concept of sustainable development. He characterises phenomena and selected components of stadium-related infrastructure elements and their function depending on a range of identified variable factors.
PL
Stadiony piłkarskie należą do najbardziej rozpoznawalnych obiektów w miastach. Współczesne koncepcje urbanistyczne nie umniejszają ich historycznej rangi i przeznaczenia ale idee sytuowania stadionów w obrębie dzielnic komercyjnych miast nadają im status kompleksów widowiskowousługowych. W procesie ewolucji otrzymały one miano centralnych punktów nowych dzielnic komercyjnych. Co wyróżnia ich współczesną architekturę oraz jakie czynniki mają wpływ na ich wizję i kształtowanie ich otoczenia? Autor próbuje odpowiedzieć na te pytania w odniesieniu do szerszego spektrum kształtowania struktury przestrzennej – kompozycji urbanistycznej miast oraz koncepcji zrównoważonego rozwoju. Charakteryzuje zjawiska i wybrane komponenty infrastruktury okołostadionowej oraz jej funkcje w zależności od identyfikowanych, zmiennych czynników.
PL
Przemysław Świercz, sportowiec, zawodnik klubu Husaria Kraków, kapitan reprezentacji Polski w ampfutbolu (osób po amputacjach), trener sportowy i biznesowy, mówca motywacyjny. W 2009 roku w wypadku motocyklowym stracił nogę. Jak sam mówi – kiedy zamykają się przed tobą jedne drzwi, natychmiast otwierają się inne.
EN
In Special Olympics, athletes’ foot deformities, abnormal postural patterns and overweight and obesity were observed to be more common than in the general population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between body composition and foot posture index. Additionally, the effect of gender and other factors on the body composition and foot posture index in athletes with intellectual disability (ID) were analyzed. Methods: 131 athletes with ID participated in this study: 36 table tennis players, 66 cross country skiers and 29 downhill skiers. Their body composition was assessed using the bioimpedance analysis InBody 230 (Biospace, Korea). The foot screening included the assessment of foot posture index, which evaluates the degree of pronated, supinated and neutral position of the foot, gait speed and the last part of the procedure consisted of a short questionnaire, providing the information about the type of housing, age, and the usage of orthotics. Results: A low correlation between body composition and some of the foot posture index criteria was observed. The mean foot posture index score in athletes with ID was observed to be slightly pronated, as also described in the general population, with no statistically significant difference between female and male athletes. The gender differences were observed only in body composition. Conclusions: The high body weight and body fat percentage observed in this study highlight the need for healthy lifestyle education in athletes with ID.
PL
Urządzenie zewnętrznej siłowni możemy zlecić zewnętrznej firmie, lecz przedsięwzięcie to nie jest na tyle skomplikowane, by nie móc spróbować zrealizować go samodzielnie. Przy dzisiejszej dużej dostępności wysokiej jakości sprzętu jedynymi ograniczeniami pozostają w zasadzie nasza wyobraźnia oraz zasobność portfela. Dobrze jednak na etapie projektowania miejsca sportowej rekreacji poznać podstawowe zasady odpowiedniego doboru urządzeń.
7
Content available remote Sport a soczewki kontaktowe
8
Content available remote Architektura III RP 1989-2018
9
Content available remote Doping w sporcie oraz metody jego wykrywania
PL
Od niepamiętnych czasów osoby uprawiające różnego rodzaju sporty chcieli stawać na najwyższym podium uczestnicząc w zawodach. Ludzie w wyniku bardzo ciężkich treningów, ogromnej determinacji i woli walki oraz mnóstwa wyrzeczeń zdobywają wielkie osiągnięcia w sporcie. Jednak niektórzy, aby stać się najlepszymi wybierają drogę na skróty, którą w świecie sportu jest doping. Najogólniej jest to sztuczne podnoszenie wydolności fizycznej i psychicznej zawodnika metodami wykraczającymi poza normalny trening. Doping w sporcie w dzisiejszych czasach jest zjawiskiem powszechnym jednak niedopuszczalnym. Obecność jakichkolwiek sterydów anaboliczno–androgennych w organizmie sportowca karane jest dyskwalifikacją, odebraniem medalu a nawet zakazem udziału w zawodach sportowych przez określony czas. Środki dopingujące zażywane przez sportowców uczestniczących w zawodach muszą być precyzyjnie wykrywane oraz identyfikowane, ze względu na zakaz stosowania dopingu w sporcie. Podstawowym kryterium dowodowym i diagnostycznym stosowania takich środków jest wykrycie określonego związku lub jego metabolitu w moczu sportowca. Jednak analiza moczu nie jest jedynym sposobem wykrycia dopingu. W laboratoriach antydopingowych przeprowadzane są również badania na próbkach krwi, a nawet włosach. W związku z tym bardzo ważny jest rozwój metod analitycznych, które umożliwią sprawne wykrywanie tego typu substancji. W analizach antydopingowych bardzo ważna jest wysoka czułość instrumentów analitycznych. Z tego względu najczęściej wykorzystywanymi metodami analitycznymi w analizie próbek zawodników są: Chromatografia cieczowa sprzężona z detektorem masowym LC/MS, Chromatografia gazowa ze spektrometrią masową izotopów spalania GC/C/IRMS, Chromatografia gazowa sprzężona z detektorem wysokiej rozdzielczości GC/HRMS.
EN
Purpose: Development of strength is one of essential elements of motor preparation of judo athletes. The aim this study was to examine the influence of body composition and the joint torques on successful performance of various judo techniques. Methods: Twentyfive judo athletes participated in 175 judo bouts, which were video-recorded during the All-Polish competitions. Biomechanical classification of technical actions was used. The age and athletic experience of the subjects were 18 and 8.8 years, respectively. Their body height was 179.4 cm (Martin’s type anthropometer) and body mass was 80.3 kg (Sartorius F 1505 – DZA scales). Percentage of fat (10.6%) was estimated using skinfold result measurements. BMI (24.9 kgm–2), fat-free mass index (21.9 kgm–2) and fat mass index (3.0 kgm–2) were calculated. Maximum torques measured under static conditions were evaluated 2–3 days after the tournament. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were conducted ( p  0.05). Results: Balancing of maximum torques in the muscles of the pelvic and illiac regions caused more frequent performance of physical lever-type throwing techniques, compared to couple of force-type throwing techniques. A negative correlation was found between body fat and value of force recorded for knee flexors and between the frequency of using techniques during groundwork and torques measured in hip extensors. High correlation of fat-free mass index and relative elbow flexor torque was found. Conclusions: The relationship between body composition and frequency of techniques used in a tournament, and joint torques developed by athletes were found.
EN
Vertical jump tests are used to assess lower-limb power of athletes in sport sciences. Flight time measurement with jump-mat systems is the most common procedure for this purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of two proprietary systems (Globus and Axon) and an open-source system (Chronojump). Methods: A conditioning electric circuit governed by a controlled wave generator is designed to substitute athletes jumping on a physical mat. In order to look for possible differences associated to timekeeping by each microcontroller device, all three systems are fed by the circuit simultaneously. Results: Concurrent validity was high for the three systems. Standarized typical error of estimate (TEE) was trivial, according to MBI interpretation, as well as perfect Pearson correlation coefficient. Reliability was assessed using coefficient of variation of flight time measure, resulting in 0.17–0.63% (0.05–0.12 cm) for Globus, 0.01% (0.09 cm) for Chronojump and 5.65–9.38% (2.15–3.53 cm) for Axon. These results show that all jump-mat system produced nearly identical measures of flight time so they can be considered valid and reliable for practical purposes. In comparison, Chronojump showed the best performance whereas Axon showed enough variability and disagreement to pose a problem in testing elite athletes. Conclusions: These experiments show that open-source jump mats are as valid and reliable as their proprietary counterparts at a lower cost. Therefore, practitioners can be confident in using Globus or Chronojump systems to test athletes’ jump height because of their negligible errors and Axon system to monitor general population.
PL
Siedzący tryb życia, nadmierne użytkowanie samochodów oraz skupienie na pracy w znacznym stopniu eliminują aktywność fizyczną z życia wielu ludzi. To przyczynia się do wielu chorób cywilizacyjnych, ale także do alienacji i zaniku podstawowych relacji społecznych. Aby przeciwdziałać negatywnym skutkom tych zmian, od wielu już dekad wszelkie formy zachęcania do aktywnego spędzania czasu są uznawane za istotne dla zachowania zdrowia i kondycji fizycznej ludzi w każdym wieku. Dotyczy to nie tylko najmłodszych, ale także dorosłych i seniorów, gdyż poprawia ich sprawność w podeszłym wieku, a nawet osób z różnym stopniem niepełnosprawności, ponieważ stanowi formę rehabilitacji i mobilizacji do pełnowartościowego uczestnictwa w codziennym życiu.
PL
Rozwój nowoczesnej infrastruktury sportowej umożliwia różnorodną aktywność fizyczną na świeżym powietrzu w gronie rodziny, przyjaciół i znajomych.
EN
The aim of the paper is to present characteristics and transport accessibility of selected academic sports halls in Poznań. Analyzed objects include: Hall of Education and Sports of Eugeniusz Piasecki Academy of Physical Education, Sports Centre of Poznań University of Technology, the University Sports Hall of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and the Center of Physical Culture of University of Life Sciences in Poznań. Following issues are discussed in the paper: location, technical parameters, functionality, transport accessibility from main transport points and university dormitories. Research on transport accessibility was based on data covered by mobile application [jakdojade.pl], designed for scheduling the trip by public transport. Ranking method was used for comparison of analyzed objects.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono koncepcję konstrukcji i model bryłowy urządzenia treningowego i rehabilitacyjnego dla osób niepełnosprawnych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem osób poruszających się na wózku inwalidzkim. Projekt został wykonany w programie Autodesk Inventor.
EN
The paper presents a proposal for a training and rehabilitation device for people with disabilities, with a special focus on people moving in a wheelchair. The project was designed in Autodesk Inventor.
EN
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of two alternative systems used for jumping performance measurement. Methods: Two groups of subjects were tested. The first group consisted of 15 male adults (21.3 ± 1.7 years ) and the second group consisted of 16 female volleyball players (17.2 ± 0.9 years). We used three different systems of data collection in the study. Two of the used systems are based on optoelectric components. The Optojump Next system is referred to as the optoelectric system, and BTS Smart-E is refered to as the video system. Concurrent validity of these systems was verified with the use of “gold standard” which is force platform. All systems were used to estimate the height of vertical jumps. Results: Both optoelectric systems occurred to be highly reliable with the ICCs=0.98 for Optojump and 0.9 for BTS Smart. Their concurrent validity with the force platform data was also very high r=0.99 and r=0.97 respectively. Conclusions: Comparison of these two systems shows distinct differences between them where Optojump system is more suitable for quick and reliable sports testing, when BTS-Smart for research and clinical testing.
EN
Purpose: The essential function of mouthguards is protection against the effects of injuries sustained during sports activities. This purpose will be successfully achieved if appropriate materials ensuring sufficient reduction of the injury force are used for mouthguard fabrication. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the force reduction capability of selected materials as well as to identify which material reduces the impact force to the highest degree. Methods: The material for the study were samples of polymers (6 samples in total), obtained during the process of deep pressing (2 samples), flasking (3 samples) and thermal injection (1 sample), which were tested for impact force damping using an impact device – Charpy impact hammer. The control group comprised of the ceramic material samples subjected to the hammer impact. The statistical analysis applied in this study were one-way Welch ANOVA with post-hoc Games-Howell pairwise comparisons. Results: The test materials reduced the impact force of the impact hammer to varying degrees. The greatest damping capability was demonstrated for the following materials: Impak with 1:1 powder-to-liquid weight ratio polymerized with the conventional flasking technique, and Corflex Orthodontic used in the thermal injection technique of mouthguard fabrication. Conclusions: Impak with 1:1 weight ratio and Corflex Orthodontic should be recommended for the fabrication of mouthguards since they demonstrated the most advantageous damping properties.
PL
Sportowe zmagania olimpijczyków zachwycają wielu. Możliwość podziwiania efektów wieloletnich treningów staje się inspiracją do poprawy sprawności fizycznej. Dlaczego więc nie wykorzystać tego potencjału, upowszechniając wśród dzieci i młodzieży szereg pozytywnych zachowań?
EN
The main aim of the study was to design a new system to measure punching and kicking forces as well as reaction times in combat sport athletes. In addition, the study examined whether there were any intergender differences in the force of punches thrown by boxers and kicking forces delivered by taekwondo athletes. Boxers (male, n = 13; female, n = 7) were examined for the force of single straight punches and taekwondo athletes (male, n = 14; female, n = 14) for force of single Apdolio and Dwit Chagi kicks. The punching bag was equipped with acceleration transducers and gyroscopes embedded in a cylinder covered with a layer to absorb shock as well as a set of colour signal diodes. Value of the punching bag’s acceleration was used for calculating: strike force; the punching location on the bag; and time of a strike. The relative error of force calculation was 3%; the relative error in acceleration measurement was less than 1%. The force of a straight rear-hand punch was greater than the force of a lead-hand punch among male and female boxers. The force of Apdolio kick delivered with a rear leg was greater compared to a lead leg among female and male taekwondo athletes. Significant gender differences were noticed in the force in both types of kicks. In boxers, intergender differences were reported only for the force of a punch thrown with the rear hand. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the modified punching bag is a good diagnostic tool for combat sports.
EN
Understanding of biomechanics is important in performance development since each skill has a fundamental mechanical structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower limb kinematics during table tennis forehand loop between superior players (SP) and intermediate players (IP). Thirteen male players as superior and thirteen as intermediate participated in this test. A VICON motion analysis system and a Novel Pedar insole plantar pressure measurement system were used to record kinematic and contact area data, respectively. Participants were asked to execute single forehand loop against topspin ball with maximal power. Key findings were that SP showed significantly larger hip flexion and knee external rotation at backward-end and larger hip internal rotation and extension at forward-end compared with IP. Contact areas at both events were larger for SP. In addition, SP showed significantly larger joints angular changing rate during forward swing at the ankle and hip. Results indicated that SP possessed better ability of using lower limb drive in forehand loop.
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