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1
EN
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, monoethanolamine and isopropanol were used as the sources for precursor solution and the resulting gel was used for the preparation of ZnO thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures (100 °C to 500 °C) and the effect of annealing on the structural and optical properties was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used for the analysis of the films. The XRD results indicated the polycrystalline hexagonal structure of the ZnO films with (0 0 2) orientation. The optical properties of the films were studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 190 – 1100 nm. The optical characterization of the ZnO thin films showed the high transmittance of ~90 % for the films annealed at 400 °C. The films showed the absorbance ~360 – 390 nm and bandgap values of 3.40 – 3.10 eV, depending on the annealing temperature of the films.
PL
Metoda zol-żel jest chemicznym sposobem wytwarzania materiałów z fazy ciekłej. W artykule przedstawione są osiągnięcia autora w zakresie wytwarzania metodą zol-żel i techniką dip-coating dwuskładnikowych SiO2:TiO2 warstw falowodowych, warstw ditlenku krzemu oraz warstw ditlenku tytanu. Opracowane warstwy dielektryczne pokrywają zakres współczynnika załamania od 1,2 do 2,3. Opracowane warstwy falowodowe są podstawą rozwoju układów optyki zintegrowanej na zakres Vis-NIR do zastosowań sensorowych. Warstwy ditlenku krzemu i ditlenku tytanu wykorzystywane były do wytwarzania zwierciadeł dielektrycznych i pokryć antyrefleksyjnych. W pracy przedstawiane są wyniki analiz teoretycznych, charakterystyki technologiczne i wybrane wyniki badań wytwarzanych struktur.
EN
Sol-gel method is a chemical process used to fabricate materials from a liquid phase. This work presents the author's accomplishments in the field of fabrication two-compound SiO2:TiO2 waveguide films, silica as well as titania layers fabricated via the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique. Developed dielectric layers cover refractive indices from 1.2 to 2.3. Elaborated waveguide films are the basis for the development of integrated optic circuits over the VIS-NIR spectral range. Silicon dioxide layers, as well as titanium dioxide layers, were used to fabricate dielectric mirrors and anti-reflective coatings. This work presents the results of the theoretical analysis, technological characteristics and some of the author's experimental results of fabricated structures.
3
Content available remote Effects of Al doping on defect behaviors of ZnO thin film as a photocatalyst
EN
Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared on silica substrates by sol-gel method. The films showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation along c-axis. Suitable Al doping dramatically improved the crystal quality compared to the undoped ZnO films. Dependent on the Al dopant concentration, the diffraction peak of (0 0 2) plane in XRD spectra showed at first right-shifting and then left-shifting, which was attributed to the change in defect concentration induced by the Al dopant. Photocatalytic properties of the AZO film were characterized by degradation of methyl orange (MO) under simulated solar light. The transmittance of the films was enhanced by the Al doping, and the maximum transmittance of 80 % in the visible region was observed in the sample with Al concentration of 1.5 at.% (mole fraction). The film with 1.5 at.% Al doping achieved also maximum photocatalytic activity of 68.6 % under solar light. The changes in the film parameters can be attributed to the variation in defect concentration induced by different Al doping content.
EN
Magnesium-aluminum-bismuth layered double hydroxides (Mg3Al1-xBix; LDHs) were prepared using both coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. For the preparation of Mg/Al/Bi LDH by the co-precipitation method, the appropriate amounts of dissolved starting materials (Al(NO3)3·9H2O, Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and Bi(NO3)3·5H2O) were mixed with a solution of NaHCO3:NaOH. In the sol-gel processing, the precursor Mg–Al–Bi–O gels were synthesized using the same starting materials and ethylene glycol as complexing agent. The mixed-metal oxides obtained by subsequent heating of Mg–Al–Bi–O gels at 650 °C were reconstructed to Mg3Al1-xBix LDHs in water at 80 °C. All the synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dielectric measurements.
EN
The present research is focused on developing ZnAl2O4 (gahnite) spinel as an antireflection coating material for enhanced energy conversion of polycrystalline silicon solar cells (PSSC). ZnAl2O4 has been synthesized using dual precursors, namely aluminum nitrate nonahydrate and zinc nitrate hexahydrate in ethanol media. Diethanolamine has been used as a sol stabilizer in sol-gel process for ZnAl2O4 nanosheet fabrication. nanosheet was deposited layer-by-layer (LBL) on PSSC by spin coating method. The effect of ZnAl2O4 coating on the physical, electrical, optical properties and temperature distribution in PSSC was investigated. The synthesized antireflection coating (ARC) material bears gahnite (ZnAl2O4) spinel crystal structure composed of two dimensional (2D) nanosheets. An increase in layer thickness proves the LBL deposition of ARC on the PSSC substrate. The ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheet comprising ARC on the PSSC was tested and it exhibited a maximum of 93 % transmittance, short-circuit photocurrent of 42.364 mA/cm2 and maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) 23.42 % at a low cell temperature (50.2 °C) for three-layer ARC, while the reference cell exhibited 33.518 mA/cm2, 15.74 % and 59.1 °C, respectively. Based on the results, ZnAl2O4 2D nanosheets have been proven as an appropriate ARC material for increasing the PCE of PSSC.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badania wpływu ilości domieszki (2% at. oraz 4% at.) oraz temperatury wygrzewania (300°C i 600°C) na zdolność do rozkładu oranżu metylowego przez nanocząstki dwutlenku tytanu domieszkowane cerem (TiO₂:Ce) w wyniku procesu fotokatalizy. Nanocząstki TiO₂ zostały wytworzone metodą zol-żel, przy użyciu TTiP jako prekursora. Zaobserwowano, że lepsze właściwości fotokatalityczne ma próbka domieszkowana mniejszą ilością ceru, co oznacza, że istnieje optymalna zawartość domieszki. Aktywność fotokatalityczna tej próbki wynosiła 16,7%. Wygrzewanie w wysokiej temperaturze miało negatywny wpływ na zdolności próbek do rozkładu barwnika, gdyż aktywność fotokatalityczna żadnej z wygrzanych próbek nie przekroczyła 4%.
EN
This paper presents the results of the investigation of concentration of the dopant (2 at.% Ce and 4 at.% Ce) and high-temperature annealing (300°C i 600°C) on the decomposition of methyl orange by titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with cerium (TiO₂:Ce) as a result of photocatalysis process. Methyl orange was decomposed by TiO₂:Ce nanoparticles, which were synthesized by sol-gel technique with using TTiP as a precursor. It was observed that the higher photocatalytic activity has been obtained by TiO₂ doped with smaller amount of cerium, which suggests the existence of the optimum dopant concentration. The photocatalytic activity of this nanoparticles was equal to 16.7%. Moreover, high-temperature annealing had a negative effect on TiO₂:Ce nanoparticles on decomposition ability, due to the fact that the photocatalytic activity of all annealed nanoparticles did not achieve 4%.
EN
Purpose: The article presents the results of research on titanium dioxide synthesized by a sol-gel method that is an easy process enabling the control of the shape and size of particles The purpose of this article is to examine titanium dioxide nanoparticles and thin films deposited by an atomization method. Design/methodology/approach: Titanium dioxide sol was synthesized by using titanium isopropoxide as a precursor. Optical properties were measured by a UV-Vis spectrometer. Structural studies were performed by Raman spectroscopy. Qualitative analysis was performed by the EDS. Surface morphology of nanoparticles and thin films was performed by the SEM technique. Findings: The sol-gel method allows the formation of uniform nanoparticles and thin films of titanium dioxide. The atomization method is a successful method for the deposition of sol to the surface of substrates. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the obtained thin films in dye-sensitized solar cells as a semiconductive layer. Practical implications: Unique properties of produced titanium dioxide nanostructural materials have caused the interest in them in such fields as optoelectronics, photovoltaics, medicine and decorative coatings. Originality/value: Titanium dioxide thin films and nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then deposited by the atomization method.
EN
High-quality CdS nanocrystalline thin films were grown by sol-gel spin coating method at different solution temperatures on glass substrates. As-deposited films exhibited nanocrystalline phase with hexagonal wurtzite structure and showed good adhesion and smooth surface morphology. It was clearly observed that the crystallinity of the thin films improved with the increase in solution temperature. Crystallites sizes of the films also increased and were found to be in the range of 10 mm to 17 nm. The influence of the growth mechanism on the band and sub-band gap absorption of the films was investigated using UV-Vis and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS). The band gap values were calculated in the range of 2.52 eV to 2.75 eV. The band gap decreased up to 9 % with the increase in solution temperature from 45 °C to 75 °C. Absorption coefficients estimated by PDS signal showed the significant absorption in low photon energy region of 1.5 eV to 2.0 eV. The dark and illuminated I-V characteristics revealed that the films were highly photosensitive. The results demonstrated the potential applications of sol-gel grown CdS nanocrystalline thin films as photoconductors and optical switches.
EN
In this research article, pure and 1 %, 3 % and 5 % aluminium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via sol-gel method and then calcined at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to investigate the structural, optical and thermal properties of synthesized pure and Al doped ZnO nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed high purity of nanoparticles in the synthesized products without any impurity peaks. Mean dimension of the nanoparticles was ~28 nm and they were hexagonal in shape, according to the images analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical absorption spectra of pure and Al doped ZnO samples studied using UV-Vis spectrometry have been presented and we have observed that the band gap increases with increasing Al concentration. In FT-IR spectra, the broad absorption peaks around 485 cm-1 and 670 cm cm-1 were assigned to Zn–O vibration. Above 450 °C, the TG curve became flat what means there was no weight loss. In the DSC curve it is seen that the transition at 150 °C was highly exothermic because of structural relaxation and on doping the exothermic peaks became shifted to the lower value of temperature. These types of materials are very useful in optoelectronics applications.
EN
Purpose: The article presents the results of research on ZnO nanopowder prepared using sol-gel method that is the easy process enabling us to control shape and size of particles The purpose of this article is to synthesized ZnO nanostructures by sol-gel method and characterized them for use in dye sensitized solar cells. Design/methodology/approach: Zinc oxide nanopowder was synthesized by using zinc acetate dehydrate as a precursor. The prepared nanopowder has been subjected to structural analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images were taken with a Zeiss Supra 35. Qualitative studies of chemical composition were also performed using the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The structure of zinc oxide was investigated by X-ray crystallography The absorbance of zinc oxide layers with and without dye were measured by Thermo Scientific Evolution 220 spectrophotometer equipped with a xenon lamp in the wavelength range from 190 nm to 1100 nm. Findings: Sol-gel method allows the formation of uniform nanoparticles of zinc oxide. The nanoparticles have been successfully used in photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell. The light harvesting efficiency of the electrode it remains in a wide spectral range above 85%, which gives better results than in the case of titanium dioxide. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the ZnO/NiO composite on the properties of the photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell. Practical implications: he unique properties of produced ZnO nanostructural materials have caused their interest in such fields as medicine, transparent electronics and photovoltaics. Originality/value: The ZnO nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel method and then effectively used in the photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell.
11
Content available remote New approach for n-hexadecane biodegradation by sol-gel entrapped bacterial cells
EN
In this study sol-gel hybrid materials in the system SiO2-chitosan (CS) - polyethylene glycol (PEG), as novel structures with potential application in bioremediation were investigated. The organic components - CS and PEG were used as structural modifiers for functionality improvement. The catabolic activity to n-hexadecane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10 free and immobilized cells was estimated. The cell immobilization technique was employed to evaluate its efficiency on biodegradation and protective effect from high levels of hydrocarbons. The characteristics of obtained hybrid materials were investigated via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The obtained results revealed that the organic part in the synthesized hybrids is important for microstructure and defined properties creation. The rate of n-hexadecane mineralization by the bacterial strain was influenced by variation in cell densities applied in the immobilization procedures. Semi-continuous processes with multiple xenobiotic supplies were carried out. The synthesized by the sol-gel method hybrid matrices proved to be suitable carriers for realizing an effective biodegradation process of n-hexadecane by Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN10. Biodegradation of 50 kg/m3 of n-hexadecane was realized by free cells. Significantly greater quantity (150 kg/m3) was mineralized for 15 active cycles by entrapped bacterial cells. Biodegradation process with gradual increase of xenobiotic concentration reaching 30 kg/m3 for 120 h was also accomplished.
12
Content available remote Application of one-pot sol-gel method to prepare polyolefin fillers
EN
The application of silica-based fillers for polymers and nanocomposites is a subject of extensive research, mostly due to the demand for new materials of improved physicochemical, mechanical or thermal properties. In this paper we present a new, one-pot sol-gel (OPSG) method to synthesize fillers for polyolefins. The developed method assumes direct synthesis of the filler together with its modification upon the addition of organofunctional silane. It allows fillers with controlled porosity and hydrophobic properties to be obtained, which undergo better dispersion in a polymer matrix. The characteristics of the obtained composites were defined by thermal analysis, as well as tensile and impact tests. The contact angle was measured by the sessile drop technique to determine the hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties of the fillers. Morphological analyses were performed using SEM, surface area and pore volume measurements. The one-pot method is a preferred alternative to the multi-step synthesis methods for synthetic fillers.
PL
Zastosowanie napełniaczy krzemionkowych w materiałach kompozytowych ma swoją długoletnią tradycję, wynikającą z uniwersalności tego powszechnie stosowanego napełniacza. Pomimo wieloletnich badań nad systemami kompozytowymi opartymi o krzemionkę, nadal istnieje zapotrzebowanie na nowe metody jej modyfikacji i funkcjonalizacji, zarówno w obszarze struktury i morfologii cząstek, jak i obróbki powierzchniowej. W prowadzonych przez nas badaniach koncentrujemy się na jednoetapowej metodzie zol-żel, w literaturze określanej jako one-pot sol-gel (OPSG). Najważniejszą różnicą w porównaniu do tradycyjnych metod otrzymywania funkcjonalnych napełniaczy jest to, że etap syntezy napełniacza oraz modyfikacja chemiczna odbywają się w tym samym naczyniu reakcyjnym (lub reaktorze) bez konieczności suszenia i preparacji napełniacza. Metoda ta pozwala na otrzymanie napełniacza zaprojektowanego pod indywidualne potrzeby finalnego materiału kompozytowego, zapewniając większą adhezję do osnowy, lepsze zwilżanie czy wreszcie, co bardzo istotne, dobrą dyspergowalność przy mieszaniu z osnową. W pracy zaprezentowano metodę syntezy sferycznej krzemionki Stöbera modyfikowanej jednoetapowo z użyciem organofunkcyjnego silanu. Na osnowie polipropylenu otrzymano kompozyty z zastosowaniem tak otrzymanego napełniacza. Kompozyt został scharakteryzowany z punktu widzenia właściwości mechanicznych i termicznych. Przeprowadzono również wszechstronną charakterystykę napełniacza w porównaniu do standardowej krzemionki typu Stöbera. Podsumowując, jednoetapowa metoda zol-żel jest interesującą alternatywą dla klasycznych metod syntezy napełniaczy funkcyjnych materiałów kompozytowych.
EN
In this study, ceramic TiO2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel and spin-coating methods from the TNBT/ AcOH/ EtOH/ H2O solution. The obtained coatings were subjected to drying at room temperature and were then calcined in the air at different temperatures in a range of 400–600°C in order to obtain clean TiO2   layers. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized with the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDX). Research has shown the presence of elements in the TiO2   and the influence of temperatures on layer thickness. Analysis of optical properties and energy gap width of the prepared coatings was determined by means of spectra analysis of absorbance as a function of radiation energy obtained with the use of the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The obtained spectra of the layers are characterized by a shift of absorption lines towards the visible light wavelengths and the obtained values of band gaps decrease as the calcination temperature rises. The obtained and developed results of TiO2   thin films testify to the wide application possibilities of the layers in elements which use photocatalytic processes such as self-cleaning surfaces, solar cells, pollution removing membranes and optoelectronic components.
EN
Background: Oxide-doped zirconia is currently commonly used ceramics in dental prosthetics. However, its use raises a lot of controversy. This is related to the stability of the zirconia metastable phases in the human mouth environment and it sensitivity for the so-called low-temperature degradation. A key way to avoid this type of negative phenomena is doping ZrO2 with selected metal oxide sand choosing appropriate methods for the synthesis of ceramic powders. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present investigations of modification and to analyse the influence of chemical composition and volume of parent-solvent for the morphology and thermal properties of ceramic powders prepared in a ZrO2-CeO2-Y2O3-Al2O3 system. Methods: The powders were obtained by using the sol–gel method in an inert gas atmosphere and ambient temperature using zirconium n-propoxide for this purpose. Morphology was examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size distribution (PSD); thermal properties was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA/DTG), and chemical composition was confirmed by using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Results: Depending from the volume of the CeO2 precursor solution of and regardless of the volume of the second oxide precursor, was observed difference in morphology of the obtained powders. Overall trend is related to reduce the size of agglomerates with an increase in the volume of the precursor of CeO2. Conclusions: The influence of various chemical compositions for morphology and thermal properties is negligible. In contrast, a clear correlation is observed between the volume of parent alcohol for both morphology and thermal properties. Use of sol–gel method to further research in view of these results appears to be appropriate.
EN
GZO/IZO semiconductor thin films were prepared on the ITO substrate via sol-gel spin coating method for using in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For this purpose, GZO and IZO thin films were optimized by the percentage of doping gallium and indium in zinc oxide and were studied their electrical, optical and structural properties. After that, the layers with the best performance were selected for use in the DSSCs. The concentration of all solutions for spin coating processes was 0.1 M and zinc oxide has been doped with gallium and indium, with different doping percentages (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 volume percentage). So, by studying the properties of the fabricated thin films, it was found the films with 0.5%GZO and 0.5%IZO have the best performance and hence, the optimized dual-layer (0.5% GZO/0.5% IZO (GIZO)) were prepared and studied their electrical and optical properties. The synthesized optimized dual-layer film was successfully used as the working electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The sample with 0.5%IZO shows the 9.1 mA/cm2 short-circuit current density, 0.52 V open circuit voltage, 63% fill factor and 2.98% efficiency.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to synthesized NiO nanostructures by sol-gel method and characterized them for use in dye sensitized solar cells. For this purpose, a paste prepared from nanoparticles was prepared and screen printed on a glass substrate with the FTO layer. Design/methodology/approach: Nickel oxide nanoparticles was synthesized with participation of nickel (II) nitrate hexahydrate and citric acid. The prepared nanopowder has been subjected to structural analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images were taken with a Zeiss Supra 35. Qualitative studies of chemical composition were also performed using the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The structure of nickel oxide was investigated by X-ray crystallography. An average crystallite size were calculated using Scherrer method and Williamson-Hall analysis. Light harvesting efficiency LHE was calculated from measured absorbance. Findings: The uniform nickel oxide nanoparticles with spherical shape were successfully produced by sol-gel method. The diameter of the as prepared nanoparticles does not exceed 25 nm which is confirmed by the XRD and tEm analysis. The light harvesting efficiency of the electrode in the entire studied range it’s over 90%. Therefore the NiO can be an attractive alternative to the most commonly used TiO2. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the ZnO/NiO composite on the properties of the photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell. Practical implications: The unique properties of produced NiO nanostructural materials have caused their interest in such fields as medicine, transparent electronics and photovoltaics. Originality/value: The NiO nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel method and then effectively used in the photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell.
EN
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to synthesized NiO nanostructures by sol-gel method and characterized them for use in dye sensitized solar cells. For this purpose, a paste prepared from nanoparticles was prepared and screen printed on a glass substrate with the FTO layer. Design/methodology/approach: Nickel oxide nanoparticles was synthesized with participation of nickel (II) nitrate hexahydrate and citric acid. The prepared nanopowder has been subjected to structural analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images were taken with a Zeiss Supra 35. Qualitative studies of chemical composition were also performed using the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The structure of nickel oxide was investigated by X-ray crystallography. An average crystallite size were calculated using Scherrer method and Williamson-Hall analysis. Light harvesting efficiency LHE was calculated from measured absorbance. Findings: The uniform nickel oxide nanoparticles with spherical shape were successfully produced by sol-gel method. The diameter of the as prepared nanoparticles does not exceed 25 nm which is confirmed by the XRD and TEM analysis. The light harvesting efficiency of the electrode in the entire studied range it’s over 90%. Therefore the NiO can be an attractive alternative to the most commonly used TiO2. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the ZnO/NiO composite on the properties of the photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cell. Practical implications: The unique properties of produced NiO nanostructural materials have caused their interest in such fields as medicine, transparent electronics and photovoltaics. Originality/value: The NiO nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel method and then effectively used in the photoanode of dye sensitized solar cell.
EN
In the present study, biografts were produced by sol gel method by adding different rates of MgO which has bone-like crystal structure and high endurance into different proportions of Ca(NO3)24H2O, KOH, NaNO3, and P2O5 compounds. The biografts were investigated in terms of mechanical and biocompatibility properties. FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out to examine the chemical characteristics and changes in structural morphology. Mechanical properties were also investigated by conducting hardness and compression tests. In addition, cytotoxicity tests were conducted by using osteoblast cells. While results of FTIR and XRD analyses revealed that all biografts had HA (hydroxyapatite) and β-TCP contents, MgO peaks were also observed in biografts. In SEM images, grains of NonMgO and MgO-10 biografts had sharper edges, pores formed between grains and grain size increase with increasing MgO amount (MgO-20 and MgO-30). It was found that compression stress and hardness values increased as MgO content elevated. From the cytotoxicity tests, no any toxic effect was observed in the syntesized biografts.
EN
Porous and alternative biografts for possible usages in orthopaedic applications were synthesized by the substitution of gelatin (G), cuttlefish backbone (C), meerschaum sepiolite (S) and hydroxyapatite (H). The effects of different proportions of the Gelatin substitutions on the mechanical properties and structure and cell viability properties of the fabricated biografts were investigated. Throughout the structure and mechanical evaluations, it was found that Gelatin substitution in the fabricated biografts increased the total porosity fraction, particularly for C13G75 and S13G75 biografts. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for characterization of the synthesized biografts. Furthermore, the cell viability tests for the synthesized biografts were carried out by using the osteoblast cell culture. Throughout the analysis, the synthesized C13G75 and S13G75 biografts generated the highest porosity and better correlation between mechanical properties and structural results contributing with highest cell viability rates.
PL
Pomimo pojawienia się wielu nowych rodzajów fotoogniw słonecznych, fotogniwa krzemowe nadal odgrywają istotną rolę. Wysoki współczynnik załamania krzemu sprawia, że ponad 34% fotonów promieniowania słonecznego z zakresu absorpcji krzemu ulega od niego odbiciu i nie generuje w nim ekscytonów. Odbicie światła można istotnie zmniejszyć teksturując powierzchnię krzemu, wytwarzając na niej strukturę antyrefleksyjną albo stosując jednocześnie oba rozwiazania. Praca dotyczy jedno- i dwuwarstwowych struktur antyrefleksyjnych wywtarzanych metodą zol-żel i techniką dip-coating na podłożach krzemowych. Dla struktury jednowarstwowej osiągnięto ważony współczynnik odbicia fotonów Rw 9%, natomiast dla struktury dwuwarstwowej osiągnięto Rw<4%. W pracy przedstawiano optymalizację teoretyczną struktur antyrefleksyjnych, technologię ich wytwarzania oraz wyniki badań eksperymentalnych. Osiągnięto doskonałą zgodność wyników analizy teoretycznej z wynikami eksperymentalnymi.
EN
Besides many different types of photovoltaic solar cells, silicon solar cells are still of significant importance. Bare silica’s high refraction index leads to greater than 34% reflection of solar light photones, within silica’s absorption band, from its surface without generating excitons. Reflection loss can be significantly reduced with the use of surface texturing and/or antireflective coatings. The most beneficial effect is achieved when combinig both, surface texturing and antireflective coatings. This work presents single and double layer Anti Reflective Structures (ARS’s) derived from sol-gel process for application in silicon photovoltaic cells. Weighted average reflection of a single layer ARS is Rw 9%, whereas double layer ARS provides weighted average reflection Rw<4%. In this work theoretical optimization of ARS’s, technological process of structure fabrication as well as experimental results are demonstrated. Theoretical data shows excellent correlation with experimental results.
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