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PL
Przeanalizowano zmiany rozkładu sił wewnętrznych w cienkościennej kopule w zależności od wymiarów poprzecznego przekroju pierścienia podporowego. Siły wewnętrzne w powłoce wyznaczono, wykorzystując metodę elementów skończonych. Model numeryczny utworzono w programie komputerowym Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis.
EN
The changes occurring in the distribution of internal forces of the thin-walled dome depending on the size of the cross-section of the support ring were analyzed. Internal forces in the shell were determined using the finite element method. The covering model was created in the Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis computer program.
2
Content available remote Analysis of size and shape of abrasive micrograins in lapping of assembly joints
EN
In the paper, automated analysis of size and shape of abrasive micrograins was presented. In the tests of the micrograins of boron carbide, silicon carbide and electrocorundium, the stereoscopic microscopy and the specialized software MultiScan v.6.08 were applied.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono skomputeryzowaną analizę wielkości i ksztaltu mikroziaren ściernych. W badaniach mikroziaren weglika boru, weglika krzemu i elektrokorundu zastosowano mikroskopię optyczną oraz specjalistyczne oprogramowanie MultiScan v. 6.08.
3
Content available remote Landscape dominant element – an attempt to parameterize the concept
EN
A “landscape dominant element” – an object with the greatest range of visual impact on the surrounding space, of a strong form that integrates the entirety of a composition, distinguished by its height, dimensions, colour, material, texture or the variety of its details. The attempts to define the concept presented herein, and which is intuitively perceived as obvious, illustrate its ambiguity. They bring to mind a visual contrast between this subject and others that surround it. This article attempts to analyse views using the author’s computer program. The objects in the photos are characterized by their interference in a panorama silhouette or skyline, size, colour, height, and shape. This helped to identify those that clearly stand out from the other forms, with which they come into visual interaction. The purpose of these considerations is to create tools that allow for a partial objectification of the landscape composition assessment.
PL
Dominanta krajobrazowa – obiekt o największym zakresie wizualnego oddziaływania w otaczającej go przestrzeni, o formie silnej, integrującej kompozycję, wyróżniający się wysokością, gabarytami, barwą, materiałem, fakturą czy bogactwem detalu. Te próby definicji pojęcia, które intuicyjnie odbierane jest jako oczywiste, obrazują jego niejednoznaczność. Wpisany jest w nie także wizualny kontrast pomiędzy tym przedmiotem a innymi, które go otaczają. W artykule podjęto próbę oceny widoków z wykorzystaniem autorskiego programu komputerowego. Obiekty widoczne na zdjęciach scharakteryzowano pod względem stopnia ingerencji w sylwetę panoramy lub „linię nieba”, rozmiaru, barwy, wysokości i kształtu. To pomogło wskazać te z nich, które wyraźnie odróżniają się od innych form, z którymi wchodzą w wizualną interakcję. Celem tych rozważań jest stworzenie narzędzi umożliwiających częściową obiektywizację ocen krajobrazowej kompozycji.
4
Content available remote Dominanta krajobrazowa – próba parametryzacji pojęcia
PL
Dominanta krajobrazowa – obiekt o największym zakresie wizualnego oddziaływania w otaczającej go przestrzeni, o formie silnej, integrującej kompozycję, wyróżniający się wysokością, gabarytami, barwą, materiałem, fakturą czy bogactwem detalu. Te próby definicji pojęcia, które intuicyjnie odbierane jest jako oczywiste, obrazują jego niejednoznaczność. Wpisany jest w nie także wizualny kontrast pomiędzy tym przedmiotem a innymi, które go otaczają. W artykule podjęto próbę oceny widoków z wykorzystaniem autorskiego programu komputerowego. Obiekty widoczne na zdjęciach scharakteryzowano pod względem stopnia ingerencji w sylwetę panoramy lub „linię nieba”, rozmiaru, barwy, wysokości i kształtu. To pomogło wskazać te z nich, które wyraźnie odróżniają się od innych form, z którymi wchodzą w wizualną interakcję. Celem tych rozważań jest stworzenie narzędzi umożliwiających częściową obiektywizację ocen krajobrazowej kompozycji.
EN
A “landscape dominant element” – an object with the greatest range of visual impact on the surrounding space, of a strong form that integrates the whole composition, distinguished by its height, dimensions, colour, material, texture or a variety of details. These attempts to define the concept, which is intuitively perceived as obvious, illustrate its ambiguity. They bring to mind a visual contrast between this subject and others that surround it. This article attempts to analyse views using the author’s computer program. The objects in the photos are characterized by their interference in a panorama silhouette or skyline, size, colour, height, and shape. This helped to identify those that clearly stand out from the other forms, with which they come into visual interaction. The purpose of these considerations is to create tools that allow for a partial objectification of the landscape composition assessment.
5
Content available remote Pomiary i analiza wielkości mikroziaren ściernych
PL
W artykule omówiono skomputeryzowaną analizę wielkości i kształtu mikroziaren ścienych. W badaniach mikroziaren węglika boru, czarnego i zielonego węglika krzemu oraz elektrokorundu zwykłego i szlachetnego stosowano stereoskopową mikroskopię optyczną oraz oprogramowanie MultiScan.
EN
The paper discussed automated size and shape analysis of both abrasive grains and micrograins. In research on micrograins of boron carbide, silicon carbide, ordinary and noble electrocorundum stereoscopic optical microscopy was applied and MultiScan software solutions were used.
PL
Omówiono wpływ otworów w strefach podporowych na nośność na przebicie płyt płaskich w świetle badań eksperymentalnych. Przedstawiono wyniki badań modeli płyt z otworami o różnym kształcie i położeniu względem słupa. Stwierdzono, że otwory w płytach stropowych w strefach podporowych mogą wpływać w istotny sposób na ich nośność na przebicie. Na podstawie wyników badań podano zalecenia praktyczne, omawiając zmiany nośności płyt wynikające z różnego ukształtowania otworów.
EN
In the paper the effect of openings in the support zones on the load carrying capacity of flat slabs in the light of previous experimental investigations was discussed. The results of the test on specimens representing flat slabs with openings of various shape and location with respect to the column were presented. It was found that openings in the support zones can have a significant effect on punching shear carrying capacity. Based on the results of the experiments, practical recommendations were indicated and the changes in the load capacity resulting from the different arrangement of the openings were discussed.
EN
Modern agriculture foresees the implementation of a particular technological operation, according to the appropriate map-task, which is developed pre-based on diverse information. Knowledge of a certain structure of soil cover variability, obtained using information and technical systems of local operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands, allows us to adopt effective operational decisions for efficient management of agrobiological potential of agricultural lands. Obviously, under such conditions there is a need for fundamentally new approaches to agricultural production, which is to ensure the proper quality of technological operations. The quality of the implementation of technological operations is an integral indicator of the efficiency of production of agricultural products within the agrobiological field. The necessary quality of implementation of the basic technological processes in plant growing is provided by the integrated information and technical systems of operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands. This opens new prospects for organic farming using such smart agricultural machines. In connection with it the task is to obtain reliable data on the agrobiological state of the soil environment by reducing the error in determining the magnitude of the electrical conductive properties of the soil, providing individual stabilization of the working electrodes and the mechanism of lifting / lowering the working electrodes, copying inequalities of the soil environment, reducing the intensity of the destruction of the soil structure , selfcleaning of the working contact of the electrode and ensuring the stability of the electrical contact of the electrode with the soil, by instrument design perfection. The task is achieved by using the information and technical system of operational monitoring of the soil environment of the structure to determine the conductive characteristics of the soil environment. The purpose of the research is to determine the critical loading at the loss of stability by thin-walled working electrodes made in the form of working electrodes of various shapes (thin-walled solid, three-spit and four-spindle discs with different thickness of the rim). The information and technical system of localoperational monitoring of agrobiological state of soil environment of different configurations with one-side compression.
EN
Modern agriculture involves the implementation of a particular technological operation, according to the appropriate map-task, which is developed pre-based on diverse information. Knowledge of a certain structure of soil cover variability, obtained using information and technical systems of local operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands, allows us to adopt effective operational decisions for efficient managemen tagrobiological potential of agricultural lands. Obviously, under such conditions, there is a need for fundamentally new approaches to agricultural production, which is to ensure the proper quality of technological operations. The quality of the implementation of technological operations is an integral indicator of the efficiency of production of agricultural products within the agrobiological field. The necessary quality of implementation of the basic technological processes in plant growing is provided by the integrated information and technical systems of operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands. This opens new prospects for organic farming using such "smart" agricultural machines. In connection with this, the task is to obtain reliable data on the agrobiological state of the soil environment by reducing the error in determining the magnitude of the electrical conductive properties of the soil, providing individual stabilization of the working electrodes and the mechanism of lifting / lowering the working electrodes, copying inequalities of the soil environment, reducing the intensity of the destruction of the soil structure , self-cleaning of the working contact of the electrode and ensuring the stability of the electrical contact of the electrode with the soil, by instrument design perfection. The task is achieved by using the information and technical system of operational monitoring of the soil environment of the structure to determine the conductive characteristics of the soil environment. The purpose of this research is to determine the critical loading at the loss of stability by thin-walled working electrodes made in the form of working electrodes of various shapes (thin-walled solid, three-spit and four-spindle discs with different thickness of the rim). Information and technical system of local-operational monitoring of agrobiological state of soil environment of different configurations with one-side compression.
EN
Modern agriculture involves the implementation of a particular technological operation, according to the appropriate map-task, which is developed pre-based on diverse information. Knowledge of a certain structure of soil cover variability, obtained using information and technical systems of local operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands, allows us to adopt effective operational decisions for efficient management of agrobiological potential of agricultural lands. Obviously, under such conditions, there is a need for fundamentally new approaches to agricultural production, which is to ensure the proper quality of technological operations. The quality of the implementation of technological operations is an integral indicator of the efficiency of production of agricultural products within the agrobiological field. The necessary quality of implementation of the basic technological processes in plant growing is provided by the integrated information and technical systems of operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands. In connection with this, the task is to use a fundamentally new class of information and technical systems of local operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of agricultural lands. The task is achieved by using the information and technical system of operational monitoring of the soil environment of the structure to determine the conductive characteristics of the soil environment. The purpose of this research is to develop and substantiate the functional structure, software, writing code and algorithms for managing the executive bodies of the information and technical system of operational monitoring of the agrobiological state of the soil environment of agricultural lands.
EN
Modern agriculture involves the implementation of a particular technological operation, according to the appropriate map-task, which is developed pre-based on diverse information. Knowledge of a certain structure of soil cover variability, obtained using information and technical systems of local operational monitoring of agro-biological state of agricultural lands, allows us to adopt effective operational decisions for efficient management of agro-biological potential of agricultural lands. Obviously, under such conditions, there is a need for fundamentally new approaches to agricultural production,which is to ensure the proper quality of technological operations. The quality of the implementation of technological operations is an integral indicator of the efficiency of production of agricultural products within the agro-biological field. The necessary quality of implementation of the basic technological processes in plant growing is provided by the integrated information and technical systems of operational monitoring of the agro-biological state of agricultural lands. In connection with this, the task is to obtain reliable data on the agro-biological state of the soil environment by reducing the error in determining the magnitude of the conductive properties of the soil, providing individual stabilization of the working electrodes and the mechanism of lifting / lowering working electrodes, copying inequalities of the soil environment, reducing the intensity of the destruction of the soil structure , self-cleaning of the working contact of the electrode and ensuring the stability of the electrical contact of the electrode with the soil, by instrument design perfection. The task is achieved by using the information and technical system of operational monitoring of the soil environment of the structure to determine the conductive characteristics of the soil environment.
EN
Available techniques for dealing with uncertainties in the agro-industrial complex and their use for describing and assessing the adequacy of the decisions taken are incomplete, and often ineffective, as they usually do not take into account the combination of "field-machine-technological material", which prevents acceptance effective solutions for managing agro-biological potential of agricultural land and, as a consequence, obtaining the maximum economic efficiency of agricultural production. Reliable estimation of variables of agricultural production parameters using the "field-machine-technological material" model makes it possible to provide optimal control of available technical equipment (machinery, sowing machines, etc.), agro-biological (humus content, presence of nutrients, micro-and macro elements, etc. in soil or plant ) and technological resources for making adequate decisions and managing agro-biological potential of agricultural lands, which will provide the necessary economic efficiency. The task is achieved by ensuring the proper quality of the implementation of technological operations that are an integral indicator of economic efficiency and allow providing the necessary economic efficiency through optimal and efficient management of technical means for optimal action on the agro-biological potential of the field and the use of available technological resources. Such control is possible with the use of information and technical systems of local operational monitoring, which are located on machine-tractor units and provide effective control of technological operations by acting on the executive bodies of agricultural machines on the basis of data characterizing the agro-biological state of the soil environment. Information and technical systems of local operational monitoring of the agro-biological state of agricultural lands are used in the following cases: - before performing a technological operation, - simultaneously with the implementation of the technological operation (sowing, fertilizer application, etc.), - during the growing season and after harvesting. This opens new prospects for organic farming using such "smart" agricultural machines.
12
Content available Level and structure of inputs in specialist farms
EN
The objective of the paper is to determine the size of human and objectified labour in selected specialist vegetable farms. The paper covered studies carried out in the area of southern Poland in 50 organic vegetable farms. Based on the detailed studies, the size and structure of work, and energy inputs used in the production process were determined. The highest inputs of labour per a unit of the production area and 1 tonne of a product were incurred in production of Cucurbita vegetables - 1883.1 and 547.74 man-hour, while the lowest of Solanacea vegetables - 342.8 and 7.11 man-hour. From among all analysed groups of plants, the highest energy inputs were incurred in cultivation of root and onion vegetables and they were three times higher than in traditional farms. Contrary, the lowest inputs were incurred in cultivation of brassica and Solanaceae vegetables.
PL
Celem pracy było określenie wielkości nakładów pracy żywej i uprzedmiotowionej w wybranych gospodarstwach specjalistycznych zajmujących się uprawą warzyw. Zakresem pracy objęto badania przeprowadzone na terenie Polski południowej w 50 gospodarstwach ekologicznych nastawionych na produkcję warzyw. Na podstawie szczegółowych badań określono wielkość i strukturę nakładów pracy oraz energii wykorzystanej w procesie produkcji. Największe nakłady pracy w przeliczeniu na jednostkę powierzchni produkcyjnej i 1 tonę produktu ponoszono przy produkcji warzyw dyniowatych - 1883,1 i 547,74 rbh, natomiast najmniejsze warzyw psiankowatych - 342,8 i 7,11 rbh. Spośród wszystkich analizowanych grup roślin największe nakłady energetyczne ponoszono w uprawie warzyw korzeniowych i cebulowych i były one 3-krotnie wyższe niż w gospodarstwach konwencjonalnych. Najniższe natomiast nakłady odnotowano w uprawie warzyw kapustnych i psiankowatych.
EN
The methods currently used to assess orchard infestation are timeconsuming and do not take into account non-adult forms of mites, due to their small size. Advance in digital imaging technology, however, has resulted in the discovery of a more viable method to enable a fast and reliable assessment of orchard infestation. Digital images of infected apple leaves were made and examined for the presence of European red mites and two-spotted spider mites. As well as adult mites, non-adult European red mite forms were also encountered. After extracting all objects considered as mites from the image, imaging software was then used to assess their dimension and shape parameters. Length, width, area, and equivalent diameter were different for all three observed mite groups: adult female European red mites, possible non-adult European red mites and adult two-spotted spider mites. Differences in circularity and elongation were found in adult two-spotted spider mites and various forms of European red mites, while the perimeter was similar in adult European red mites and twospotted spider mites, and different in the non-adult forms of European red mites. However, as the ranges of 95% prediction intervals for these features overlap, a combination of at least two features as well as employing statistical procedures may greatly increase the probability of appropriate classification of the observed objects as different mites.
PL
Aktualnie używane metody oceny zasiedlenia sadów przez przędziorki są bardzo pracochłonne i dla zachowania precyzji wymagają zastosowania powiększeń osiągalnych za pomocą np. mikroskopu stereoskopowego. Rozwój technologii analizy obrazu stwarza możliwość opracowania szybszej i dokładniejszej metody lustracji sadów. Wykonano zdjęcia cyfrowe liści jabłoni i dokonano oceny ich zasiedlenia przez przędziorka owocowca i przędziorka chmielowca. Oprócz osobników dorosłych przędziorka owocowca brano również pod uwagę formy niedorosłe tego gatunku. Wszystkie obiekty uznane za przędziorki wydzielono ze zdjęć i wykonano ocenę ich rozmiarów i kształtów przy użyciu oprogramowania NIS-Elements. Długość, szerokość, powierzchnia i średnica równoważna różniły się istotnie dla wszystkich badanych grup, identyfikowanych jako: dorosłe żeń- skie osobniki przędziorka owocowca, prawdopodobne niedorosłe formy przędziorka owocowca, oraz dorosłe osobniki przędziorka chmielowca. Różnice w kolistości i wydłużeniu wystąpiły w przypadkach dorosłych osobników przędziorka chmielowca oraz różnych formach przędziorka owocowca. Długość perymetru była podobna dla osobników dorosłych przędziorka owocowca i przędziorka chmielowca, natomiast była istotnie mniejsza dla niedorosłych form przędziorka owocowca. Jednocześnie dla wszystkich badanych cech 95% przedziały predykcji pokrywają się lub są częściowo wspólne dla identyfikowanych grup przędziorków. Uzyskane wyniki wskazują, że efektywne rozróżnienie obiektów rozpoznawanych na zdjęciach może wymagać łącznego zastosowania przynajmniej dwóch cech oraz opracowania właściwej procedury statystycznej.
EN
The Tell el-Retaba archaeological site is located at Wadi Tumilat, a shallow valley running from the Nile Delta to the Bitter Lakes. In ancient times, a route connecting Egypt with Syria-Palestine ran across the site. In the 13th century BC, during the rule of Ramesses II, a fortress surrounded by “Wall 1” was erected and in times of Ramesses III in the 12th century BC, a larger fortress surrounded by “Wall 2” and “Wall 3” was constructed. Using the finite element method (FEM) and ZSoil 2D&3D software, the wall heights were modelled and their soil-structure interaction was analysed. Strength of the wall depended on size and strength of bricks and mortar, brickwork, wall shape and foundation. Ancient builders using mud bricks must have known from practical experience the essentials of a wall construction, in which the height to width ratio was at 1.75 to 1.85. Moreover, they must have related the engineering properties of the material with the height of the construction and its purpose. The width to height ratio must have been used and related by ancient Egyptians to the ground resistance. Modelling has shown that, at wall width of 5 m, the foundation would have lost its stability at wall height of 13–14 m and bricks from the lower part of the wall would be destroyed. According to the undertaken assumptions, in order to retain stability, the wall height must have been limited to about 8–9 m.
15
Content available Toward Wojda's conjecture on digraph packing
EN
Given a positive integer m ≤ n/2, Wojda conjectured in 1985 that if D1 and D2 are digraphs of order n such that [formula] and [formula] then D1 and D2 pack. The cases when m = 1 or m = n/2 follow from known results. Here we prove the conjecture for [formula].
EN
This study was aimed at evaluating commercial roasted buckwheat groats for their organoleptic and geometrical traits, color and content of phenolic compounds. An attempt was also undertaken to correlate the achieved values of the analyzed parameters. The shape, sizes and color (HIS model) were determined using Digital Image Analysis (DIA), whereas the content of phenolics was assayed spectrophotometrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. High variability was noted in projection area and length of seeds. In turn, seed circularity was the trait with the lowest variance coefficient. The analyzed groats differed also in color, which may be due to differences in the size of seeds subjected to the roasting process. The low variability was also found in the case of free phenolics content. Finally, the study demonstrated a positive correlation between buckwheat seed surface and the content of phenolic compounds, which may be caused by a correlation between seed size and roasting time.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of using small seeds of rape (diameter <1.6 mm,) perceived as a raw material of inferior nutritional quality, for the biofuels production. Research material was samples of industrial mass of rapeseeds originating from three Polish regions. The seed mass was cleaned in a sieve separator, removing mineral matter (stones), cereal grains, stems and dusts. Then, the sample was sifted through a set of sieves and two fractions were received: seeds with diameter >1.6 mm – sample F1 and with diameter < 1.6 mm – sample F2. Each fraction was characterized by its share in bulk mass, moisture content, 1000 seeds weight, yield of pressing, fat content and phosphorus content. Cold-pressed oils were determined in terms of total and unhydrated phosphorus content, acid value and fatty acids content. Fractionation by weight rapeseeds with using an industrial sieve separation may provide a simple method for improving the technological value of the raw material used for food purposes, and thus obtain fine seed that could be intended exclusively for the production of technical oil. Despite the stated inferior quality of small seeds, it was found that the increased values of some discriminants would not have impact on the technology of biofuel production and cost of production.
PL
W pracy dokonano analizy zmian grubości materiałów stosowanych do wytwarzania zbiorników ciśnieniowych w zależności od ich kształtu i wymiarów oraz ciśnienia roboczego. Obliczeń dokonano na podstawie formuły przygotowanej na bazie wytycznych WUDT/UC/2003. Zaprezentowano wpływ długości, średnicy, ciśnienia oraz zmiany wymiarów zbiornika na grubość ścianki. Porównano różne rozwiązania konstrukcyjne dennic oraz określono wpływ geometrii dna wypukłego na grubość jego ścianki. Podano wytyczne kontroli stateczności projektowanego zbiornika poziomego.
EN
In this paper analysis of changes in thickness of materials used in manufacture of pressure vessels based on their shape, size and applied pressure are made. Calculations were made on the basis of prepared analytical formula according to guidelines WUDT/UC/2003. Influence of length, diameter, pressure and changes in dimensions of wall thickness of tank are presented. Different heads designs are compered and influence of dished head geometry on wall thickness are determined. Guidance of stability control of designed horizontal pressure vessel are provided.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę zmiany stanu naprężenia w górotworze, wielkości strefy spękań i przemieszczeń wokół wyrobiska oraz sił wewnętrznych w odrzwiach obudowy przy zastosowaniu różnych typów wykładki. Do określenia parametrów modelu wykorzystano badania polowe w chodniku na głębokości 915 m. W obliczeniach przyjęto trzy schematy: wykładkę luźną, wykładkę mechaniczną zastosowaną na łuku stropnicowym obudowy podporowej oraz wykładkę mechaniczną na całym obwodzie obudowy ŁP.
EN
The article presents an analysis of the changes of stress conditions in the rock mass, the size of the fractured zone and displacements around the roadway and internal forces in the support set with the use of different types of lining. In order to determine the model's parameters field tests were performed in the roadway at a depth of 915 m. Three schemes were adopted for calculations: a loose lining, a mechanical lining applied on the arch of a roof bar of the support and a mechanical lining around the whole perimeter of the yielding arch support ŁP.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono sposób konstruowania diagramu potrójnego, jak również zasady wydzielenia na jego obszarze pól orientacji, ułożenia oraz kształtu ziaren według przestrzennego układu współrzędnych. Zorientowanie układu XYZ względem boków gabionu i głównego kierunku przepływu wykorzystywane jest w ocenie przepustowości przepuszczalnej części progów gabionowych. Potrójny diagram klasyfikacyjny zawiera trzy elementy identyfikacyjne i umożliwia wprowadzenie wymiarów ziarna, jego kształtu oraz ułożenia względem układu współrzędnych: pola trójkątnego układu współrzędnych, którego boki wyznaczają osie XYZ, pola orientacji ziarna w przestrzeni identyfikowanego wymiarami A, B, C, pola kategorii kształtu ziaren wyznaczone według bezwymiarowych stosunków B/A i C/B.
EN
The article presents how to construct the triple diagram, as well as the principles of separating in its area the fields of orientation, spatial arrangement and grain shape according to the coordinate system. XYZ system orientation against the gabion sides and the main flow direction is used for estimating the capacity of the permeable part of the gabion sills. Triple classification diagram contains three identification elements and allows to enter the dimensions of the grain, the shape and the orientation against the coordinate system: field of triangular coordinate system which sides are defined by the axes XYZ, field of grain orientation in space identified by the dimensions A, B, C, grain shape category field determined by the dimensionless relations B/A and C/B.
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