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EN
This study aimed at synthesis, preparation, and physicochemical properties investigation of undoped polysiloxane-based coatings deposited on the glass supports. The other goal was to test the effectiveness of their hydrophobization with hexamethyldisilazane at an elevated temperature using a bubbler. The coatings were obtained in a sol-gel process by acid-assisted hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane and they were applied to the glass supports using the dip coating technique with various withdrawal speeds. The synthesized composition was scanned using TurbiscanLAB and its particle size was determined by means of the dynamic light scattering technique. The obtained surfaces were examined based on the water wettability measurements, photoacoustic spectroscopy, and transmittance measurements. It was found that the stability of the sol did not change during the dip-coating. Smooth, homogeneous, uniform, hydrophobic, and transparent coatings on the glass supports were obtained. Their wettability was determined by the contact angle in the range from 83.5 to 95.2 degrees and very low contact angle hysteresis. The hydrophobic effect obtained by modification with hexamethyldisilazane appears to be permanent – the contact angles do not change significantly after 7 days. The synthesized sol composition appears to be a good starting point for its chemical and physical modification for hydrophobicity increase and surface properties modification. Moreover, the hydrophobization of the coatings with hexamethyldisilazane at an elevated temperature using the bubbler did not have the desired effect.
2
Content available Teoretyczne badania katalizatora CrOx/SiO2
EN
The Phillips CrOx/SiO2 catalyst is one of the most commonly used system in the industrial production of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This system has been extensively studied since decades, mainly by means of experimental techniques. However, the progress in determination of the nature of the chromium sites and understanding of surface reactions occurring has been rather not satisfying and many issues are still under debate. Among others, structure of the chromium oxide species on the surface of the reduced catalyst is not well defined. Likewise, the mechanism of the catalyst reduction and active site formation is not well established. Many experimental studies indicate that chromium exists on the surface of amorphous silica in a wide variety of different forms including monomeric, dimeric and polymeric species. Different oxidation states are also possible, as Cr(VI), Cr(V), Cr(IV), Cr(III), Cr(II) were detected. There is a general consensuses that Cr(VI) dominates at the surface after the catalyst preparation, while Cr(II) and Cr(III) are mainly formed after contact with a reducing agent, like ethylene or CO. Nevertheless, the detailed structure of these oxide species, as well as the active sites, is still strongly discussed. As experimental studies do not show a clear picture about the nature of silica-supported chromium catalyst, very helpful can be computational approach which can provide complementary information, not accessible by experimental techniques. In this short review we summarize the recent progress in the field of the Phillips (CrOx/SiO2) catalyst focusing on the most relevant theoretical papers that were published within last couple of years. We also highlight the need of applying advanced models if realistic theoretical description of the CrOx/SiO2 system is to be achieved. Additionally, different computational approaches in modeling of heterogenous catalysts are discussed.
PL
Przeprowadzono ocenę właściwości adsorpcyjnych wobec kwasu syryngowego krzemionki MCF modyfikowanej (3-aminopropylo)trietoksysilanem. Adsorpcję opisano, stosując modelowe izotermy: Freundlicha, Langmuira, Jovanovicia, Dubinina i Astachowa oraz Redlicha i Petersona. Otrzymany adsorbent odznaczał się pojemnością adsorpcyjną (model Dubinina i Astachowa) wobec kwasu syryngowego równą 125,0 mg/g oraz wydajnością adsorpcji ok. 90% w przypadku najniższych stężeń początkowych adsorbatu.
EN
Adsorptive properties of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified SiO2 towards syringic acid were detd. Non-linear fitting anal. was employed to est. Freundlich, Langmuir, Jovanovic, Dubinin-Astakhov and Redlich-Peterson isotherm parameters. The max. adsorption capacity (Dubinin-Astakhov model) was 125.0 mg/g. The adsorbent showed adsorption efficiency ca. 90% at the lowest initial phenolic acid concn.
EN
The paper discusses preparation and characteristics of silica hydrophobic layers deposited on the plasma-modified glass supports. The surfaces were investigated using wettability measurements, profilometry, photoacoustic and infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy. The wettability measurements showed that the obtained surfaces are hydrophobic – the water contact angle was in the range of 140-150 degrees. The photoacoustic and infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy disclosed the surface compositions, particularly that of the hydrophobic alkyl groups deposited on them. They were methyl groups introduced during hydrophobization by hexamethyldisilazane. In addition, it was found that the number of groups on the surface depends on the kind of plasma by which the supports were activated. The optical profilometer showed differences in the surface roughness which affects their hydrophobicity. Moreover, the surface free energies were determined using the contact angle hysteresis method. They disclosed differences in each surface, depending on the way of supports activation. The largest hydrophobicity was obtained on the layer deposited on the support activated by the argon plasma. However, support activation by the air plasma resulted in a decrease of hydrophobicity compared to that of the non-activated surface.
EN
Silicon as a raw material for solar cells can be produced by numerous methods. The carbothermic reduction of silica using electric arc furnace is the most widely used process in silicon industry. This paper presents a new approach to produce solar grade silicon using microwave furnace. Pellets of different sizes were prepared from a mixture of silica and carbon using water and polyvinyl alcohol as binder agents. Raman spectra indicated a peak at about 515 cm−1 attributed to silicon in the pellets prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, and peaks at about 523 cm−1 and 794 cm−1 attributed to silicon and silicon carbide, in the pellets prepared with water. The pellet size affects the absorption of microwave energy emitted from the magnetrons. Polyvinyl alcohol as a binder agent is promising for the production of silicon using microwave furnace.
EN
This study explores the effect of direct incorporation of different ratios of naphthalene with soil into the concrete used in Mafraq-Jordan on the thermal conductivity of concrete mixtures. The methodology involved testing 72 concrete cube samples. The basic samples were prepared only from a mixture of water, silica sand, and cement without additives. The additives of local soil and naphthalene of different ratios: 2.5%, 5%, 7%, 10% and 15%, were added to the tested samples. The samples were classified into two groups in terms of size and dimensions; 36 cubes with 5×5×5 cm were tested only for thermal conductivity, and 36 cubes with 3×3×3 cm were tested for compressive strength and thermal conductivity. All samples were tested after 28 days of casting, according to the concrete standards. The results show that adding naphthalene and soil to the cementitious mixtures substantially decreases the thermal conductivity of concrete elements. A reasonable reduction in thermal conductivity was achieved compared with the basic case samples. However, the compressive strength of samples remained within the acceptable values from the stand point of structural engineering. This enhancement in the thermal properties of concrete can be applied in building systems as concrete blocks used in internal and external walls.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań petrograficznych dotyczących udziału i formy krzemionki występującej w zróżnicowanych litologicznie skałach węglanowych z siedmiu złóż, które są stosowane do produkcji kruszyw budowlanych. Stwierdzono związek między litologią tych skał a rodzajem obecnej w nich krzemionki o różnej genezie. W wapieniach odmiany biomikrytowej, pochodzących z czterech złóż, wykazano obecność głównie chalcedonu i podrzędnie kwarcu, a w jednym złożu także obecność opalu. W odmianach biosparytowej i dolobiomikrytowej zaobserwowano jedynie chalcedon lub minerał ten występował wspólnie z kwarcem. W wapieniach sparytowych i mikrosparytowych stwierdzono obecność tylko kwarcu. Udział poszczególnych form krzemionki występującej w skałach węglanowych odniesiono do kryteriów przyjętych przez National Ready Mix Concrete Association. Ustalono, że kruszywa pozyskane z badanych skał węglanowych, będą charakteryzować się brakiem potencjalnej reaktywności alkalicznej (ASR) lub jej zróżnicowanym stopniem, uzależnionym od tekstury skały oraz nasilenia sylifikacji jakiej została ona poddana.
EN
The article presents the results of the petrographic analysis of the content and the form of silica occurring in the lithologically varied carbonate rocks. The investigations were carried out on the rocks deriving from seven deposits and used as material for the production of construction aggregates. It was found a relationship between lithology of the rocks and occuring type of silica of diverse origin. The biomicrites, coming from four deposits, contain mainly chalcedony and subordinately quartz, whereas in one deposit additionally opal has been found. In the biosparites and the dolobiomicrites chalcedony occurs separately or with accompanying of quartz. The sparites and the microsparites contain exclusively quartz. The content of the individual form of silica in the carbonate rocks was compared to National Ready Mix Concrete Association standards. It has been determined that the aggregates from the investigated carbonate rocks are characterized by lack of potential alkaline reactivity (ASR) or varying degree of reactivity, depending on the texture of the rock and advancement of silicification processes.
EN
The work concerned the effects of the thermal treatment of diatomites from the Jawornik deposit (an example of the diatomites of the Leszczawka Member of the Polish Outer Carpathians). Five distinct lithological varieties were subjected to calcination at 600°C in ambient air. The thermal impact induced the following changes to the rocks. Their overall rock porosity increased, most distinctly in the initially softer varieties, and the internal pores of the siliceous frustules themselves usually became larger due to the initial melting of the silica phases. Most of the diatoms, quartz and feldspars cracked as a result of their brittle fracturing under compressive strain resulting from substantial and differing size changes of growing grains. Clay minerals were thermally transferred, changing their volume. The organic matter dispersed throughout the diatomites was partly oxidized and removed. At the same time, the structure of the rocks was strengthened, as confirmed by an increase in their microhardness. The microhardness of soft and porous diatomite varieties increased considerably on heating, but that of the hard and compact variety changed to a smaller degree. The increase is directly related to the content of the clay minerals. The impact of other mineral components was not detected. The calcination of lithologically diversified diatomites provided the mineral with raw material with deicing and antisliding properties. The technology of its production has been determined by the authors and submitted as a patent.
EN
Two commercially available continuous-polymerized rubbers made by Synthos – Syntion 2150X1 and 2150X4, with the same microstructure and different degree of functionalization has been compared with non-functionalized reference. Vulcanizate based on the lower functionalized rubber has a higher tensile strength, a higher modulus 300 and a lower elongation at break, compared to a vulcanizate based on a non-functionalized reference rubber. In contrast, for vulcanizates based on higher functionalized rubber, low elongation at break and much lower tensile strength are characteristic, which is probably connected with functional groups present in the polymer chain. In case of vulcanizates based on both functionalized rubbers, there is a significant decrease in the values of tan δ at 60°C (rolling resistance predictor). Decreasing in rolling resistance predictor value is visibly dependent on the amount of the functionalizing agent in raw rubber. Wet grip predictor values increase with increasing functionalizing agent content.
PL
Dwa produkowane przez Synthos, komercyjnie dostępne kauczuki Syntion 2150X1 i 2150X4, o tej samej mikrostrukturze i różnym stopniu funkcjonalizacji zostały porównane z niefunkcjonalizowanym kauczukiem referencyjnym. Zaobserwowano, że wulkanizat na bazie niżej sfunkcjonalizowanego kauczuku ma wyższą wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, wyższy moduł 300 i niższe wydłużenie przy zerwaniu, w porównaniu do wulkanizatu opartego na niefunkcjonalizowanym kauczuku referencyjnym. Natomiast dla wulkanizatu kauczuku o wyższym stopniu funkcjonalizacji charakterystyczne jest niskie wydłużenie przy zerwaniu i znacznie niższa wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, co prawdopodobnie wiąże się z grupami funkcyjnymi obecnymi w łańcuchu polimeru. W przypadku wulkanizatów opartych na obu funkcjonalizowanych kauczukach następuje znaczny spadek wartości tan δ w 60°C (predyktor oporów toczenia). Zmniejszenie wartości predyktora oporów toczenia jest wyraźnie zależne od ilości czynnika funkcjonalizującego w kauczukach. Wartości predyktora przyczepności na mokrej nawierzchni dla wulkanizatów kauczuków sfunkcjonalizowanych wzrastają wraz ze wzrostem zawartości środka funkcjonalizującego.
EN
We have numerically studied different designs of technologically feasible microstructured fibers with a germanium-doped core in order to obtain normal dispersion reaching possibly far in the mid infrared. Hexagonal, Kagome and the combination of both geometries were numerically examined with respect to different constructional parameters like pitch distance, filling factor of air holes, number of layers surrounding the core, and level of germanium doping in the core. Our analysis showed that the broadest range of normal dispersion reaching 2.81 μm, while keeping an effective mode area smaller than 30 μm², was achieved for a hexagonal lattice and a 40 mol% GeO₂ doped core. The proposed fibers designs can be used in generation of a normal dispersion supercontinuum reaching the mid-IR region.
11
EN
During the process of the rice hulls pyrolysis at the pilot plant the silicacarbon (SC) was produced containing 51.2% of total carbon, 38.7% of silicon dioxide and 7.6% of hydrocarbons. Its secondary heat treatment with air supply resulted in generation of the two products: SC-1 (50.4% of SiO2; 48.2% of С; 0.56% of Са; and 0.4% of Fe), and SC-2 (76.45% of SiO2; 22.1% of С; 0.95% of Са; and 0.55% of Fe). After treatment with the 1% HCl solution the content of Са and Fe in these products decreased to 0.15% and 0.16%, respectively. Silica gel (88.4% of SiO2, 11.0% of Н2О) and carbon (95% of С, 4.5% of SiO2) were produced from SC after its treatment with the NaOH solution. Characteristics of the result products were studied using the infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. SC is a composite alloy formed by nanoparticles of amorphous carbon (~500Å) and silicon dioxide (100–200 Å). Carbon is presented by graphite-like (Gph), polynaphthenic (Nph) and hydrocarbon (Hph) phases. Amorphous SiO2 is presented by opal. Three types of charging materials with SiO2:С~2.5 proportion were produced from SC-1 and SC-2, from SC-1 and quartz, and from quartz and silica gel. At the pressure of 20 MPascal briquettes were produced from each charging material, which upon drying at air (100°С) and furnacing (300°С) in the inert atmosphere had the strength of 25-38 kg/cm2. After smelting the briquettes in an electric arc furnace, the silicon product with the content of 98-99% Si was produced. In industrial conditions after ladle refining the content of Са and Fe in silicon will be reduced down to 0.3–0.4%.
PL
W procesie pirolizy łuski ryżowej w instalacji pilotowej wyprodukowano silikakarbon (SC) zawierający 51,2% całkowitego węgla, 38,7% dwutlenku krzemu i 7,6% węglowodorów. Jego wtórna obróbka cieplna za pomocą powietrza doprowadziła do wytworzenia dwóch produktów: SC-1 (50,4% SiO2, 48,2% C, 0,56% Ca i 0,4% Fe) i SC-2 (76,45% SiO2, 22,1% C, 0,95% Ca i 0,55% Fe). Po obróbce 1% roztworem HCl zawartość Са i Fe w tych produktach obniżyła się odpowiednio do 0,15% i 0,16%. Żel krzemionkowy (88,4% SiO2, 11,0% Н2О) i węgiel (95% S, 4,5% SiO2) wytworzono z SC po traktowaniu roztworem NaOH. Charakterystykę produktów badano przy użyciu spektroskopii w podczerwieni i analizy dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej. SC jest stopem kompozytowym utworzonym z nanocząstek bezpostaciowego węgla (~ 500Å) i dwutlenku krzemu (100–200 Å). Węgiel jest reprezentowany przez fazy grafitopodobne (Gph), polinefeninowe (Nph) i węglowodorowe (Hph). Amorficzny SiO2 jest prezentowany przez opal. Trzy rodzaje materiałów z udziałem SiO2: С 2,5 zostały wytworzone z SC-1 i SC-2, z SC-1 i kwarcu oraz z kwarcu i żelu krzemionkowego. Brykiety wytworzono pod ciśnieniem 20 MPa po wysuszeniu na powietrzu (100°С) i w piecu (300°С) w atmosferze obojętnej. Brykiety miały wytrzymałość 25-38 kg/cm2. Po wytopieniu brykietu w elektrycznym piecu łukowym wytworzono produkt krzemowy o zawartości 98–99% Si. W warunkach przemysłowych po rafinacji zawartość Са i Fe w krzemie zostanie zmniejszona do 0,3–0,4%.
PL
Cel: Określenie wpływu dodatku melaminy i krzemionki w procesie dogarbowania na wybrane właściwości skór ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem palności. Artykuł przedstawia wyniki prac związanych z obróbką skór na etapie dogarbowania. W dogarbowaniu zastosowano różne ilości krzemionki i melaminy w celu uzyskania wyższej odporności skór na palność. Metody: W pracy wykonano badania eksperymentalne, które obejmowały dogarbowanie skór naturalnych oraz badania wybranych właściwości skór otrzymanych w wyniku tego procesu. Dogarbowanie wykonano w skali laboratoryjnej. Badania skór obejmowały parametry związane z komfortem użytkowania wyrobów skórzanych takich jak miękkość i przepuszczalność pary wodnej. W zakresie palności badania przeprowadzono za pomocą specjalnie opracowanych metod. Wykonano także badania odporności skór na palenie w warunkach ograniczonego dostępu tlenu. Ponadto określono odporność hydrotermiczną otrzymanych skór. Wyniki: Skład kompozycji dogarbowującej i rezultaty badań właściwości skóry posłużyły za bazę do optymalizacji oraz określenia wpływu dodatków melaminy i krzemionki na badane właściwości skóry. Rezultaty badań właściwości dogarbowanych skór wskazują na istnienie zależności między ilością dodatków w dogarbowaniu a palnością skóry. Wnioski: Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że: 1. Wzrost ilości użytej melaminy i krzemionki w składzie kompozycji powoduje wzrost odporności próbek skóry na przepalenie, przy czym dominujący jest wpływ melaminy. 2. Dogarbowanie zarówno z dodatkami (krzemionka i melamina), jak i bez dodatków nieznacznie tylko obniża przepuszczalność pary wodnej dla wszystkich badanych wariantów. Dogarbowanie prowadzi do wzrostu temperatury skurczu o max. 4°C. 3. Wyniki optymalizacji wskazują, że kompromisowe optimum przy założonych właściwościach skóry utrzymuje się przy dodatku melaminy i krzemionki w kompozycji dogarbowującej na poziomie 0,06–0,5% dla krzemionki i 0,35–0,65% dla melaminy w warunkach przeprowadzonych badań.
EN
Aim: The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of the addition of melamine and silica in the retanning process on selected properties of leather with particular regard to flammability. The article presents the results of work related to the processing of leather at the retanning stage. Various amounts of silica and melamine were used in retanning in order to achieve a higher resistance of leather to flammability. Methods: The work involved experimental tests, which included retanning of natural leather and testing of selected properties of the leathers obtained. Retanning was carried out on a laboratory scale. The leather testing included parameters related to the comfort of using leather goods such as softness and water vapor permeability. Flammability tests of leather were carried out using specifically developed methods. The tests of flame resistance of leather under conditions of limited access of oxygen were also carried out. In addition, the hydrothermal resistance of the resulting hides was determined. Results: The composition of a retanning mixture and the results of the leather properties tests were the basis for the optimisation and determination of the effect of melamine and silica on the examined properties of leather. The results of investigations of the properties of retanned leather show a correlation between the amount of additives in retanning and on the flammability of the leather. Conclusions: Based on the conducted tests, it was found that: 1. The increase in the amount of melamine and silica used in the composition of the mixture increases the resistance of leather samples to burning through (with the influence of melamine being the more important of the two). 2. Retanning both with additives (silica and melamine) and without additives only slightly reduces the water vapour permeability for all tested variants. Retanning leads to an increase in the shrinkage temperature by max. 4°C. 3. The results of the optimisation show that the compromise optimum with the assumed properties of the leather is obtained with the addition of melamine and silica in the retanning mixture at 0.06–0.5% for silica and 0.35–0.65% for melamine under the test conditions.
EN
The effect of additives on the densification behavior and mechanical properties of pure and additive (Zr, B and Mg)-added silica ceramics were investigated for their application to the matrix phase of a silica fiber reinforced silica (SiO2 /SiO2f ) composite. The additives affected the rate of densification and crystallization (or transformation) of the amorphous silica. Among the compositions, pure silica ceramics sintered at 900°C for 1h showed the maximum flexural strength. Based on the results, SiO2 /SiO2f was fabricated by a repeated vacuum-assisted infiltration method followed by the heat treatment at 900°C for 1h. The relative density of the composite was 78.2% with a flexural strength of 22.4 MPa. Fractography revealed that the composite was damaged by strong bonding at the fiber/matrix interface and the fracture of fiber.
14
Content available remote Powłoki poliuretanowe modyfikowane nanocząstkami krzemionki bezpostaciowej
PL
Dokonano syntezy poliuretanu w reakcji 4,4'-di-izocyjanianu dicykloheksylometylenu (HMDI), poli(e-kaprolaktono)diolu (PKL) i butano-1,4-diolu w roztworze dioksanu, w którym zdyspergowano cząstki krzemionki. Metodą SEM-EDX oceniono równomierność rozmieszczenia cząstek nanonapełniacza w matrycy polimerowej. Metodami DSC i WAXD wykazano obecność fazy uporządkowanej zdyspergowanej wraz z nanocząstkami krzemionki w matrycy poliuretanu. Oceniono wpływ krzemionki na wzrost wytrzymałości mechanicznej i termicznej otrzymanych nanokompozytów uformowanych w postaci cienkich powłok. Na podstawie pomiarów kątów zwilżania oraz wartości swobodnej energii powierzchniowej stwierdzono wzrost charakteru hydrofilowego otrzymanych powłok.
EN
A polyurethane was synthesized by reaction of dicycloheksylmethylene 4,4'-diisocyanate, poly(caprolactone)diol and butane-1,4-diol in dioxane with dispersed nano SiO₂. Distribution of nano SiO₂ in polymer matrix was examd. by SEM-EDX method. The presence of ordered dispersed phase in the polyurethane matrix was showed by DSC and WAXD methods. The addn. of SiO2 resulted in an increase of mech. strength, and thermal properties of the coatings. The hydrophilic nature of the coatings was evidenced by contact angles and surface free energy measurements.
PL
Pomimo pojawienia się wielu nowych rodzajów fotoogniw słonecznych, fotogniwa krzemowe nadal odgrywają istotną rolę. Wysoki współczynnik załamania krzemu sprawia, że ponad 34% fotonów promieniowania słonecznego z zakresu absorpcji krzemu ulega od niego odbiciu i nie generuje w nim ekscytonów. Odbicie światła można istotnie zmniejszyć teksturując powierzchnię krzemu, wytwarzając na niej strukturę antyrefleksyjną albo stosując jednocześnie oba rozwiazania. Praca dotyczy jedno- i dwuwarstwowych struktur antyrefleksyjnych wywtarzanych metodą zol-żel i techniką dip-coating na podłożach krzemowych. Dla struktury jednowarstwowej osiągnięto ważony współczynnik odbicia fotonów Rw 9%, natomiast dla struktury dwuwarstwowej osiągnięto Rw<4%. W pracy przedstawiano optymalizację teoretyczną struktur antyrefleksyjnych, technologię ich wytwarzania oraz wyniki badań eksperymentalnych. Osiągnięto doskonałą zgodność wyników analizy teoretycznej z wynikami eksperymentalnymi.
EN
Besides many different types of photovoltaic solar cells, silicon solar cells are still of significant importance. Bare silica’s high refraction index leads to greater than 34% reflection of solar light photones, within silica’s absorption band, from its surface without generating excitons. Reflection loss can be significantly reduced with the use of surface texturing and/or antireflective coatings. The most beneficial effect is achieved when combinig both, surface texturing and antireflective coatings. This work presents single and double layer Anti Reflective Structures (ARS’s) derived from sol-gel process for application in silicon photovoltaic cells. Weighted average reflection of a single layer ARS is Rw 9%, whereas double layer ARS provides weighted average reflection Rw<4%. In this work theoretical optimization of ARS’s, technological process of structure fabrication as well as experimental results are demonstrated. Theoretical data shows excellent correlation with experimental results.
EN
Phosphorus and silica are the main impurities of the Chador-malu iron ore which need to be reduced to the required values of 0.1 and 2%, respectively. The impurities in the final iron concentrate are mainly due to the presence of fine particles (less than 25 μm) of silica and apatite in the concentrates of magnetic separators and flotation circuits. In this study, the removal of very fine gangue minerals from iron concentrate of the Chador-malu processing plant was investigated using a laboratory hydroseparator. The laboratory-scale hydroseparator experiments were conducted under various operational conditions. The results showed that the silica and phosphorus contents of the flotation feed samples (less than 45 μm) decreased from 4.13% and 0.58% to 2.90 and 0.45%, respectively, while the iron grade increased from 59.5% to 63.5% by setting the effective parameters of the separator. The follow up flotation tests on the hydroseparator product resulted in an iron concentrate with silica and phosphorus contents of less than 2% and 0.04%, respectively. Moreover, its phosphorus content was reduced from 0.66% to 0.1% by desliming the final magnetic concentrate with hydroseparator. In this case, around 76% of phosphorus was removed.
EN
In this study, the synergistic effects of the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of leaching slurry and additives (pyrite, sodium chloride and silica) on chalcopyrite atmospheric leaching were investigated. According to the best results of leaching experiments, in the optimum ORP range of 410-430 mV, galvanic (pyrite mass ratio of 4:1), chemical (1.5 mol/dm3 sodium chloride concentration), galvanochemical (pyrite mass ratio of 4:1 and 1.5 mol/dm3 sodium chloride concentration) and mechanical (30 g/dm3 silica concentration) treatments provided 29.8, 46.4, 48.6 and 6.7% increase in the copper recovery, respectively. In galvanic treatments, effective surface corrosion of chalcopyrite was the reason for enhanced chalcopyrite dissolution. In chemical and galvanochemical treatments, considerable surface porosity of chalcopyrite was responsible for accelerated leaching. Also, in mechanical treatments, removing the remained passive layer from the chalcopyrite surface improved leaching. SEM results showed extensive porosity in the chalcopyrite surface in the presence of pyrite and sodium chloride and even more porosity in the presence of their combination. SEM results also showed obviously clean surface of chalcopyrite in the presence of silica. The comparison of ORP-assisted and non-ORP-assisted experiments showed that there were 8, 5.2, 3.9 and 0.5% more copper recoveries in galvanic, chemical, galvanochemical and mechanical treatments with ORP assistance, respectively. The reason was the fewer chalcopyrite surface passivation, which caused the additives to perform better.
PL
W celu uzyskania wymaganych parametrów technologicznych zarówno świeżego (płynnego), jak i stwardniałego zaczynu cementowego projektowane receptury poddawane są ciągłym modyfikacjom. Obecne w składzie zaczynu dodatki i domieszki wywierają wpływ na jego poszczególne właściwości, jednak zdarza się, że poprawa jednego parametru skutkować może jednocześnie pogorszeniem innego. Należy tak dobierać stosowane środki, aby w miarę możliwości uzyskać wymagane wartości konkretnych parametrów przy jednoczesnym zachowaniu na stałym (niezmiennym) poziomie pozostałych cech technologicznych zaczynu cementowego. Zdarza się, iż w trakcie prowadzenia prac badawczych uzyskuje się wyniki, które pozwalają stwierdzić, że stosowany dodatek powoduje poprawę wielu parametrów technologicznych zaczynu cementowego, co zostało omówione w niniejszym artykule. W trakcie realizacji prac badawczych wykazano korzystny wpływ dodatku wodnej dyspersji bezpostaciowej krzemionki na parametry świeżego i stwardniałego zaczynu cementowego i zastosowano dodatek szkła wodnego sodowego CB75 w określonej ilości w stosunku do ilości wody zarobowej. W celu potwierdzenia poprawy badanych parametrów technologicznych sporządzono kontrolne receptury zaczynów. Określone zostały takie własności zaczynu jak: parametry reologiczne, filtracja, czas gęstnienia, odstój wody, stabilność sedymentacyjna. Dla próbek stwardniałych zaczynów ustalono wpływ dodatku CB75 na parametry mechaniczne (wytrzymałość na ściskanie), parametry fizykomechaniczne (przyczepność do rur stalowych i przyczepność do formacji skalnej). Ponadto stwardniały zaczyn cementowy poddano analizom opisującym mikrostrukturę próbki i wykonano badania porowatości oraz przepuszczalności. W celu potwierdzenia poprawy parametrów świeżego i stwardniałego zaczynu badania przeprowadzone zostały dla receptur przeznaczonych do uszczelniania otworów w warunkach otworowych w temperaturze od 30°C do 90°C oraz przy ciśnieniu od 5 MPa do 35 MPa.
EN
In order to obtain the required technological parameters of both fresh (liquid) and hardened cement slurry, the designed recipes are subjected to constant modifications. The additives and admixtures present in the cement slurries formulas affect the various parameters of cement slurry, however, it may happen that the improvement of a given parameter can result in the deterioration of another parameter. The additives should be selected so that, where possible, the required values of the specific parameters will be achieved while maintaining at the constant (unchanging) level the other technological characteristics of the cement slurry. It is sometimes the case that during the implementation of the research, obtained results show that the additive used improves many of the technological parameters of the cement slurry, as discussed in this article. During the research work, the beneficial effects of the addition of an aqueous dispersion of amorphous silica on the parameters of fresh and set cement slurry have been shown. The CB75 water glass was added in a specific quantity in relation to the amount of water used. In order to confirm the improvement of the tested technological parameters, base cement slurries were prepared. The properties of the cement slurry such as: theological parameters, fluid loss, thickening time, free water and sedimentation stability were determined. For samples of hardened cement slurry, the effect of the CB75 addition on the mechanical parameters (compressive strength), physico-mechaical parameters (adhesion to steel pipes and adhesion to rock formation) were determined. In addition, the set cement slurry was subjected to microstructure analysis and porosity and permeability tests were also performed. In order to confirm the improvement of the parameters of fresh and hardened cement slurry, tests were conducted for cement slurries designed to seal wells under hole conditions of 30°C to 90°C and pressure from 5 MPa to 35 MPa.
PL
Głównym celem badań opisanych w niniejszym artykule było sprawdzenie, czy dodatki, takie jak LiF i SiO2, mają wpływ na przeświecalność materiałów cyrkonowych Y-TZP (Yttria stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal). W ramach pracy wytworzono próbki do badań w postaci materiału cyrkonowego domieszkowanego fluorkiem litu lub krzemionką, które wypalono w trzech temperaturach spiekania. Ocenę jakości materiałów prowadzono w oparciu o badanie gęstości pozornej, wytrzymałości na zginanie oraz przeświecalności. Do analizy zależności właściwości materiałów od ich mikrostruktury wykorzystano obserwacje materiałów w mikroskopie skaningowym. Przeprowadzone wstępne badania wykazały negatywny wpływ dodatków fluorku litu i krzemionki na przeświecalność materiałów cyrkonowych. W przypadku większości materiałów domieszki obniżały przeświecalność i gęstość pozorną materiału w stosunku do materiału niedomieszkowanego. Aby w pełni wyjaśnić zaobserwowane w trakcie badań wstępnych zjawiska, należy zweryfikować sposób przygotowania materiałów do badań i przeprowadzić szczegółowe badania właściwości fizycznych i budowy domieszkowanych materiałów Y-TZP.
EN
The main objective of the research described below was to examine whether sintering aids, such as LiF and SiO2, affect the translucency of zirconia Y-TZP materials. In the study test samples were prepared in the form of zirconium material doped with lithium fluoride and silica, which were sintered at three different temperatures. Assessment of quality of the materials was based on the study of apparent density, flexural strength and translucency. Analysis of the relationship between properties and microstructure of the materials was based on observations of microstructure using scanning electron microscope. Preliminary studies have shown negative effects of lithium fluoride and silica additives on translucency of zirconia materials. In the major part of samples, the dopants used decreased translucency and apparent density of the material compared to the undoped zirconia. In order to complete the explanation of the phenomenon observed during preliminary tests, it is necessary to verify the method of preparation of samples and carry out a detailed study of physical and microstructural properties of doped zirconia Y-TZP materials.
EN
Functional inorganic-organic hybrids were synthesized using as a precursor silica with the addition of an appropriate amount of lignin as components. Three types of silica were applied as the support: the commercial silicas Syloid 244 and Aerosil 200, and hydrated silica precipitated in a polar system. The silicon dioxide was initially functionalized with aminosilane to activate the surface, and then the silica-based material was combined with lignin oxidized using hydrogen peroxide. The obtained inorganic-organic hybrids underwent physicochemical and dispersive-morphological analysis, with comparison of the results depending on the composition of the test samples. In addition, particle size distributions were determined and the surface structure of the products assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of functional groups was also determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal analysis of the silica/lignin materials was also performed, as well as the elemental and colorimetric analyses, which indirectly confirmed the correctness of the synthesis process. Hybrid materials with the most favorable dispersive and morphological properties were obtained by adding a small amount of biopolymer. The thermogravimetric analysis of the SiO2/lignin hybrids indicated their good thermal stability. With increasing quantity of lignin per 100 parts by weight of silica matrix, progressive deterioration in the thermal stability of the materials was observed.
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