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1
Content available Tests of neodymium content in selected materials
EN
Rare earth elements are recognized as Critical Raw Materials (CRMs) due to their wide range of applications in the glass, steel, chemical and electronic industries. Often rare earth elements are referred to as a single group, but in practice each element has individual technical applications. Therefore, the demand varies for each element. Demand for rare earth elements is likely to increase in the future due to use of NdFeB magnets, especially in vehicles with electric motors and wind turbines. This publication presents research results aimed at finding raw material or waste that can be used to obtain neodymium at economical profit. This publication presents tests aimed at an identification of the raw material from which neodymium can be obtained. Research began with an identification of materials that could potentially become an economically viable source of neodymium extraction. The following materials were selected: natural aggregates, fine-grained raw materials of magma origin as well as coal sludge and fine-grained waste after hard coal enrichment. These raw materials were subject to content analysis by mass spectrometry, with ionization in inductively compressed plasma (ICP-MS).
PL
Pierwiastki ziem rzadkich zostały uznane w ostatnich czasach jako surowce krytyczne ze względu na ich szeroki zakres zastosowań w przemysłach: szklarskim, stalowym, chemicznym i elektronice. Często pierwiastki ziem rzadkich łączone są w jedną grupę, jednakże w praktyce każdy pojedynczy pierwiastek posiada odrębne zastosowania, dlatego popyt na każdy pierwiastek jest inny. Prognozy wskazują na prawdopodobny wzrost zapotrzebowania na pierwiastki ziem rzadkich, co może być związane między innymi ze zwiększenia stosowania magnesów NdFeB, szczególnie w pojazdach hybrydowych i elektrycznych oraz turbinach wiatrowych. W niniejszej publikacji przedstawiono badania mające na celu zidentyfikowanie surowca, z którego będzie można pozyskać neodym. Badania rozpoczęto od wskazania materiałów, które potencjalnie mogą stać się ekonomicznie uzasadnionym źródłem pozyskiwania neodymu. Wytypowane zostały: kruszywa naturalne, drobnoziarniste surowce pochodzenia magmowego oraz muły węglowe i drobnoziarniste odpady po wzbogacaniu węgla kamiennego. Surowce te zostały poddane analizie zawartości neodymu metodą spektrometrii mas, z jonizacją w plazmie indukcyjnie sprężonej (ICP-MS)
EN
Faster technology development, increasing of living standard and market availability are the main causes of faster obsolescence of electronic devices. Each electronic device contains printed circuit boards that are a valuable source of metal. The paper presents the results of preliminary research of the possibility for using various mineral processing methods in recycling of waste printed circuit boards. The gravity concentration (concentration table and Humphreys spiral concentrator), electrostatic separation and wet magnetic separation were used in this preliminary research and the obtained results were presented in the article.
PL
Szybki rozwój technologii, podwyższenie standardu życia i dostępność na rynku to główne przyczyny szybszego starzenia się urządzeń elektronicznych. Każde urządzenie elektroniczne zawiera płytki drukowane, które są cennym źródłem metalu. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki wstępnych badań możliwości zastosowania różnych metod przeróbki surowców w recyklingu zużytych obwodów drukowanych. W tych wstępnych badaniach wykorzystano wzbogacalnik grawitacyjne (stół wstrząsany i wzbogacalnik spiralny Humphreya), separację elektrostatyczną i separację magnetyczną na mokro, uzyskane wyniki przedstawiono w artykule.
EN
The rapid growth in the production and use of nanomaterials is observed in recent years. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2NPs) are one of the most frequently used nanomaterials. Sunscreens, food additives, food contact materials and textiles are the major fields of current application of TiO2NPs. Due to increasing use of nanomaterials in daily life and thus increasing exposure to them, concerns have been raised about their safety. Likely routes of human exposure to released TiO2NPs as well as their health and environmental effects are presented in this paper. At present, our knowledge about the risk of nanomaterials is incomplete. However, it is known that toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their size, shape, crystal structure, surface morphology, surface area, charge, concentration and solubility (the possibility of dissolution into ionic forms). Therefore, it is necessary to use several complementary analytical techniques to fully characterize the NPs. Common approaches used for the characterization of nanomaterials include microscopy based techniques e.g. transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray techniques e.g. X-ray diffraction (XRD), methods based on optical properties e.g. dynamic light scattering (DLS). Separation of nanoparticulate and ionic forms of metal can be accomplished using chromatographic techniques (such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC)) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Size-resolved NPs and dissolved (ionic) fractions can be further characterized by on-line detectors, such as ICP MS. Recently, single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp ICP MS) has been gaining increasing attention as a technique for detection, characterization, and quantification of nanoparticles. This technique provides information on individual particles, including particle size, number size distribution, particle number concentration and mass concentration. In addition, sp ICP MS can distinguish dissolved and nanoparticulate forms of an element. The fundamentals, advantages and limitations of this technique, as well as its application for the characterization and quantification of TiO2NPs in different matrices (consumer products, food and environmental samples) are reviewed in this paper.
EN
The method of studying the process of vibroseparation or adhesion of friable media has been developed. The analytical solution of this mathematical model of the researched system for resonance and nonresonance cases was constructed. It is established that the relative amount of friable medium motion greatly affects the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the system oscillations, in particular, the increase in the amount of motion of a friable media causes a decrease in the amplitude of the system in the transition through the resonance.
PL
Opracowano metodę badania procesu separacji wibracyjnej oraz przyczepności materiałów sypkich. Zbudowano model matematyczny badanego systemu dla przypadków występowania rezonansu i jego braku. Ustalono, że wielkość przesunięcia względnego materiału sypkiego znacznie wpływa na parametry ilościowe i jakościowe oscylacji systemu, w szczególności zwiekszenie przesunięcia materiału sypkiego powoduje zmniejszenie amplitudy systemu podczas przejścia przez rezonans.
EN
The present paper deals with the extraction and separation of zinc, lead, silver, and bismuth from a refractory bismuth refining slag via a hydrometallurgical route. The process consists of a preliminary leaching of zinc with water, followed by the selective leaching of lead and silver with a calcium chloride solution, leading to the crystallization of lead chloride and the cementation of silver. The diagrams of the total concentrations of [Pb]/[Ag] versus [Cl-] and temperature in the Pb/Ag-Cl-H2O system were drawn, respectively, to determine the optimum concentration of leaching agent and leaching temperature. The potential-pH diagram of the Pb/Ag/Bi-H2O system indicates that the preferential leaching of lead and silver could be achieved. Finally, 98.8% of lead and 90.4% of silver were selectively removed by further leaching the water leaching residue with 400 g/dm3 of CaCl2 solution at pH 4.5 and 80 °C, while only 3.7% of bismuth was leached in this stage. Fifty-nine percent of lead in the leach liquor was separated out as PbCl2 by natural cooling. Ninety-five percent of silver in mother liquor was recovered by cementation with a lead sheet. The depleted CaCl2 solution can be sent to the leaching step again to close the loop.
EN
In order to selectively separate smithsonite and calcite using potassium lauryl phosphate as collector and reveal the depression mechanism, the approaches of micro-flotation and zeta potential measurements were adopted. The effects of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), water glass (WG), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and lignosulfonate calcium (LSC) as depressants on smithsonite and calcite have been studied through micro-flotation. The single mineral flotation tests show that LSC can depress calcite, but it has little effect on smithsonite flotation. Flotation separation of a mixture of smithsonite and calcite can be completed to obtain a zinc concentrate grade up to 33.85% Zn with a recovery of 70.06%. The zeta potential results illustrate that LSC has higher tendency to be adsorbed on the surface of calcite. However, there is little adsorption of LSC on smithsonite.
PL
Poszukiwanie nowych źródeł czystej energii będzie powodować wzrost liczby biogazowni, a przez to ilości powstających w nich odpadów w postaci masy pofermentacyjnej. Dodatkowo proces fermentacji metanowej jest coraz częściej stosowaną metodą przeróbki frakcji organicznej odpadów komunalnych oraz osadów powstających w oczyszczalniach ścieków. Przetwarzanie, magazynowanie oraz transport ciekłego odpadu, jakim jest pozostałość pofermentacyjna, powstającego w biogazowniach przysparza wielu problemów, których zlekceważenie prowadzić będzie nie tylko do strat ekonomicznych, a także do degradacji środowiska. W pracy scharakteryzowano racjonalne metody zagospodarowania masy pofermentacyjnej powstającej w biogazowniach, poprzez odzyskiwanie z niej wody oraz substancji odżywczych, które mogą być wykorzystane rolniczo, bez potrzeby ich magazynowania. Ze względu na postępujący deficyt wody w rolnictwie, coraz częściej masę pofermentacyjną zaczyna się traktować nie tylko jako alternatywny nawóz, ale także jako potencjalne źródło wody. Zastosowanie odzyskanej wody do nawadniania upraw wymaga takiego jej oczyszczenia, aby zanieczyszczenia pochodzące z fermentowanej biomasy nie powracały do środowiska. Obiecujące rezultaty w tym zakresie mogą zapewnić procesy membranowe.
EN
The quest for new clean energy sources will result in growing numbers of biogas plants and, as an implication, rising amount of waste produced in the form of a digestate. Additionally, methane fermentation becomes a growingly popular treatment method of the organic fraction of both municipal waste as well as the precipitate from wastewater treatment plants. Treatment, storage, and transport of liquid waste, such as digestate from biogas plants involve numerous challenges. Not only may ignoring them lead to economic losses but also it may cause environmental degradation. The paper discusses efficient methods for digestate management through recovery of water and nutrients that can be then utilized in the agriculture thus eliminating the temporary storage requirement. Due to increasing water deficit in agriculture, the digestate often serves not only as an alternative fertilizer but also as a source of water. Application of the reclaimed water to crop irrigation requires its proper treatment preventing contaminants from coming back to the environment. Membrane processes could deliver promising results here.
EN
The article focuses on the intensification of raw barley grains initial purification and separation processes before the subsequent processing in the area of brewing. Above all, it deals with the physical and mechanical concepts of the purification and separation of qualitatively satisfactory grains from undesirable impurities, e.g. coarse impurities, as the prevention from the potential damage of milling and scrapping facilities. Four different cultivated barley species were tested within the study. Physical and mechanical parameters were determined in all samples, for instance powder density, angle of internal friction and external friction angle with steel contact material, particle size distribution and morphology. The first results of measuring revealed the difference in the quality of initial entering component of barley grains before the purification process compared to the output quality of grains after machine purification and separation processes in the facilities determined for the subsequent grain storage. As a result of the non-effective process of separation, the final quality of the product, i.e. the beer, may be affected by the qualitative parameters of partial processes involved in treating barley grains.
PL
Artykuł koncentruje się na intensyfikacji wstępnych procesów oczyszczania i separacji surowych ziaren jęczmienia przed dalszym przetwarzaniem w procesie warzenia piwa. Przede wszystkim zajmuje się fizycznymi i mechanicznymi koncepcjami oczyszczania i oddzielania jakościowo zadowalających ziaren od niepożądanych zanieczyszczeń, np. gruboziarniste zanieczyszczenia, zapobiegające potencjalnym uszkodzeniom urządzeń do mielenia oddzielania zanieczyszczeń. W ramach badań przetestowano cztery różne gatunki jęczmienia. We wszystkich próbkach określono parametry fizyczne i mechaniczne, na przykład gęstość proszku, kąt tarcia wewnętrznego i kąt tarcia zewnętrznego ze stalowym materiałem kontaktowym, rozkład wielkości cząstek i ich morfologię. Pierwsze wyniki pomiarów ujawniły różnicę w jakości ziaren jęczmienia przed procesem oczyszczania w porównaniu z jakością wyjściową ziaren po oczyszczeniu. W wyniku nieefektywnego procesu separacji na jakość końcową produktu (piwo) mogą wpływać parametry jakościowe kolejnych procesów związanych z obróbką ziaren jęczmienia.
EN
The paper presents the experimentalstudy of a novel unsteady-statemembrane gas separation approachfor recovery of a slow-permeant component in the membrane module with periodical retentate with-drawals. The case study consisted in the separation of binary test mixtures based on the fast-permeantmain component (N2O, C2H2) and the slow-permeant impurity (1% vol. of N2)using a radial counter-current membrane module. The novel semi-batch withdrawal technique was shown to intensify theseparation process and provide up to 40% increase in separation efficiency compared to a steady-stateoperation of the same productivity.
EN
Seven compounds, including two flavanones, dihydrokaempferol (1) and naringenin (2), and five terpenoids, boscartol A (3), 3,7-dioxo-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (4), 3α-acetoxyl-7-oxo-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (5), 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (6), and acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (7), have been purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) from olibanum. For the separation, from 250 mg of the crude extract, 3.1 mg of 1 (95.2% purity), 2.7 mg of 2 (96.1% purity), 9.1 mg of 3 (96.7% purity), 4.5 mg of 4 (95.3% purity), 5.4 mg of 5 (96.3% purity), 48.1 mg of 6 (96.8% purity), and 45.5 mg of 7 (98.1% purity) were obtained by HSCCC with petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.8:1.1:0.6, v/v). The structures of these seven compounds were elucidated by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) and extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic.
EN
The basic dimensions and the mass of common beech nuts and seeds from five nut batches, harvested from tree stands in northern Poland, were determined. Environmental conditions had a greater influence on seed plumpness than the age of tree stands. The results of measurements were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. Despite differences in their plumpness, nuts were characterized by nearly identical cross-sections which resembled an equilateral triangle. The thickness of nuts and seeds was highly correlated with their mass, and this information can facilitate seed husking and separation into mass categories. Before and after husking, seeds should be separated with the use of a mesh screen with longitudinal openings. Medium-sized (most numerous) seeds were separated into the following plumpness categories using a screen separator with ≠6 mm and ≠7 mm openings: 84% of moderately plump seeds, 3% of seeds with reduced plumpness, and 13% of plump seeds.
12
Content available remote Wybrane aspekty pracy elektrycznych i magnetycznych separatorów odchylających
PL
Statyczne pola: elektryczne i magnetyczne znajdują zastosowania (miedzy innymi) w procesach technologicznych. Jednym z nich jest separacja i filtracja. Separacja eklektyczna jest procesem, w którym dwie lub więcej faz stałych różniących się właściwościami elektrycznymi, są rozdzielane siłami pola elektrycznego. Separacja magnetyczna jest procesem, w którym dwie lub więcej faz różniących się właściwościami magnetycznymi są rozdzielane siłami pola magnetycznego. Separatory odchylające charakteryzują się ciągłością pracy, a naelektryzowane ziarna lub ziarna o określonych właściwościach magnetycznych odchylane są odpowiednio siłami pola elektrycznego lub magnetycznego.
EN
Static electric and magnetic fields – among the others – are used in technological processes. In the electrotechnology field important role has electric and magnetic separation and filtration. Electric separation is a process where two or more solid phases, with different value of electric charge are separated with the force of the electric field. Magnetic separation is a process of separation two or more solid phases which differ with the magnetic properties. The deflecting separators are the devices that are characterizing with the continuous work, where the charged particle or the magnetic particles (magnetic fraction of slurry) are deflected by the electric or magnetic field force.
EN
A new type collector α-Bromolauric acid (α-BLA) had been proved to be an efficient collector for quartz flotation. However, the effects of α-BLA on the flotation behavior of iron minerals and quartz-iron separation had not been investigated. In this study, collector α-BLA was synthesized in the laboratory. The flotation behavior of quartz, hematite and magnetite under α-BLA reverse flotation system were investigated and the separation mechanism of quartz-irons was studied by contact angle, zeta-potential and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the optimum flotation pH was 11.5 for quartz, 6.45 for hematite and 6.97 for magnetite. The best α-BLA concentrations was 75 mg/dm3 for quartz flotation, 125 mg/dm3 for hematite and magnetite flotation. The activator CaCl2 had little effect on the flotation of hematite and magnetite, but the minimum dosage 50 mg/dm3 of activator CaCl2 was necessary for quartz flotation. On the contrary, starch had no effect on the flotation of quartz, while the recoveries of magnetite and hematite tended to be 0% as starch concentration more than 80 mg/dm3. The separation mechanism of quartz from iron minerals under α-BLA reverse flotation system was that the starch could be selectively adsorbed on the surface of hematite and magnetite in the form of strong hydrogen bond adsorption. However, the same adsorption of starch did not occur on the surface of quartz, so the α-BLA can be successfully adsorbed on the surface of activated quartz to make the quartz strongly hydrophobic, and then to be floated out.
EN
Froth flotation is a dynamic multiphase process in which particulate matter is separated with the help of chemical reagents by gas bubbles immersed in water. The original flotation results are usually presented in the form of kinetic curves relating recovered particulate matter mass (yield ) or mass of a selected component (recovery ), both shortly denoted as y, versus process time t at different concentrations c (g/dm3) of the applied reagents. The kinetic curves can be modified into three: incentive (maximum yield or recovery ymax vs c), limits (ymax vs kinetic constant k or specific rate) and half-life of flotation (t1/2 vs c) curves. The original and modified curves can be normalized by taking into account either an external parameter such as molecular mass (MW), critical coalesce concentration (CCC), critical concentration at the minimum bubble velocity (CMV), dynamic foaming index (DFI), and many other parameters or an internal parameter such as time, concentration needed to achieve certain yield, recovery (y) or kinetic constant. Normalization leads to new flotation curves and provides additional useful information about flotation performance. Normalization can be fully effective, partial or ineffective. Normalization of the original flotation kinetic curves usually is ineffective. Also, normalization of the incentive curve with external parameters such as frother molecular mass, which changes reagent concentration from c (g/dm3) to C (mol/dm3), is also ineffective. Partially effective are normalizations with other external parameters such as CCC and CMV, usually within the same class of regents, for instance alcohols. Only DFI seems to be a universal external normalization parameter for flotation results because it provides fully effective normalization and thus predicts the flotation results. Limited data on DFI restrict a full verification of this hypothesis. Normalization of the modified flotation curves with internal parameters such as k50 (value of 1st order kinetic constant when recovery or yield is 50% after a given flotation time), Ct1/2 (frother concentration in mol/dm3 at which the flotation half-life has an arbitrarily chosen value) and cy75 (frother concentration in g/dm3 at which recovery or yield is 75% after a given flotation time) is a good base for practical classification of flotation reagents.
EN
The Arrhenius model, that relates the activation energy with the kinetic constant and process temperature, was applied for flotation as a separation process, and next was extended to other incentive parameters such as the frother concentration, NaCl content and hydrophobicity. It was shown that determination of the activation energy caused by other incentive parameters (i.e. particle size, surface potential) was also possible. The units of the activation energy depend on the type of the separation process and incentive parameter. For contact angle regulating flotation the activation energy unit is mJ/m2, while for the frother concentration is J. It is known that instead in joules, the activation energy can also be expressed in J/mol and in kT or RT units, where k is the Boltzmann constant, R gas constant and T is absolute temperature in kelvins. Even though different formulas of the specific Gibbs potential were used for calculation of activation energy caused by various incentive parameters, there was generally a good agreement between the extend of changes of the first order kinetic constants of the process and activation energy value. It was found that for flotation of copper-bearing carbonaceous shale the activation energy was equal to 1.1 kT for NaCl as the incentive parameter, 3.0 kT for temperature and 32.7 kT for butyl diethylglycol ether used as a flotation frother. For methylated quartz the hydrophobicity-induced activation energy was 42 mJ/m2 for contact angle as the incentive parameter.
16
EN
The paper presents the analysis of the turbulent boundary layer developed on a flat plate subjected to an Adverse Pressure Gradient (APG) and approaching separation. The aim of the study is to examine the effects of pressure gradient on a non-equilibrium boundary layer while indicating local areas of the equilibrium flow. The emphasis is on the analysis of mean flow velocity and the estimation of skin friction. It is known that accurate measurements of skin friction were considered as a difficult and demanding task despite of various measuring techniques available. A great challenge is especially the measurement of a strong decelerated turbulent boundary layer because of low shear stress and possible large measuring errors. To date, the oil film or oil drop interferometry technique, because of its high accuracy, has become a basis of turbulent-boundary-layer research. In our research, this technique has been used as a reference method for comparing with the traditional Clauser chart method, which generally is considered as not suitably for non-canonical flows. In the paper, however, a correction of the method is proposed, which allows one to increase its range of applicability. This corrected Clauser chart method (CCCM) involves only one iteration while other proposed in the literature methods employ a twofold iterative procedure. The comparison of the methods for the non-canonical turbulent boundary layer, i.e. adverse pressure gradient with a strong flow history effect has been presented. It has been shown that CCCM can be successfully used for small and medium pressure gradients, where the Clauser-Rotta pressure gradient parameter β does not exceed level close to 11.
EN
The objective of this work was to test the impact of coagulant and flocculant at the stage of mechanical wastewater treatment on the wastewater treatment plant operation, performed in the A2O process. In this paper, the principles of correct conduct of coagulation in wastewater treatment have been discussed. It appears from the research performed that significant elimination of BOD5 such as 20÷30%, total suspended matter up to 90%, COD up to 50% and total nitrogen at 30% level was achieved supported by the coagulation process in the pre-settling tanks. Approximately 50% of phosphorus was eliminated after the mechanical part. Additionally, a significant impact of Superfloc flocculant on the effectiveness of the solid phase separation (activated sludge) in the secondary settling tank was noted under diversified flow conditions.
PL
Znacznym ograniczeniem w zastosowaniu do produkcji materiaów budowlanych popiołów wapiennych, powstających w procesie spalania węgla brunatnego, jest powstanie odpadu, w którym odnotowano obecność cząstek niespalonego węgla. Poddając ten rodzaj odpadu odpowiednim zabiegom polepszającym ich właściwości, możliwe jest zastosowanie tych odpadów do produkcji różnego typu materiałów dla budownictwa. W artykule skupiono się nad poprawą właściwości popiołu lotnego jako dodatku do cementu. Przedstawiono również wyniki wstępnych badań nad możliwością wykorzystania wydzielonego węgla zawartego w popiołach lotnych, które powstają w procesie spalania węgla brunatnego. W toku przeprowadzonych badań dokonano charakterystyki popiołu wapiennego pochodzącego z jednej z krajowych elektrowni opartej na spalaniu węgla brunatnego, posługując się metodą dyfrakcji rentgenowskiej (XRD) oraz elektronowej mikroskopii skaningowej (SEM). Wydzielenie niespalonych cząstek węgla z popiołów lotnych wapiennych stanowiło próbę poprawy niektórych właściwości tego rodzaju popiołów, aby umożliwić ich wykorzystanie jako dodatku do cementu. Niespalony węgiel został wydzielony jako frakcja powyżej 315 µm i poddany badaniom adsorpcyjnym określającym skuteczność jego adsorpcji względem jonów amonowych oraz związków rtęci. Stężenie rtęci w badanych próbach oznaczono metodą absorpcyjnej spektrometrii atomowej przy długości fali 254 nm, natomiast zawartość jonów amonowych analizowano z wykorzystaniem metody chromatografii jonowej. Wstępne wyniki badań adsorpcyjnych wydzielonej z popiołów wysokowapiennych frakcji węglowej pozwalają przypuszczać, że znajdzie ona zastosowanie w ochronie środowiska.
EN
The significant limitation in the use of this waste type in the building materials industry is the presence of unburned carbon particles. Appropriate treatments to improve their properties, allow using them in the manufacture of various types of construction materials. The paper focuses on improvement of calcareous fly ash properties in order to use them as the cement additives as well as presents the results of preliminary research about the possibility of using coal included in fly ash produced during lignite combustion. The characteristic of calcareous ash from one of the national lignite-fired power plants was carried out by X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) method. Separation of unburned carbon particles from calcareous fly ash was a properties improvement attempt of this ash type to enable their use as the cement additives. The unburned carbon was separated as a fraction above 315 µm and subjected to adsorption tests for its adsorption efficiency towards ammonium ions and mercury compounds. The mercury concentration in the test samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry at 254 nm, while the ammonium content was analyzed by ion chromatography method. The preliminary results of the adsorption experiments of carbon fraction isolated from the high-calcareous fly ash allow to suppose that this fraction is useful for environment protection.
EN
There are many graphical representations of separation results involving time as a crucial parameter determining the kinetics of a process. The graphical representations of results of separation are usually in the form of 2D plots relating two parameters which one of them is time. Time can also be utilized as a complex parameter such as a process rate. The plots involving time are called kinetic curves. Theoretically, the number of kinetic curves is infinite. The basic process kinetic curves, relating either yield (or recovery) and time can be modified to obtain numerous local and global efficiency curves. The global efficiency kinetic curves provide characteristic constants which do not change with the time and yield of a process. In this paper the local and global efficiency plots were created using experimental data which followed the so-called first order kinetics. It was shown that the integral 1st order kinetic equation provided the kinetic constant k which was numerically identical with the 1st order specific rate v, while their units were different (k, 1/min; v, %/(%·min). The global efficiency parameters plotted versus the maximum yield provided another type of plot, which can be called the limits kinetic curve. The limits kinetic curves are very useful for characterizing, quantification and classification of separation systems. The limits kinetic curves can be normalized providing one universal curve with a characteristic point, for instance, v50 indicating the specific rate (or kinetic) constant at the maximum recovery equal to 50%. The mathematical equation of the normalized limits kinetic curve was given in the paper.
20
EN
Spinning fluids reactor (SFR) is one of the most efficient gas-liquid contacting system with high potential of application in many fields. The unique solution of SFR is the contacting of two spinning fluids which generated centrifugal force. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure field distribution on the inner surface of reactors dispersing element. Obtained results confirm the high heterogeneity of the field pressure in the reactor system with a cylindrical wall. This is due to the low tangential force generated by rotating liquid on a cylindrical wall, and pressure drop in the locations of surface irregularities. The change of the sparger element to conical shape element increases the pressure exerted by fluid on the wall. In this case the effects of solid particles and inequality in the fluid flow are negligibly small compared to the measured pressure exerted on the sparger element.
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