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EN
The paper presents the first data on the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn) and 137Cs and their contamination ratios (CR) in the most abundant species of macrophytes in the Vistula Lagoon. No significant differences in the concentrations of heavy metals and 137Cs between macrophyte taxa or the influence of rivers flowing into the Vistula Lagoon on heavy metal concentrations in the area were found. The concentrations of heavy metals in macrophyte taxa varied in the following ranges: Cd – 0.1–0.7 mg kg−1 d.w.; Pb – 0.5–5.0 mg kg−1 d.w.; Zn – 29–390 mg kg−1 d.w.; Cu – 2.5–8.3 mg kg−1 d.w.; Ni – 0.4–6.8 mg kg−1 d.w.; Cr – 0.5–2.8 mg kg−1 d.w.; Mn – 380–8500 mg kg−1 d.w. Since the 1990s, a decline or stable state of heavy metal concentrations in bottom sediments has been observed, reflecting changes in the environment of the Vistula Lagoon. The linear sedimentation rate in the Vistula Lagoon was 3.3 mm y−1. The results presented in the paper can serve as a baseline for assessing changes in the environmental status of the Vistula Lagoon, which may occur as a result of future investments, including building a new navigable canal through the Vistula Spit.
2
EN
The geochemical fractionation of heavy metals, including Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni, collected from the surface sediments of the Jeddah coastal zone of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia was determined using a sequential extraction technique. The data obtained from the five fractions indicated that the concentration of metals varies among different locations in the study area. The total metal concentrations (%) in the exchangeable (F1), carbonate (F2), reducible (F3) and organic-bound (F4) fractions were measured to determine the mobility of each studied metal. The sum of the two fractions F3 and F4 represented 70% of the Cu, 72% of the Zn and 36% of the Pb. However, the sum of the three fractions F2, F3 and F4 represented 76%, 74%, 68% and 58% of the Cd, Ni, Fe and Mn, respectively. Approximately 46% of the total copper was related to organics, which could reflect a high mobility of copper in these sediments. The maximum mobility of metals in the sediments was confirmed by the bioavailability factor (BF), which was within the ranges of 0.47-0.93, 0.34-0.92, 0.62-0.95, 0.69-0.95, 0.24-0.82, 0.54-0.98, and 0.60-0.95 for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni, respectively. Based on the BF, the metals exhibited the following order: Cu ≈ Zn > Cd ≈ Ni ≈ Fe > Mn > Pb. The high levels of BF for the studied metals could reflect the potential for toxic metals to be easily released into the marine environment. The risk assessment code for Cd showed a medium risk in five sediment samples of the northern and southern regions and a high risk to the aquatic environment in the other sediment samples. However, the speciation of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in the studied sediments exhibited low to medium risks to the aquatic environment.
3
EN
The study focus on the occurrence and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as contaminants of emerging concern in Poland. In the article, their properties, primary uses and emission sources to the environment were discussed. The review of the available studies on the PBDEs content in the samples of different matrices (groundwaters, surface waters, sediments, air and dust, food, animal and human tissues) was conducted and the results exceeding the available limit values were indicated. It enabled to evaluate the problem of the PBDEs contamination in Poland.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono dane dotyczące występowania i stężeń polibromowanych eterów difenylowych jako nowo pojawiających się zanieczyszczeń w Polsce. W artykule przedyskutowano ich właściwości, wykorzystanie oraz źródła emisji do środowiska. Przeprowadzono przegląd dostępnych badań dotyczących zawartości PBDEs w próbkach różnych matryc środowiskowych (wodach podziemnych, powierzchniowych, osadach, powietrzu i kurzu, żywności, tkanach zwierzących i ludzkich) oraz wskazano wyniki przekraczające ustalone wartości graniczne. Pozwoliło to na ocenę problemu zanieczyszczenia środowiska Polski przez PBDEs.
EN
Base metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) as the main resources of the Lower Silesian copper deposits have significantly been influenced by different enviromentalfactors. In this paper, changes in metal concentrations on the surface in relation to deeper layers of the sediments were examined. The concentration ofmetals in the whole sediment, and in selected grain fractions was studied. The contents of these metals in the soils of areas adjacent to the deposit are diverse and are in the range of: 3.0-1082.9 mg/kg Cu; 3.5-106.1 mg/kg Pb; 27.6-49.3 mg/kg Zn, and 1.33-23.0 mg/kg Ni in the old deposit district and Cu 0.91-1655.0 mg/kg Pb; 10.0-1792.0 mg/kg Zn; 3.38-1129.0 and 0.47-32.7 mg/kg Ni in the new deposit district. The increase of metal concentration in the finefractions has been observed. Moreover, the decrease in the metal content with depth was observed in all investigated profiles.
EN
Three ex situ pore water sampling procedures (I – rhizon samplers, II – centrifugation of sediment subsamples collected from different sediment depths without core sectioning, III – core sectioning and centrifugation of sediment sections) were compared to indicate factors that may affect concentrations of pore water constituents (ammonia and sulfides). The methods were selected and modified in such a way as to determine how the concentrations are affected by different factors related to sampling procedures, e.g. contact with atmospheric air, filtration and sediment core disturbance. They were tested on nine sediment cores collected at one site in the southern Baltic Sea. The concentration of ammonia in pore water from centrifuged sediment sections was significantly higher compared to pore water extracted by rhizons – probably due to the impact of changing pH. The factor with the greatest impact on the H2S/HS– concentration in the analyzed pore water was the contact with atmospheric air and/or the extrusion of sediments from a core liner. Rhizons proved to be the best option for sampling pore waters analyzed for H2S/HS– and NH4+/NH3. In the case of H2S/HS– we noticed the smallest loss of the analyzed constituents. For ammonia, the centrifugation of the whole sediment sections was likely to cause interferences in the indophenol blue method.
EN
The objective of the research conducted in the years 2011-2014 in the near-shore zone of the Vistula Lagoon was the verification of the hypothesis that in the coastal lagoon, similarly as in inland waters, habitat conditions can be substantially modified by macrophytic vegetation, depending on the represented life form and its abundance. The research was conducted in the zone of emergent plants (reed rush composed of Phragmites australis) and in the zone of submerged plants occurring as scattered patches of Potamogeton perfoliatus and Stuckenia pectinata. The hypothesis was supported only in the case of the reed rush chich substantially modified water insolation, temperature, and oxygenation, as well as the grain size composition of sediments, and concentration of organic matter contained in the sediments. Patches of submerged vegetation had insufficient surface area and were too scarcely overgrown by plants to considerably affect the habitat conditions and weaken the strong mechanical effect of waves and rate of water exchange between the littoral and open water zone.
EN
Pollution with heavy metals and waters in Mitrovica with surroundings, both in the past and in present days, is a preoccupation for the citizens of Mirtovica, as well as for the other inhabitants living around it. Such a problem has been a concern which still continues for a number of researchers who have been dealing with this issue, and who still continue to be preoccupied with the issue of heavy metal (habitat) pollution in this part of Kosovo. Heavy metal's contamination of the environment's main components, dates back to the 1970s/90s to this date. This pollution, especially of the rivers, is due to the industrial activity taking place in the Trepça Combine and the presence of industrial landfill sites of this Combine near the flow of two main rivers: the Sitnica and Ibër River waters, in the city of Mitrovica. The focus of our study, this time consists solely in the research and illumination of pollution with these heavy metals and waterworks of the Ibër River, as a result of the pollution caused by the industrial waste landfill located in Kelmend village. In the paper, we have attempted to show the concentration of heavy metals in sediment and water, by pointing at four sample sites of the Ibër river: in the Bosniak U1 neighborhood, then in the flow in front the U2 landfill, discharge flows from landfill U3 and a certain distance from the U4 landfill.
EN
The surface sediments of Seybouse River and its affluents have been studied and assessed to determine their degree of heavy metal contamination (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe). The contamination factor (CF), the contamination degree (CD) and statistical tools (correlation and APC) has been used in assessing: metal contamination, sediment toxicity and to identify the origin of metals which have enriched the sediments. Heavy metals concentrations of sediments are generally heterogeneous and vary according to the metal and the sampling site. The results have been compared to the reference values of the unpolluted sediments and have shown that Seybouse River sediments are more contaminated by Pb, Cd and Zn respectively. CF values indicate moderate to considerable contamination for most stations. CD values show that the most toxic sediments are located mainly at the estuary and downstream of large agglomerations. The matrix correlation between the metallic elements shows a very strong correlation between Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn indicating that they have a similar source. These different metallic elements appear as traces of anthropogenic pollution. Despite using wastewater treatment plants as protective measures, Seybouse River pollution is remaining a big issue and more efforts has to be done by local authorities.
PL
Analizowano powierzchniowe osady rzeki Seybouse i jej dopływów, aby określić stopień ich zanieczyszczenia metalami ciężkimi (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn i Fe). Do oceny zanieczyszczenia metalami osadów i ich toksyczności oraz do identyfikacji pochodzenia metali, które wzbogaciły osady, wykorzystano współczynnik zanieczyszczenia (CF), stopień zanieczyszczenia (CD) oraz narzędzia statystyczne (korelacja i analiza głównych składowych). Zawartość metali ciężkich była zróżnicowana zarówno między metalami, jak i między stanowiskami badawczymi. Wyniki porównane z wartościami referencyjnymi z niezanieczyszczonych osadów wykazały, że osady rzeki Seybouse są zanieczyszczone ołowiem, kadmem i cynkiem. Wartości CF wskazują umiarkowane do znaczącego zanieczyszczenia większości stanowisk. Wartości CD świadczą, że najbardziej toksyczne osady zlokalizowane są głównie w estuarium i poniżej dużych aglomeracji miejskich. Wykazano silną korelację między zawartością Pb, Cd, Cu i Zn, co sugeruje wspólne pochodzenie tych metali. Analizowane pierwiastki metaliczne stanowią ślad zanieczyszczeń antropogenicznych. Pomimo ochrony wód przez oczyszczalnie ścieków, zanieczyszczenie rzeki Seybouse pozostaje nadal poważnych problemem, z którym powinny się zmierzyć lokalne władze.
EN
Most transported particles released from a catchment area are deposited and accumulated in the sediment layers of water reservoirs. Along with mineral particles, contaminants originating from human activity and natural processes are added to such aquatic systems (e.g., heavy metals). This is an especially important issue when a reservoir is being used as a source of drinking water. The main aim of this study was the environmental risk assessment of the sediment in the Dobczyce Reservoir and two of its tributaries (the Raba River and Wolnica Stream) during the years of 2004–2007 and 2016, 2017. Substantial variations in heavy metals were found due to the land use and catchment management. The potential ecological risk showed an uneven distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from low to moderate.
PL
Zbiornik wodny to obszar, na którym większość transportowanych cząstek uwalnianych ze zlewni osadza się i akumuluje w osadach dennych. Razem z cząstkami mineralnymi do ekosystemów wodnych przedostają się również inne zanieczyszczenia (np. metale ciężkie), które są efektem działalności antropogenicznej, a także procesów naturalnych. Jest to szczególnie niebezpieczne, gdy zbiornik używany jest jako źródło wody pitnej. Głównym celem tego badania była ocena zagrożenia środowiskowego w osadach dennych Zbiornika Dobczyckiego oraz jego dopływów: Raby i potoku Wolnica w różnych latach (odpowiednio 2004–2007, 2016, 2017). Stwierdzono, że różny sposób użytkowania i zagospodarowania zlewni miał wpływ na znaczne wahania stężeń metali ciężkich, a ocena zagrożenia środowiskowego wskazała zanieczyszczenie od niskiego do umiarkowanego.
10
Content available remote Application of 239,240 Pu, 137Cs and heavy metals for dating of river sediments
EN
The periodical nature of overbank sediment accumulation makes their detailed dating much more difficult than dating sediments in water reservoirs. To improve the commonly used dating with 137Cs, we combined this method with Pu isotopes and heavy metals in order to date sediments of the Chechło River (southern Poland), which was polluted by a lead-zinc mine. We analyzed 137Cs, Pu isotopes and heavy metal concentrations in three profiles of overbank sediments and in two profiles of subsidence basins in the lower river reach. The results indicate a lower accuracy and higher uncertainty of the overbank than the dating of reservoir sediments. The application of plutonium isotopes provided very important information validating caesium peaks or providing the principal information regarding horizons dated with heavy metals. The obtained dates give the earliest possible age of particular horizons with the actual sediment deposition delayed by several to a dozen years. This investigation shows that using plutonium radioisotopes can be a useful tool for dating, particularly of the youngest overbank sediments where numerous sedimentation gaps cause uncertainties in the application of other methods, e.g. radiocaesium and heavy metals.
EN
The aim of the study was to evaluate the degree of pollution of bottom sediments from small water reservoirs with heavy metals on the basis of geochemical criteria: the enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index. The investigations concerned sediment from eight small water reservoirs located in the Kielce Highland. Selected heavy metals, including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method. Additionally, particle size distribution and the content of organic matter expressed as loss of ignition were designated. The concentration of heavy metals in sediments was characterized by a great variety. The sediments of Morawica and Rejów show very high and extremely high enrichment in Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd. The values of EF>20 indicate also an extremely high enrichment in Cd of sediments in Mostki. In addition, over 50% of the samples of sediment from Suchedniów, Kaniów, Mostki and Jaśle reservoirs (the value of EF for Cr exceeded 5) indicate a moderately high enrichment of this element. Results of the analysis of the Igeo values indicate that the tested sediments are characterized by moderately high [formula] or high [formula] pollution. The differences in individual enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index values may result in the nature of heavy metals, their pollution loads, as well as speciation forms of trace elements occurrence in sediment-water complex. These findings indicate that the integration of geochemical methods is necessary for an appropriate ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in bottom sediments.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było określenie stopnia zanieczyszczenia osadów dennych pochodzących z małych zbiorników wodnych metalami ciężkimi. Do oceny zanieczyszczenia osadów zastosowano następujące wskaźniki: współczynnik wzbogacenia (EF) oraz indeks geoakumulacji (Igeo). Badaniom poddano osady z ośmiu małych zbiorników zaporowych zlokalizowanych na terenie Wyżyny Kieleckiej. Zawartość wybranych metali ciężkich (kadmu, miedzi, chromu, ołowiu i cynku) określono metodą atomowej spektrometrii emisyjnej ze wzbudzeniem w plazmie indukowanej (ICP-OES). Dodatkowo określono skład granulometryczny osadów oraz zawartość materii organicznej – wyrażonej jako straty po prażeniu (LOI). Stężenie poszczególnych metali ciężkich w badanych zbiornikach było zróżnicowane. Osady zbiorników Morawica oraz Rejów charakteryzowały się bardzo dużym wzbogaceniem w chrom, cynk, ołów i kadm. Wyliczone wartości EF>20 wskazywały również na bardzo wysokie wzbogacenie w kadm osadów zbiornika Mostki. Ponadto, przeszło 50% przebadanych próbek osadów pochodzących ze zbiorników Suchedniów, Kaniów, Mostki i Jaśle odznaczało się umiarkowanie wysokim wzbogaceniem w chrom (EF>5). Natomiast wyniki analizy wartości indeksu Igeo wskazywały na umiarkowanie wysokie [formuła] lub wysokie [formuła] zanieczyszczenie osadów badanych zbiorników pierwiastkami śladowymi. Różnice w ocenie stopnia zanieczyszczenia osadów w oparciu o wyliczone wartości EF i Igeo mogą wynikać z samej natury pierwiastków śladowych, ładunku zanieczyszczeń wprowadzanych do środowiska wodnego jak również form specjacyjnych metali występujących w kompleksie woda–osad. Spostrzeżenie to implikuje konieczność integracji metod geochemicznych w ocenie ryzyka ekologicznego oraz stopnia zanieczyszczenia osadów dennych metalami ciężkimi.
12
Content available remote Test inhibitorów obniżających temperaturę wytrącania parafiny z ropy naftowej
PL
Wytrącanie się parafiny w rurociągach podczas przepływu ropy naftowej jest kluczowym problemem przemysłu naftowego. Powoduje to blokowanie przepływu, a nawet prowadzi do jego zaniku. Zatkany rurociąg musi zostać ponownie uruchomiony poprzez zastosowanie ciśnienia, które musi być znacznie wyższe niż przy normalnej eksploatacji. Innym sposobem przywrócenia przepływu jest odpompowanie ropy zalegającej w rurociągu i w jej miejsce wtłoczenie rozpuszczalnika parafiny, a w ostateczności rozcięcie rurociągu i jego przeparowanie. Dokonano przeglądu metod oceny początku wytrącania się parafiny. Opisano różne sposoby stosowane w celu ułatwienia ponownego uruchomienia rurociągu oraz zaproponowano metody zapobiegające tworzeniu się aglomeratów parafiny. Opracowano metodę określania początkowej temperatury wytrącania się parafiny z ropy naftowej.
EN
Five com. inhibitors were added to Polish crude oil (0.1% by mass) to decrease the initial temp. of paraffin pptn. Use of inhibitors based on PhSO3H and n-C10–C14-alkanes resulted in the highest redn. of the pptn. temp.
13
Content available remote Kartograficzne badania geochemiczne w Polsce
EN
At the beginning of the 1990s, both in Poland and in the world, the field of applied geochemistry was extended to issues related to the protection of the Earth’s natural environment due to the growing social interest in this problem and the requirements of the existing legislation. Geochemical studies in Poland were carried out in three stages, proceeding from the review scale (1:500,000 -1 stage) through regional research (on a scale from 1:250,000to 1:50,000 -stage II) to detailed research (on a scale of1:25,000 to 1:10,000 -stage III). The first stage of the geochemical mapping allowed for quick and relatively inexpensive assessment of the geochemical background diversity of soils, sediments, and surface water throughout the country, as well as the indication of the most polluted regions. The regional research (II stage) was focused primarily on issues related to the explanation of the origin of the identified geochemical anomalies detected in the first stage of research. They were taken in selected urban-industrial areas. In the most polluted Silesian-Cracow region a detailed geochemical study is being carried out (III stage).
PL
Pierwiastki promieniotwórcze stanowią nieodłączną część środowiska naturalnego. Ich obecność w różnych komponentach środowiska, w tym osadów dennych, jest wykorzystywana np. do oceny stanu środowiska wodnego. Radionuklid 210Po jest alfa emiterem, pochodzącym z szeregu uranowo-radowego. Celem pracy było oznaczenie 210Po w 1 cm warstwach osadów dennych pobranych z Toporowych Stawów (Niżni i Wyżni) usytuowanych na terenie Tatr. Zawartości polonu wzdłuż profilu głębokościowego wykorzystano do interpretacji zmian środowiskowych, jakie miały miejsce w zlewniach obu jezior. Próbki osadów pobrano za pomocą czerpacza firmy Limnos, podzielono na 1 cm warstwy, wysuszono w temperaturze pokojowej i poddano analizie radiochemicznej. Uzyskane źródła promieniotwórcze 210Po zmierzono w spektrometrze promieniowania alfa. Radioaktywność 210Po w Toporowych Stawach mieści się w zakresie od 23,6±2,4 do 692±42 Bq·kg-1 (Niżni); 40,9±3,7 do 575±48 Bq·kg-1 (Wyżni). W obu stawach obserwowano spadek radioaktywności 210Po z tym, że w Wyżnim ma ona charakter nieregularny. Podsumowując, stwierdzono, że położenie, otoczenie i niska retencja wód (Wyżni) wpływają na zawartość 210Po. Uzyskane wyniki pozwalają na sformułowanie wniosków w zakresie źródeł dostawy materiału i czynnikach mających wpływ na proces sedymentacji. Mogą być również wykorzystywane w celach geochronologicznych (metoda 210Pb), do przedstawienia zmian, jakie miały miejsce w otoczeniu zlewni na przestrzeni 200 lat.
EN
Radioactive elements are an integral part of the natural environment. Their presence in various components of the environment, including sediments, is used for estimation of the state of the water ecosystem. Radionuclide 210Po is a decay product in the uranium-radium series. The aim of this work was to determine 210Po radioactivity in 1 cm layer collected from Toporowe Stawy Lakes (Tatra mountains). The radioactivity of 210Po was used as indicators for studying environmental changes in the area of lakes. Sediments’ cores were sampled using Limnos gravity corer. The cores were sliced to 1 cm layers in situ, and packed into polyethylene vessels. Before radiochemical analysis the samples were air dried. The alpha sources of 210Po were measured in alpha spectrometer. The 210Po radioactivity varied in the range from 23.6±2.4 to 692±42 Bq·kg-1 (Nizni); 40.9±3.7 to 575±48 Bq·kg-1 (Wyzni). In both lakes, the decrease in the radioactivity was observed. In Wyzni lake there are some irregularities down the sediment core. It can be concluded that the location, environment and low water balance (Wyzni) affect the 210Po content. The obtained results allow to estimate sources of material delivery and factors influence on the value of sedimentation rate. They can be used also for geochronology research (210Pb method), to show environmental changes in the past 200 years.
EN
To date, no studies have been conducted on macroinvertebrate communities in coal mine settling ponds used for temporary retention of saline mine waters. The objective of the research was to evaluate which habitat – Ruppia maritima, Phragmites australis or sediments without macrophytes – is the most favorable for the abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrate communities. The study was carried out in a hyposaline settling pond located in a mining and urban area in southern Poland. At this time, it is the only inland locality of R. maritima in Poland. In the studied coal mine settling pond, the non-native, euryhaline amphipod Gammarus tigrinus dominated in the communities on all the habitats. The abundance of other taxa was small and similar on each type of substrate; only Corixidae were much more abundant on the widgeongrass beds. The highest abundance and biomass of macroinvertebrates was recorded at the sites with R. maritima. Our study highlights the importance of coal mine settling ponds as a substitute habitat for salt-tolerant invertebrates.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań właściwości niskotemperaturowych bioestrów i paliw do silników o zapłonie samoczynnym z zawartością FAME. Przeanalizowano właściwości biopaliw w niskiej temperaturze. Zbadano wpływ związków organicznych przypuszczalnie odpowiedzialnych za wytrącanie się osadów w biopaliwach w niskiej temperaturze, tj. monoacylogliceroli, steroli i steroli glikozydów.
EN
The article presents the results of research on the properties of low temperature bioesters and biofuels for diesel engines. The properties of biofuels at low temperature were analyzed. The influence of organic compounds, presumably responsible for the precipitation of sediments out of biofuels at low temperature – monoacyloglycerols, sterols and sterols glucosides, was investigated.
EN
The pollution of rivers is an important issue because the utilization of polluted water has a direct effect on the health of people and other living beings, economy, etc. Sediments represent a very suitable indicator for monitoring and detecting pollution sources of river waters. The aim of this study is to analyze the contents of selected metals in the sediments of the rivers Likova, Kumanova and Pçinja rivers. The water samples were taken in June 2014 from six sampling stations. Several physicochemical parameters of rivers were determined and the contents of twenty-two metals was indicated in the sediment samples taken from these rivers. The obtained physico-chemical quality of the water from these rivers resulted in classification to the first/second category. The sediments were mostly polluted by Al, Ca, Na and Mg. The metals that exceeded the Dutch standard were: Ba, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. The order of metals in sediments was as follows: Fe > Al > Ca > Na > Mg > K > Mn > Ba > Sr > Cr > Zn > V > Ni > Cu > Pb > Li. The study results reveal a mild pollution in rivers caused by urban, agricultural and industrial activities.
EN
The article reports the conducted analyses of certain chemical parameters characterising the sediments of Poland’s Besko Reservoir. Specifically, determinations concerned the pH value, percentage organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), carbonates (CO32-), total phosphorus (TP) and its fractions, as well as heavy metals (Fe, Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, Mn). The sediments have a slight alkaline reaction, with pH values correlating positively with the high content of carbonates. The sediments have low organic matter content, while organic carbon accounts for about 30% of OM. The values for the C:N ratio point to an allochthonous origin for organic matter. The analysis of phosphorus fractionation showed that inorganic phosphorus (IP) is predominant at every research station. The lowest percentage for a fraction was in turn obtained for NAIP. This testifies to a slight anthropogenic impact of the catchment area. The sediments can be classified as of the 2nd purity class (according to PIG), due to their highest concentration of chromium. According to Müller’s classification, the sediments can be classified as purity class 3 (i.e. with moderate contamination). The values noted for the EF coefficient confirm a very strong enrichment by chromium ions. In addition, chromium, copper, nickel and cadmium have a negative effect on aquatic organisms. The results show that the sediments can be used for example in building and maintaining hydraulic structures.
EN
The composition of the sediments formed in the process of stormwater pretreatment is diversified and depends on many parameters, mainly on the quality of stormwater and the land use of the catchment. The stormwater sediments are characterized by heterogeneous chemical and microbiological composition. The aim of this paper was the microbiological evaluation of the sediments from four stormwater catchments in terms of hazard to humans and the environment. The pH, and the content of organic and mineral matter were determined for the examined sediments. The microbiological analysis included the determination of the total number of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and coliform bacteria, including E. coli, and also the number of faecal Enterococci, Salmonella and Shigella. The study was conducted for fresh deposits and those stored for one year in order to determine the dynamics of changes in their biological activity.
EN
The work detailed here concerned the CH4 and CO2 fluxes at the sediment-overlying water interface in Maziarnia and Nielisz Reservoirs, SE Poland. The research in question was conducted in the period of 2009-2011, the samples of sediment and overlying water were collected at two stations located in the upper and lower parts of each reservoir. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in pore water and overlying water were measured with the headspace method, using a Pye Unicam gas chromatograph (PU-4410/19) equipped with a methane analyzer allowing low CO2 concentrations to be detected. Diffusive fluxes of the analyzed gases at the sediment-overlying water interface were calculated on the basis of Fick’s first law, and were found to range from -0.01 to 3.48 mmol×m-2×d-1 for CH4 and from -1.27 to 47.02 mmol×m-2×d-1 for CO2. Comparable fluxes elsewhere typify the reservoirs experiencing far-reaching eutrophication. No dependent relationships were found between the values calculated for fluxes and either season of the year or sediment characteristics.
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